Dentistry -- Vocabulary and designation system for forensic oro-dental data

This document defines the terms used to describe the distinctive characteristics of an individual's mouth by dentists and forensic dental experts. These terms are organized by concepts based on a forensic approach to the characteristics of a mouth, with many concepts specific to the identification domain that are not defined elsewhere in ISO dentistry vocabularies (e.g. "present tooth"). The hierarchical structure of this document is designed to describe attributes of a tooth, the mouth and a prosthesis/orthosis with increasing levels of discriminative characteristics (e.g. material characteristics, restored tooth surface) and the possibility to connect any level of description of an attribute with the most comprehensive concept. This document is intended to be used for data exchange between antemortem and postmortem files and remove ambiguity on the terms used to describe an individual's mouth. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 1942 and ISO 3950.

Médecine bucco-dentaire -- Vocabulaire et code de désignation des données bucco-dentaires médico-légales

Le présent document définit les termes utilisés pour décrire les caractéristiques distinctives de la bouche d'un individu par les dentistes et les experts dentaires médico-légaux. Les termes sont organisés par concepts en se fondant sur une approche médico-légale des caractéristiques d'une bouche, avec de nombreux concepts propres au domaine de l'identification qui ne sont pas définis ailleurs dans les vocabulaires ISO de la médecine bucco-dentaire (par exemple «dent présente»). La structure hiérarchique du présent document est conçue pour décrire les attributs d'une dent, de la bouche et d'une prothčse/orthčse avec des niveaux croissants de caractéristiques discriminantes (par exemple, caractéristiques des matériaux, face d'une dent restaurée, etc.) et la possibilité de relier tout niveau de description d'un attribut au concept le plus complet. Le présent document est destiné ŕ ętre utilisé pour l'échange de données entre les fichiers ante mortem et post mortem, en éliminant toute ambiguďté en ce qui concerne les termes utilisés pour décrire la bouche d'un individu. Le présent document est destiné ŕ ętre utilisé en association avec l'ISO 1942 et l'ISO 3950.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Oct-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
18-Jun-2020
Completion Date
17-Jun-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20888
First edition
2020-10
Dentistry — Vocabulary and
designation system for forensic oro-
dental data
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Vocabulaire et code de désignation des
données bucco-dentaires médico-légales
Reference number
ISO 20888:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20888:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20888:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (normative) Drift/malposition ........................................................................................................................................................23

Annex B (normative) Impaction angulation ..............................................................................................................................................24

Annex C (normative) Indirect restoration type ......................................................................................................................................25

Annex D (normative) Surface ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex E (normative) Restorative dental material...............................................................................................................................27

Annex F (normative) Restorative dental material colour ............................................................................................................28

Annex G (normative) Endodontic obturation material ..................................................................................................................29

Annex H (normative) Root restoration material ...................................................................................................................................30

Annex I (normative) Prosthesis abutment type ....................................................................................................................................31

Annex J (normative) Prosthesis retainer type .........................................................................................................................................32

Annex K (normative) Congenital tooth anomalies ..............................................................................................................................33

Annex L (normative) Non-restorative acquired tooth anomalies .......................................................................................34

Annex M (normative) Implant type ....................................................................................................................................................................35

Annex N (normative) Dental prosthesis fixation ..................................................................................................................................36

Annex O (normative) Location of anomaly .................................................................................................................................................37

Annex P (normative) Dominant colour ...........................................................................................................................................................38

Annex Q (normative) Surface anomaly ...........................................................................................................................................................39

Annex R (normative) Prosthesis design components ......................................................................................................................40

Annex S (normative) Other oral appliances ...............................................................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

Alphabetical index of terms .....................................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106, Dentistry, Subcommittee SC 3,

Terminology, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 55, Dentistry, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between

ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
Introduction
0.1 Background

The establishment of a positive identification of an unidentified individual by the comparative dental

analysis of a forensic odontologist requires submission of supporting documentation from the dental

professionals who treated the patient. This information includes dental treatment records, radiographs,

photographs, and dental casts; this information is then submitted to the appropriate authority and

referred to as antemortem dental data (AM). Currently, the vast majority of antemortem dental data

and associated attachments are submitted on paper and by radiographic film, however, the goal is

to create a standardized electronic format for the transfer of this data. Due to varying methods of

documentation and recording systems, an organized list of standardized dental terminology would

be useful. Submission of ambiguous information due to a lack of harmonization can increase the time

required to establish the identification through dental means.

The disaster victim identification (DVI) community, due to the number of victims and the number of

countries of origin of the victims, will benefit from this internationally standardized forensic oro-

dental data, by using standardized terminology of useful concepts.

Current odontological comparison software is based on the concept of restoration comparison. Utilizing

each tooth as a field, comparison and/or elimination queries and advance sorting algorithms creates a

ranking of possible matches to aid the forensic odontologist in the initial records comparison. Biometric,

familial, radiographic, and visual information support the likelihood of a match. By standardizing the

descriptors used to describe this information, the likelihood of identifying an individual based on the

forensic odontologist's data increases.
0.2 Principle

Many descriptors of a tooth are determined from radiographic interpretation; specific “similar”

radiographic attributes are grouped together into single unified descriptors. This should allow for

the unambiguous interpretation of a tooth attribute and ensure that a radiographic attribute can

be described by a single unified attribute. Generally, consistency of assigning a unique attribute to a

radiographic feature is utilized in this document in order to create unambiguous descriptors even at

the expense of combining similar, but not identical, attributes.

The permanent dentition takes priority when both the primary and permanent teeth are present if both

are concurrently visible in the mouth; however, the presence of the primary tooth should also be noted.

The pertinence of these descriptors should be weighted with the time differences between the date of

the records and the presumptive date of recording of the current data.

If a descriptor involves multiple teeth, then that descriptor shall be utilized for all the teeth involved.

0.3 Rationale

A significant volume of information is gathered during dental evaluation and treatment. Forensic

odontologists charged with the task of identifying individuals need comprehensive information in

order to prove or disprove identification. While much of the information gathered by the dentist might

not aid in claims adjudication, it is not possible to predict in advance what item or items in the dental

record might be conclusive in identification. This document is designed to fill a void by establishing

documentation requirements for the submission of antemortem dental information for identification.

Terms and definitions describing teeth, pathology or anomaly of teeth or tooth restorations are limited

to ISO 3950 oro-dental codes that map to individual teeth.

Terms and definitions describing multiple teeth, jaw or mouth conditions, pathologies, relationships, or

prostheses are limited to ISO 3950 oro-dental codes that map those entities.

Terms and definitions which are limited to other specific ISO 3950 oro-dental locations are annotated

accordingly in the notes to entry and related annexes.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 20888:2020(E)

Terms and definitions describing dental devices, pathologies, or entities that do not have a specific

location are limited to ISO 3950 code 00, 01, 02 and the notes to entry and related annexes.

An entry with a “(by report)” notation indicates that optional free-form text can be included with the

term to further characterize the entity being described. See Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Overview of the main elements of Clause 3
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20888:2020(E)
Dentistry — Vocabulary and designation system for
forensic oro-dental data
1 Scope

This document defines the terms used to describe the distinctive characteristics of an individual’s

mouth by dentists and forensic dental experts. These terms are organized by concepts based on a

forensic approach to the characteristics of a mouth, with many concepts specific to the identification

domain that are not defined elsewhere in ISO dentistry vocabularies (e.g. “present tooth”).

The hierarchical structure of this document is designed to describe attributes of a tooth, the mouth

and a prosthesis/orthosis with increasing levels of discriminative characteristics (e.g. material

characteristics, restored tooth surface) and the possibility to connect any level of description of an

attribute with the most comprehensive concept.

This document is intended to be used for data exchange between antemortem and postmortem files

and remove ambiguity on the terms used to describe an individual’s mouth.
This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 1942 and ISO 3950.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1942, Dentistry — Vocabulary
ISO 3950, Dentistry — Designation system for teeth and areas of the oral cavity
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1942 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
oro-dental identification

science and art of comparing antemortem dental data (3.2.2.1) with postmortem dental data (3.2.2.2) to

help determine the identity of an individual
3.2
forensic oro-dental data

recorded information describing the oral cavity and surrounding tissues for legal purposes

3.2.1
date of receiving record
date when the forensic information is recorded in the forensic record
Note 1 to entry: The date of receiving record is determined using ISO 8601-1.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.2.2
date of information
date when the forensic information was created
Note 1 to entry: The date of information is determined using ISO 8601-1.
3.2.2.1
antemortem dental data
historical forensic oro-dental data (3.2)
3.2.2.2
postmortem dental data
current forensic oro-dental data (3.2)
3.3
oro-dental location

designation code for tooth, teeth or area of the oral cavity of the forensic information

Note 1 to entry: The oro-dental location shall be determined in accordance with ISO 3950.

3.3.1
tooth present

tooth or substantial part of a tooth visible in clinical or in radiologic examination, or reported present

in the dental record

Note 1 to entry: If only a portion of the root remains and the coronal portion of the tooth has been replaced by

a dental prosthesis (whether fixed or removable) that is not anchored by the remaining root, the tooth is not

considered present. See Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Overview of the main elements of a tooth present
3.3.1.1
unerupted tooth
tooth present (3.3.1) that is not visible in the oral cavity

Note 1 to entry: If the erupted tooth is also abnormally angulated it can be described under malpositioned

angulation.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.2
erupted tooth
tooth present (3.3.1) that is partially or completely visible in the oral cavity

Note 1 to entry: If the erupted tooth is also abnormally angulated, it can be described under malpositioned

angulation.
3.3.1.2.1
overerupted tooth
hypererupted tooth

tooth whose occlusal plane is significantly occlusal to the normal plane of occlusion

Note 1 to entry: This term is used regardless of the aetiology of the overeruption.

3.3.1.2.2
undererupted tooth
hypoerupted tooth

tooth whose occlusal plane is significantly apical to the normal plane of occlusion

Note 1 to entry: A tooth is considered hypoerupted versus impacted only when a substantial portion of the coronal

portion of the tooth is in the oral cavity, the path of eruption is unobstructed, and the root apices are fully closed.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used regardless of the aetiology of the undereruption.

3.3.1.2.3
malpositioned tooth

tooth that is not in the normal position or angulation relative to the dental arch

Note 1 to entry: The malpositioned tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).
3.3.1.2.3.1
drifted tooth

tooth that has migrated into an edentulous space previously occupied by a different tooth

Note 1 to entry: The type of tooth drift shall be as specified in Annex A.
Note 2 to entry: The drifted tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).
3.3.1.2.3.2
angulated tooth
tooth that has an inclination that deviates from the norm

Note 1 to entry: The type of tooth that is visible at clinical examination and is at the plane of occlusion shall be as

specified in Annex B.
Note 2 to entry: The angulated tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).
3.3.1.3
unrestored tooth

tooth that does not have any visible or radiographic evidence of a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: The unrestored tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).

Note 2 to entry: This entry is limited to ISO 3950 codes 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 10, 20, 30, 40.

Note 3 to entry: Pit and fissure sealant is not a dental restoration.
3.3.1.4
coronally restored tooth
tooth that has any type of dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)
Note 1 to entry: A pit and fissure sealant is not a dental restoration.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.4.1
dental restoration
dental device that restores or replaces lost tooth structure

Note 1 to entry: This definition differs from ISO 1942 in that lost tooth and oral tissues are excluded so that there

is no ambiguity with the definition of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8).
Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.1
direct dental restoration
dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that is placed directly onto or within a tooth
Note 1 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.2
indirect dental restoration
dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that is fabricated outside the mouth

Note 1 to entry: The dental restoration fabricated outside the mouth shall be as specified in Annex C.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.3
other dental restoration type

dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) whose origin is known and not covered by any of the other categories

(by report)

Note 1 to entry: Optional free-form text can be included to further characterize the entity being described.

3.3.1.4.1.4
number of dental restorations
number of parts of the tooth that have been replaced by a restoration
3.3.1.4.1.5
dental surface restored by dental restoration
part of the tooth that has been replaced by the dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: The parts of the tooth that have been replaced by the dental restoration shall be as specified in

Annex D.
Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.6
dental restoration material
constituent elements utilized in a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: The material utilized in the dental restoration shall be as specified in Annex E.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.7
dental restoration colour

predominant hue of the dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that is affixed to the dental implant (3.3.2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: The colour utilized in the dental restoration shall be as specified in Annex F.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.8
fracture of dental restoration

tooth that exhibits a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that has a substantial portion of material missing due

to factors other than normal wear
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.4.2
endodontically treated tooth
tooth with therapy performed on the endodontium

Note 1 to entry: This term can be used if there is definitive evidence of treatment regardless of the extent of

treatment and the presence or absence of endodontic obturation material.
3.3.1.4.3
coronally endodontically treated tooth
pulpotomized tooth
endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.2) limited to the pulp chamber
3.3.1.4.3.1
coronally endodontically treated tooth obturation material

constituent element used in sealing the coronally endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.3)

Note 1 to entry: The type of material utilized in obturating the coronally endodontically treated tooth shall be as

specified in Annex G.
3.3.1.4.4
fully endodontically treated tooth
pulpectomized tooth

endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.2) in both the pulp chamber and the radicular portion of the tooth

3.3.1.4.4.1
obturating material in fully endodontically treated tooth

constituent element used in sealing the fully endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.4)

Note 1 to entry: The type of material utilized in obturating the fully endodontically treated tooth shall be as

specified in Annex G.
Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.4.2
number of canals obturated in fully endodontically treated tooth
number of canals with the presence of an endodontic obturation material

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if lateral canals are present or the root canal system separates into

additional distinct canals through small portions of the root.
3.3.1.4.5
retrograde endodontically treated tooth
endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.2) resulting from an apical approach
3.3.1.4.5.1
obturating material in retrograde endodontically treated tooth

constituent element used in sealing the retrograde endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.5)

Note 1 to entry: The material utilized in obturating the apices shall be as specified in Annex G.

3.3.1.4.5.2

number of apices treated with obturation of the retrograde endodontically treated tooth

number of canal apices with the presence of an endodontic obturation material

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if lateral canals are present or the root canal system separates into

additional distinct canals through small portions of the root.
3.3.1.4.6
other endodontic entity
endodontic entity not described by other descriptors
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.5
root restoration
root post

tooth that has a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that fills the root canal system of the tooth to serve as a

restoration or aid in the retention of another dental device
3.3.1.5.1
number of canals which retain the root restoration
number of canals that the root restoration (3.3.1.5) substantially extends into

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if the tooth has not had endodontic treatment.

Note 2 to entry: This term may be used even if the tooth does not have a core restoration as part of the post system.

3.3.1.5.2
root restoration material
constituent element used in a root restoration (3.3.1.5)

Note 1 to entry: The material utilized in the root restoration shall be as specified in Annex H.

3.3.1.6
altered root

tooth whose root system has been altered either by pathology or treatment intervention

3.3.1.6.1
root amputation

multi-rooted tooth whose root system has been intentionally sectioned with at least one of the roots

removed for therapeutic purposes

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if definitive restorations are not present on the tooth.

3.3.1.6.2
sectioned tooth

tooth that has been intentionally separated into multiple sections with none of the roots removed for

therapeutic purposes

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if definitive restorations are not present on the tooth.

3.3.1.6.3
retained instrument
root canal instrument present in one or more canals

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used regardless of where any additional obturation materials coexist in the

same or other canals of the tooth.
3.3.1.6.4
other-altered root

tooth whose root has been intentionally altered for therapeutic purposes and not covered by other

descriptors (by report)

Note 1 to entry: Optional free-form text can be included to further characterize the entity being described.

3.3.1.7
abutment tooth for a dental prosthesis
tooth code that supports a part of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8)
3.3.1.7.1
abutment device affixed to a tooth
device on a tooth that supports part of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The tooth supported component that supports the prosthesis shall be as specified in Annex I.

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.7.2
retainer on a dental prosthesis
device that supports part of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The prosthesis supported component that supports the prosthesis shall be as specified in

Annex J.
3.3.1.7.3
splinted to adjacent teeth
tooth with a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) connected to adjacent tooth
3.3.1.8
other unique restorative characteristic
unique restorative characteristic not covered by other descriptors
3.3.1.9
non-acquired anomaly
congenital abnormality of a tooth

Note 1 to entry: The type of tooth with a congenital abnormality shall be as specified in Annex K.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.10
non-restorative acquired anomaly

non-congenital abnormality of a tooth whose causative action is not due to the repair of a tooth

Note 1 to entry: The type of non-acquired anomaly of the tooth shall be as specified in Annex L.

Note 2 to entry: This entry is limited to ISO 3950 codes that map to individual teeth.

Note 3 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
Figure 3 — Overview of the main elements of a tooth not present
3.3.2
tooth not present

tooth not visible both in clinical and in a radiologic examination or reported as not present in the

dental record

Note 1 to entry: This term is used if the tooth has been replaced by a prosthesis.

Note 2 to entry: A tooth may be considered not present even if it is replaced by a dental prosthesis (3.3.8).

Note 3 to entry: This term may be used alone or with a descriptor below. If no descriptor is found that describes

the prosthesis, then the “other- (by report)” descriptor shall be used. See Figure 3.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 20888:2020(E)
3.3.2.1
tooth extracted

area of the jaw previously occupied by a tooth when both the coronal portion and root portion of the

both the deciduous and permanent tooth are not visible intraorally or radiographically

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used in combination with a restorative descriptor.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used when the tooth has been therapeutically lost or the loss is of unknown origin.

3.3.2.2
tooth missing
missing tooth whose socket exhibits no healing

Note 1 to entry: This term is only to be used if there is substantial evidence that the loss was traumatic and not

therapeutic or through natural causes.
3.3.2.3
tooth missing

tooth that has never been formed and without documentation that it ever existed in the

dental treatment records

Note 1 to entry: This term is only used if there is documented evidence that the tooth bud never existed.

Note 2 to entry: Qualifying a tooth as congenitally missing should be done according to the age of the individual

whose tooth is being examined.
3.3.2.4
indeterminant cause of loss
tooth with an insufficient amount of data to determine the status of the tooth
3.3.2.5
tooth not replaced

area of the jaw previously occupied by a tooth when both the coronal portion and root portion of the

both the deciduous and permanent tooth are not visible intraorally or radiographically, and no fixed or

removable dental
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 20888
Première édition
2020-10
Médecine bucco-dentaire —
Vocabulaire et code de désignation
des données bucco-dentaires
médico-légales
Dentistry — Vocabulary and designation system for forensic oro-
dental data
Numéro de référence
ISO 20888:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20888:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

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être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20888:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annexe A (normative) Déplacements/malpositions ........................................................................................................................25

Annexe B (normative) Angulations d’inclusion .....................................................................................................................................26

Annexe C (normative) Types de restaurations indirectes ...........................................................................................................27

Annexe D (normative) Faces .......................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annexe E (normative) Matériaux de restauration dentaire ......................................................................................................29

Annexe F (normative) Couleur des matériaux de restauration dentaire ....................................................................30

Annexe G (normative) Produits pour obturation endodontique .........................................................................................31

Annexe H (normative) Produits de restauration radiculaire ..................................................................................................32

Annexe I (normative) Types de piliers de prothèse ..........................................................................................................................33

Annexe J (normative) Types de contentions de prothèse ............................................................................................................34

Annexe K (normative) Anomalies dentaires congénitales .........................................................................................................35

Annexe L (normative) Anomalies dentaires acquises sans restauration ....................................................................36

Annexe M (normative) Types d’implants ......................................................................................................................................................37

Annexe N (normative) Fixations de prothèse dentaire ..................................................................................................................38

Annexe O (normative) Emplacement d’une anomalie.....................................................................................................................39

Annexe P (normative) Couleur dominante .................................................................................................................................................40

Annexe Q (normative) Anomalies de surface ...........................................................................................................................................41

Annexe R (normative) Composants de conception de prothèse ...........................................................................................42

Annexe S (normative) Autres appareils buccaux ..................................................................................................................................43

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................44

Index alphabétique des termes ............................................................................................................................................................................45

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ISO 20888:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/ iso/ fr/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 106 Médecine bucco-dentaire, sous-

comité SC 3 Terminologie, en collaboration avec le comité technique CEN/TC 55, Médecine bucco-dentaire,

du Comité européen de normalisation (CEN) conformément à l’Accord de coopération technique entre

l’ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20888:2020(F)
Introduction
0.1 Contexte

L’établissement d’une identification positive d’un individu non identifié par l’analyse dentaire

comparative d’un odontostomatologiste légiste exige la transmission de documents d’appui par les

professionnels dentaires qui ont traité le patient. Il convient que ces informations, qui comprennent des

dossiers de traitement dentaire, des radiographies, des photographies et des modèles dentaires, soient

soumises à l’autorité appropriée; ces informations sont appelées données dentaires ante mortem (AM).

À l’heure actuelle, la grande majorité des données dentaires ante mortem et des pièces jointes connexes

sont soumises sur papier et film radiographique, mais l’objectif est de créer un format électronique

normalisé pour le transfert de ces données. En raison de la diversité des méthodes de documentation

et des systèmes d’enregistrement, une liste organisée de terminologie dentaire normalisée serait utile.

La présentation d’informations ambiguës en raison d’un manque d’harmonisation peut augmenter le

temps nécessaire pour établir l’identification par des moyens dentaires.

En raison du nombre de victimes et du nombre de pays d’origine des victimes, les spécialistes en

identification des victimes de catastrophes (IVC) tireront profit de ces données dentaires médico-

légales internationales normalisées, en utilisant une terminologie normalisée de concepts utiles.

Un logiciel de comparaison odontologique actuel est fondé sur le concept de comparaison des

restaurations. En utilisant chaque dent comme un champ, les requêtes de comparaison et/ou

d’élimination et les algorithmes de tri préalable créent un classement des correspondances possibles

pour aider l’odontostomatologiste légiste dans la comparaison initiale des dossiers. Les informations

biométriques, familiales, radiographiques et visuelles renforcent la probabilité d’une correspondance.

En normalisant les descripteurs utilisés pour décrire ces informations, la probabilité d’identifier un

individu sur la base des données des odontostomatologistes légistes augmente.
0.2 Principe

De nombreux descripteurs d’une dent sont déterminés à partir de l’interprétation de radiographies;

certains attributs radiographiques spécifiques «similaires» sont regroupés en un seul descripteur

unifié. Il convient que cela permette une interprétation sans ambiguïté d’un attribut dentaire et

garantisse qu’un attribut radiographique puisse être décrit par un seul attribut unifié. En général, la

cohérence de l’attribution d’un attribut unique à une caractéristique radiographique est utilisée dans le

présent document afin de créer des descripteurs non ambigus, même au détriment d’une combinaison

d’attributs similaires, mais non identiques.

Les dents permanentes sont prioritaires lorsque des dents temporaires et des dents permanentes sont

toutes deux présentes et visibles simultanément dans la bouche; cependant, il convient également de

noter la présence des dents temporaires.

Il convient de pondérer la pertinence de ces descripteurs en fonction du temps qui s’est écoulé entre la

date des dossiers et la date résumée d’enregistrement des données actuelles.

Si un descripteur concerne plusieurs dents, ce descripteur doit alors être utilisé pour toutes les dents

concernées.
0.3 Justification

Un volume important d’informations est recueilli pendant l’évaluation et le traitement dentaires. Les

odontostomatologistes légistes chargés d’identifier des individus ont besoin d’informations complètes

pour confirmer ou infirmer une identification. Bien qu’une grande partie des informations recueillies

par le dentiste puisse ne pas faciliter la prise de décision, il n’est pas possible de prédire à l’avance

quels éléments du dossier dentaire peuvent être concluants pour l’identification. Le présent document

est conçu pour combler une lacune en établissant des exigences relatives à la documentation pour la

soumission d’informations de données dentaires ante mortem à des fins d’identification.

Les termes et définitions décrivant les dents, les pathologies ou anomalies dentaires ou les restaurations

dentaires sont limités aux codes bucco-dentaires de l’ISO 3950 correspondant aux dents individuelles.

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ISO 20888:2020(F)

Les termes et définitions décrivant l’état, les pathologies, les relations ou les prothèses concernant

plusieurs dents, les maxillaires ou la bouche sont limités aux codes bucco-dentaires de l’ISO 3950

correspondant à ces entités.

Les termes et définitions qui se limitent à d’autres emplacements bucco-dentaires spécifiques de

l’ISO 3950 sont annotés en conséquence dans les notes aux articles et dans les annexes associées.

Les termes et définitions décrivant des dispositifs dentaires, des pathologies ou des entités qui n’ont

pas d’emplacement spécifique sont limités au code 00, 01 et 02 de l’ISO 3950, ainsi qu’aux notes aux

articles et aux annexes associées.

Une entrée présentant l’annotation «(selon le rapport)» indique qu’un texte facultatif de forme libre

peut être ajouté au terme afin de caractériser davantage l’entité décrite. Voir la Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Aperçu des principaux éléments de l’Article 3
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 20888:2020(F)
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Vocabulaire et code de
désignation des données bucco-dentaires médico-légales
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document définit les termes utilisés pour décrire les caractéristiques distinctives de la

bouche d’un individu par les dentistes et les experts dentaires médico-légaux. Les termes sont organisés

par concepts en se fondant sur une approche médico-légale des caractéristiques d’une bouche, avec

de nombreux concepts propres au domaine de l’identification qui ne sont pas définis ailleurs dans les

vocabulaires ISO de la médecine bucco-dentaire (par exemple «dent présente»).

La structure hiérarchique du présent document est conçue pour décrire les attributs d’une dent, de

la bouche et d’une prothèse/orthèse avec des niveaux croissants de caractéristiques discriminantes

(par exemple, caractéristiques des matériaux, face d’une dent restaurée, etc.) et la possibilité de relier

tout niveau de description d’un attribut au concept le plus complet.

Le présent document est destiné à être utilisé pour l’échange de données entre les fichiers ante mortem

et post mortem, en éliminant toute ambiguïté en ce qui concerne les termes utilisés pour décrire la

bouche d’un individu.

Le présent document est destiné à être utilisé en association avec l’ISO 1942 et l’ISO 3950.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 1942, Médecine bucco-dentaire — Vocabulaire

ISO 3950, Médecine bucco-dentaire — Code de désignation des dents et des régions de la cavité buccale

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions de l’ISO 1942 ainsi que les suivants,

s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l'adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp;

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l'adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/ .
3.1
identification bucco-dentaire

science et art de comparer les données dentaires ante mortem (3.2.2.1) aux données dentaires post

mortem (3.2.2.2) pour aider à déterminer l’identité d’un individu
3.2
données dentaires médico-légales

informations enregistrées décrivant la cavité buccale et les tissus environnants à des fins légales

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ISO 20888:2020(F)
3.2.1
date de réception du dossier

date à laquelle les informations médico-légales sont enregistrées dans le dossier médico-légal

Note 1 à l'article: La date de réception du dossier est déterminée à l’aide de l’ISO 8601-1.

3.2.2
date des informations
date à laquelle ont été créées les informations médico-légales

Note 1 à l'article: La date des informations est déterminée à l’aide de l’ISO 8601-1.

3.2.2.1
données dentaires ante mortem
données dentaires médico-légales (3.2) historiques
3.2.2.2
données dentaires post mortem
données dentaires médico-légales (3.2) actuelles
3.3
emplacement bucco-dentaire

code de désignation de la dent, des dents ou des régions de la cavité buccale, utilisé pour les informations

médico-légales

Note 1 à l'article: L’emplacement bucco-dentaire doit être déterminé conformément à l’ISO 3950.

3.3.1
dent présente

dent ou partie substantielle d’une dent visible à l’examen clinique ou radiologique, ou consignée comme

étant présente dans le dossier dentaire

Note 1 à l'article: S’il ne reste qu’une partie de la racine et que la partie coronaire de la dent a été remplacée par

une prothèse dentaire (fixe ou amovible) qui n’est pas ancrée à la racine résiduelle, la dent n’est pas considérée

comme étant présente. Voir la Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Aperçu des principaux éléments d’une dent présente
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ISO 20888:2020(F)
3.3.1.1
dent n’ayant pas fait éruption
dent présente (3.3.1) qui n’est pas visible dans la cavité buccale

Note 1 à l'article: Si la dent ayant fait éruption présente une angulation anormale, elle peut être décrite comme

«dent en position ectopique».
3.3.1.2
dent ayant fait éruption

dent présente (3.3.1) qui est partiellement ou entièrement visible dans la cavité buccale

Note 1 à l'article: Si la dent ayant fait éruption présente une angulation anormale, elle peut être décrite comme

«dent en position ectopique».
3.3.1.2.1
dent en surocclusion
dent en surocclusion

dent dont le plan occlusal est nettement occlusal par rapport au plan normal d’occlusion

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme est utilisé quelle que soit l’étiologie de la surocclusion.

3.3.1.2.2
dent en sous-occlusion
dent en sous-occlusion

dent dont le plan occlusal est nettement apical par rapport au plan normal d’occlusion

Note 1 à l'article: Une dent est considérée comme étant en sous-occlusion et non comme étant incluse uniquement

lorsqu’une portion substantielle de la partie coronaire de la dent se trouve dans la cavité buccale, que la

trajectoire d’éruption n’est pas obstruée et que l’apex de la racine est totalement fermé.

Note 2 à l'article: Ce terme est utilisé quelle que soit l’étiologie de la sous-occlusion.

3.3.1.2.3
dent en position ectopique

dent qui n’est pas dans la position normale ou qui ne présente pas une angulation normale par rapport

à l’arcade dentaire

Note 1 à l'article: La dent en position ectopique doit être une dent ayant fait éruption (3.3.1.2).

3.3.1.2.3.1
dent déplacée

dent qui a migré vers un espace édenté qui était auparavant occupé par une dent différente

Note 1 à l'article: Le type de déplacement de dent doit être spécifié conformément à l’Annexe A.

Note 2 à l'article: La dent déplacée doit être une dent ayant fait éruption (3.3.1.2).

3.3.1.2.3.2
dent angulée
dent présentant une inclinaison qui diverge de la norme

Note 1 à l'article: Le type de dent visible lors de l’examen clinique et situé sur le plan d’occlusion doit être spécifié

conformément à l’Annexe B.

Note 2 à l'article: La dent angulée doit être une dent ayant fait éruption (3.3.1.2).

3.3.1.3
dent non restaurée

dent ne présent aucun signe visible à l’œil nu ou par radiographie d’une restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 à l'article: La dent non restaurée doit être une dent ayant fait éruption (3.3.1.2).

Note 2 à l'article: Cet article se limite aux codes 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 10, 20, 30, 40 de l’ISO 3950.

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 20888:2020(F)

Note 3 à l'article: Un produit de scellement des puits et sillons n’est pas une restauration dentaire.

3.3.1.4
dent restaurée dans sa partie coronaire
dent présentant tout type de restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Un produit de scellement des puits et sillons n’est pas une restauration dentaire.

3.3.1.4.1
restauration dentaire
dispositif dentaire qui restaure ou remplace la structure manquante de dents

Note 1 à l'article: La définition diffère de l’ISO 1942 en ce que les dents et les tissus buccaux manquants sont

exclus, afin qu’il n’y ait pas d’ambiguïté avec la définition d’une prothèse dentaire (3.3.8).

Note 2 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

3.3.1.4.1.1
restauration dentaire directe
restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1) mise en place directement sur ou dans une dent

Note 1 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

3.3.1.4.1.2
restauration dentaire indirecte
restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1) fabriquée en dehors de la bouche

Note 1 à l'article: Les restaurations dentaires fabriquées en dehors de la bouche doivent être spécifiées

conformément à l’Annexe C.

Note 2 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

3.3.1.4.1.3
autre type de restauration dentaire

restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1) dont l’origine est connue et qui n’est pas couverte par l’une des autres

catégories (selon le rapport)

Note 1 à l'article: Un texte facultatif de forme libre peut être intégré pour caractériser davantage l’entité

concernée.
3.3.1.4.1.4
nombre de restaurations dentaires
nombre de parties de la dent qui ont été remplacées par une restauration
3.3.1.4.1.5
surface dentaire restaurée par une restauration dentaire
partie de la dent qui a été remplacée par la restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Les parties de la dent qui ont été remplacées par la restauration dentaire doivent être spécifiées

conformément à l’Annexe D.

Note 2 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

3.3.1.4.1.6
matériau de restauration dentaire
éléments constitutifs utilisés lors d’une restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Les matériaux utilisés dans la restauration dentaire doivent être tels que spécifiés dans

l’Annexe E.

Note 2 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

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ISO 20888:2020(F)
3.3.1.4.1.7
couleur de restauration dentaire

teinte prédominante de la restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1) qui est apposée sur l’implant dentaire

(3.3.2.6.1)

Note 1 à l'article: La couleur utilisée pour la restauration dentaire doit être telle que spécifiée dans l’Annexe F.

Note 2 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

3.3.1.4.1.8
fracture d’une restauration dentaire

dent qui présente une restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1) dont une partie importante du matériau est

manquante en raison de facteurs autres que l’usure normale
3.3.1.4.2
dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique
dent ayant subi un traitement de l’endodonte

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé s’il n’y a pas de preuve absolue de traitement, indépendamment de

l’étendue du traitement et de la présence ou de l’absence de produit pour obturation endodontique.

3.3.1.4.3
dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique coronaire
dent ayant subi une pulpotomie

dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique (3.3.1.4.2) limité (3.3.1.4.2) à la chambre pulpaire

3.3.1.4.3.1

produit pour obturation d’une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique coronaire

élément constitutif utilisé pour le scellement d’une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique coronaire

(3.3.1.4.3)

Note 1 à l'article: Le type de matériau utilisé dans l’obturation de la dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique

coronaire doit être tel que spécifié dans l’Annexe G.
3.3.1.4.4
dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique total
dent ayant subi une pulpectomie

dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique (3.3.1.4.2) à la fois dans la chambre pulpaire et dans la partie

radiculaire de la dent
3.3.1.4.4.1
matériau d’obturation pour une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique total

élément constitutif utilisé pour le scellement d’une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique total

(3.3.1.4.4)

Note 1 à l'article: Le type de matériau utilisé dans l’obturation de la dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique

total doit être tel que spécifié dans l’Annexe G.

Note 2 à l'article: Plusieurs itérations sont autorisées dans un dossier dentaire.

3.3.1.4.4.2

nombre de canaux obturés dans une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique total

nombre de canaux contenant un produit pour obturation endodontique

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si des canaux latéraux sont présents ou si le système de canaux

radiculaires se sépare en canaux supplémentaires distincts dans de petites parties de la racine.

3.3.1.4.5
dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique par voie rétrograde

dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique (3.3.1.4.2) résultant d’une approche apicale

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ISO 20888:2020(F)
3.3.1.4.5.1

matériau d’obturation pour une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique par voie rétrograde

élément constitutif utilisé pour le scellement d’une dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique par voie

rétrograde (3.3.1.4.5)

Note 1 à l'article: Les matériaux utilisés dans l’obturation des canaux apicaux doivent être tels que spécifiés dans

l’Annexe G.
3.3.1.4.5.2

nombre d’apex traités par obturation de la dent ayant subi un traitement endodontique par voie

rétrograde
nombre de canaux apicaux contenant un produit pour obturation endodontique

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si des canaux latéraux sont présents ou si le système de canaux

radiculaires se sépare en canaux supplémentaires distincts dans de petites parties de la racine.

3.3.1.4.6
autre entité endodontique
entité endodontique qui n’est pas décrite par d’autres descripteurs
3.3.1.5
restauration de la racine
tenon de racine

dent présentant une restauration dentaire (3.3.1.4.1) qui remplit le système de canaux radiculaires de la

dent pour servir de restauration ou d’aide à la rétention d’un autre dispositif dentaire

3.3.1.5.1
nombre de canaux contenant la restauration radiculaire

nombre de canaux dans lesquels la restauration radiculaire (3.3.1.5) s’étend de façon substantielle

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si la dent n’a pas subi de traitement endodontique.

Note 2 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si la dent ne présente pas de faux moignon faisant partie du

système d’ancrage.
3.3.1.5.2
produit de restauration radiculaire
élément constitutif utilisé lors d’une restauration radiculaire (3.3.1.5)

Note 1 à l'article: Les matériaux utilisés dans la restauration radiculaire doivent être tels que spécifiés dans

l’Annexe H.
3.3.1.6
racine altérée

dent dont le système radiculaire a été altéré par une pathologie ou une intervention thérapeutique

3.3.1.6.1
amputation radiculaire

dent pluriradiculée dont le système radiculaire a été intentionnellement sectionné afin de retirer au

moins l’une des racines à des fins thérapeutiques

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si des restaurations définitives ne sont pas présentes sur la dent.

3.3.1.6.2
dent sectionnée

dent qui a été intentionnellement séparée en plusieurs sections à des fins thérapeutiques, sans retirer

de racines

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si des restaurations définitives ne sont pas présentes sur la dent.

6 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20888:2020(F)
3.3.1.6.3
instrument retenu
instrument pour canal radiculaire présent dans un ou plusieurs canaux

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme peut être utilisé même si d’autres produits pour obturation coexistent dans le même

canal ou d’autres canaux de la dent.
3.3.1.6.4
autre type de racine altérée

dent dont la racine a été intentionnellement altérée à des fins thérapeutiques et qui n’est pas couverte

par d’autres descripteurs (selon le rapport)

Note 1 à l'article: Un texte facultatif de forme libre peut être intégré pour caractériser davantage l’entité

concernée.
3.3.1.7
dent pilier pour prothèse dentaire
code d’une dent soutenant une partie d’une prothèse dentaire (3.3.8)
3.3.1.7.1
dispositif pilier fixé sur une dent

dispositif placé sur une dent qui permet de soutenir une partie d’une prothèse dentaire (3.3.8)

Note 1 à l'article: Le composant fixé sur la de
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 20888
ISO/TC 106/SC 3
Dentistry — Terminology for forensic
Secretariat: AFNOR
oro-dental data
Voting begins on:
2020­04­22
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Terminologie relative aux données bucco-
dentaires médico-légales
Voting terminates on:
2020­06­17
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (normative) Drift/malposition ........................................................................................................................................................23

Annex B (normative) Impaction angulation ..............................................................................................................................................24

Annex C (normative) Indirect restoration type ......................................................................................................................................25

Annex D (normative) Surface ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex E (normative) Restorative dental material...............................................................................................................................27

Annex F (normative) Restorative dental material colour ............................................................................................................28

Annex G (normative) Endodontic obturation material ..................................................................................................................29

Annex H (normative) Root restoration material ...................................................................................................................................30

Annex I (normative) Prosthesis abutment type ....................................................................................................................................31

Annex J (normative) Prosthesis retainer type .........................................................................................................................................32

Annex K (normative) Congenital tooth anomalies ..............................................................................................................................33

Annex L (normative) Non-restorative acquired tooth anomalies .......................................................................................34

Annex M (normative) Implant type ....................................................................................................................................................................35

Annex N (normative) Dental prosthesis fixation ..................................................................................................................................36

Annex O (normative) Location of anomaly .................................................................................................................................................37

Annex P (normative) Dominant colour ...........................................................................................................................................................38

Annex Q (normative) Surface anomaly ...........................................................................................................................................................39

Annex R (normative) Prosthesis design components ......................................................................................................................40

Annex S (normative) Other oral appliances ...............................................................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

Alphabetical index of terms .....................................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence

to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT),

see www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106, Dentistry, Subcommittee SC 3,

Terminology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
Introduction
0.1 Background

The establishment of a positive identification of an unidentified individual by the comparative dental

analysis of a forensic odontologist requires submission of supporting documentation from the dental

professionals who treated the patient. This information includes dental treatment records, radiographs,

photographs, and dental casts; this information is then submitted to the appropriate authority and

referred to as antemortem dental data (AM). Currently, the vast majority of antemortem dental data

and associated attachments are submitted on paper and by radiographic film, however, the goal is

to create a standardized electronic format for the transfer of this data. Due to varying methods of

documentation and recording systems, an organized list of standardized dental terminology would

be useful. Submission of ambiguous information due to a lack of harmonization can increase the time

required to establish the identification through dental means.

The disaster victim identification (DVI) community, due to the number of victims and the number of

countries of origin of the victims, will benefit from this internationally standardized forensic oro-

dental data, by using standardized terminology of useful concepts.

Current odontological comparison software is based on the concept of restoration comparison. Utilizing

each tooth as a field, comparison and/or elimination queries and advance sorting algorithms creates a

ranking of possible matches to aid the forensic odontologist in the initial records comparison. Biometric,

familial, radiographic, and visual information support the likelihood of a match. By standardizing the

descriptors used to describe this information, the likelihood of identifying an individual based on the

forensic odontologist's data increases.
0.2 Principle

Many descriptors of a tooth are determined from radiographic interpretation; specific “similar”

radiographic attributes are grouped together into single unified descriptors. This should allow for

the unambiguous interpretation of a tooth attribute and ensure that a radiographic attribute can

be described by a single unified attribute. Generally, consistency of assigning a unique attribute to a

radiographic feature is utilized in this document in order to create unambiguous descriptors even at

the expense of combining similar, but not identical, attributes.

The permanent dentition takes priority when both the primary and permanent teeth are present if both

are concurrently visible in the mouth; however, the presence of the primary tooth should also be noted.

The pertinence of these descriptors should be weighted with the time differences between the date of

the records and the presumptive date of recording of the current data.

If a descriptor involves multiple teeth, then that descriptor shall be utilized for all the teeth involved.

0.3 Rationale

A significant volume of information is gathered during dental evaluation and treatment. Forensic

odontologists charged with the task of identifying individuals need comprehensive information in

order to prove or disprove identification. While much of the information gathered by the dentist might

not aid in claims adjudication, it is not possible to predict in advance what item or items in the dental

record might be conclusive in identification. This document is designed to fill a void by establishing

documentation requirements for the submission of antemortem dental information for identification.

Terms and definitions describing teeth, pathology or anomaly of teeth or tooth restorations are limited

to ISO 3950 oro­dental codes that map to individual teeth.

Terms and definitions describing multiple teeth, jaw or mouth conditions, pathologies, relationships, or

prostheses are limited to ISO 3950 oro­dental codes that map those entities.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)

Terms and definitions which are limited to other specific ISO 3950 oro-dental locations are annotated

accordingly in the notes to entry and related annexes.

Terms and definitions describing dental devices, pathologies, or entities that do not have a specific

location are limited to ISO 3950 code 00, 01 02 and the notes to entry and related annexes.

An entry with a “(by report)” notation indicates that optional free-form text can be included with the

term to further characterize the entity being described. See Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Overview of the main elements of Clause 3
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
Dentistry — Terminology for forensic oro-dental data
1 Scope

This document defines the terms used to describe the distinctive characteristics of an individual’s

mouth by dentists and forensic dental experts. These terms are organized by concepts based on a

forensic approach to the characteristics of a mouth, with many concepts specific to the identification

domain that are not defined elsewhere in ISO dentistry vocabularies (e.g. “present tooth”).

The hierarchical structure of this document is designed to describe attributes of a tooth, the mouth

and a prosthesis/orthosis with increasing levels of discriminative characteristics (e.g. material

characteristics, restored tooth surface) and the possibility to connect any level of description of an

attribute with the most comprehensive concept.

This document is intended to be used for data exchange between antemortem and postmortem files

and remove ambiguity on the terms used to describe an individual’s mouth.
This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 1942 and ISO 3950.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1942, Dentistry — Vocabulary
ISO 3950, Dentistry — Designation system for teeth and areas of the oral cavity
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1942 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
oro-dental identification

science and art of comparing antemortem dental data (3.2.2.1) with postmortem dental data (3.2.2.2) to

help determine the identity of an individual
3.2
forensic oro-dental data

recorded information describing the oral cavity and surrounding tissues for legal purposes

3.2.1
date of receiving record
date when the forensic information is recorded in the forensic record
Note 1 to entry: The date of receiving record is determined using ISO 8601-1.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.2.2
date of information
date when the forensic information was created
Note 1 to entry: The date of information is determined using ISO 8601-1.
3.2.2.1
antemortem dental data
historical forensic oro-dental data (3.2)
3.2.2.2
postmortem dental data
current forensic oro-dental data (3.2)
3.3
oro-dental location

designation code for tooth, teeth or area of the oral cavity of the forensic information

Note 1 to entry: The oro-dental location shall be determined in accordance with ISO 3950.

3.3.1
tooth present

tooth or substantial part of a tooth visible in clinical or in radiologic examination, or reported present

in the dental record

Note 1 to entry: If only a portion of the root remains and the coronal portion of the tooth has been replaced by

a dental prosthesis (whether fixed or removable) that is not anchored by the remaining root, the tooth is not

considered present. See Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Overview of the main elements of a tooth present
3.3.1.1
unerupted tooth
tooth present (3.3.1) that is not visible in the oral cavity

Note 1 to entry: If the erupted tooth is also abnormally angulated it can be described under malpositioned

angulation.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.2
erupted tooth
tooth present (3.3.1) that is partially or completely visible in the oral cavity

Note 1 to entry: If the erupted tooth is also abnormally angulated, it can be described under malpositioned

angulation.
3.3.1.2.1
overerupted tooth
hypererupted tooth

tooth whose occlusal plane is significantly occlusal to the normal plane of occlusion

Note 1 to entry: This term is used regardless of the aetiology of the overeruption.

3.3.1.2.2
undererupted tooth
hypoerupted tooth

tooth whose occlusal plane is significantly apical to the normal plane of occlusion

Note 1 to entry: A tooth is considered hypoerupted versus impacted only when a substantial portion of the coronal

portion of the tooth is in the oral cavity, the path of eruption is unobstructed, and the root apices are fully closed.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used regardless of the aetiology of the undereruption.

3.3.1.2.3
malpositioned tooth

tooth that is not in the normal position or angulation relative to the dental arch

Note 1 to entry: The malpositioned tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).
3.3.1.2.3.1
drifted tooth

tooth that has migrated into an edentulous space previously occupied by a different tooth

Note 1 to entry: The type of tooth drift shall be as specified in Annex A.
Note 2 to entry: The drifted tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).
3.3.1.2.3.2
angulated tooth
tooth that has an inclination that deviates from the norm

Note 1 to entry: The type of tooth that is visible at clinical examination and is at the plane of occlusion shall be as

specified in Annex B.
Note 2 to entry: The angulated tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).
3.3.1.3
unrestored tooth

tooth that does not have any visible or radiographic evidence of a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: The unrestored tooth shall be an erupted tooth (3.3.1.2).

Note 2 to entry: This entry is limited to ISO 3950 codes 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 10, 20, 30, 40.

Note 3 to entry: Pit and fissure sealant is not a dental restoration.
3.3.1.4
coronally restored tooth
tooth that has any type of dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)
Note 1 to entry: A pit and fissure sealant is not a dental restoration.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.4.1
dental restoration
dental device that restores or replaces lost tooth structure

Note 1 to entry: This definition differs from ISO 1942 in that lost tooth and oral tissues are excluded so that there

is no ambiguity with the definition of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8).
Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.1
direct dental restoration
dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that is placed directly onto or within a tooth
Note 1 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.2
indirect dental restoration
dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that is fabricated outside the mouth

Note 1 to entry: The dental restoration fabricated outside the mouth shall be as specified in Annex C.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.3
other dental restoration type

dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) whose origin is known and not covered by any of the other categories

(by report)

Note 1 to entry: Optional free-form text can be included to further characterize the entity being described.

3.3.1.4.1.4
number of dental restorations
number of parts of the tooth that have been replaced by a restoration
3.3.1.4.1.5
dental surface restored by dental restoration
part of the tooth that has been replaced by the dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: The parts of the tooth that have been replaced by the dental restoration shall be as specified in

Annex D.
Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.6
dental restoration material
constituent elements utilized in a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: The material utilized in the dental restoration shall be as specified in Annex E.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.7
dental restoration colour

predominant hue of the dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that is affixed to the dental implant (3.3.2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: The colour utilized in the dental restoration shall be as specified in Annex F.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.1.8
fracture of dental restoration

tooth that exhibits a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that has a substantial portion of material missing due

to factors other than normal wear
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.4.2
endodontically treated tooth
tooth with therapy performed on the endodontium

Note 1 to entry: This term can be used if there is definitive evidence of treatment regardless of the extent of

treatment and the presence or absence of endodontic obturation material.
3.3.1.4.3
coronally endodontically treated tooth
pulpotomized tooth

endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.2) limit (3.3.1.4.2) ed to the pulp chamber

3.3.1.4.3.1
coronally endodontically treated tooth obturation material

constituent element used in sealing the coronally endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.3)

Note 1 to entry: The type of material utilized in obturating the coronally endodontically treated tooth shall be as

specified in Annex G.
3.3.1.4.4
fully endodontically treated tooth
pulpectomized tooth

endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.2) in both the pulp chamber and the radicular portion of the tooth

3.3.1.4.4.1
number of canals obturated in fully endodontically treated tooth
number of canals with the presence of an endodontic obturation material

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if lateral canals are present or the root canal system separates into

additional distinct canals through small portions of the root.
3.3.1.4.4.2
obturating material in fully endodontically treated tooth

constituent element used in sealing the fully endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.4)

Note 1 to entry: The type of material utilized in obturating the fully endodontically treated tooth shall be as

specified in Annex G.
Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.4.5
retrograde endodontically treated tooth
endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.2) resulting from an apical approach
3.3.1.4.5.1

number of apices treated with obturation of the retrograde endodontically treated tooth

number of canal apices with the presence of an endodontic obturation material

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if lateral canals are present or the root canal system separates into

additional distinct canals through small portions of the root.
3.3.1.4.5.2
obturating material in retrograde endodontically treated tooth

constituent element used in sealing the retrograde endodontically treated tooth (3.3.1.4.5)

Note 1 to entry: The material utilized in obturating the apices shall be as specified in Annex G.

3.3.1.4.6
other endodontic entity
endodontic entity not described by other descriptors
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.5
root restoration
root post

tooth that has a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) that fills the root canal system of the tooth to serve as a

restoration or aid in the retention of another dental device
3.3.1.5.1
number of canals which retain the root restoration
number of canals that the root restoration (3.3.1.5) substantially extends into

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if the tooth has not had endodontic treatment.

Note 2 to entry: This term may be used even if the tooth does not have a core restoration as part of the post system.

3.3.1.5.2
root restoration material
constituent element used in a root restoration (3.3.1.5)

Note 1 to entry: The material utilized in the root restoration shall be as specified in Annex H.

3.3.1.6
altered root

tooth whose root system has been altered either by pathology or treatment intervention

3.3.1.6.1
root amputation

multi-rooted tooth whose root system has been intentionally sectioned with at least one of the roots

removed for therapeutic purposes

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if definitive restorations are not present on the tooth.

3.3.1.6.2
sectioned tooth

tooth that has been intentionally separated into multiple sections with none of the roots removed for

therapeutic purposes

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used even if definitive restorations are not present on the tooth.

3.3.1.6.3
retained instrument
root canal instrument present in one or more canals

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used regardless of where any additional obturation materials coexist in the

same or other canals of the tooth.
3.3.1.6.4
other-altered root

tooth whose root has been intentionally altered for therapeutic purposes and not covered by other

descriptors (by report)

Note 1 to entry: Optional free-form text can be included to further characterize the entity being described.

3.3.1.7
abutment tooth for a dental prosthesis
tooth code that supports a part of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8)
3.3.1.7.1
abutment device affixed to a tooth
device on a tooth that supports part of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The tooth supported component that supports the prosthesis shall be as specified in Annex I.

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.3.1.7.2
retainer on a dental prosthesis
device that supports part of a dental prosthesis (3.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The prosthesis supported component that supports the prosthesis shall be as specified in

Annex J.
3.3.1.7.3
splinted to adjacent teeth
tooth with a dental restoration (3.3.1.4.1) connected to adjacent tooth
3.3.1.8
other unique restorative characteristic
unique restorative characteristic not covered by other descriptors
3.3.1.9
non-acquired anomaly
congenital abnormality of a tooth

Note 1 to entry: The type of tooth with a congenital abnormality shall be as specified in Annex K.

Note 2 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
3.3.1.10
non-restorative acquired anomaly

non-congenital abnormality of a tooth whose causative action is not due to the repair of a tooth

Note 1 to entry: The type of non-acquired anomaly of the tooth shall be as specified in Annex L.

Note 2 to entry: This entry is limited to ISO 3950 codes that map to individual teeth.

Note 3 to entry: In a dental record, multiple iterations are allowed.
Figure 3 — Overview of the main elements of a tooth not present
3.3.2
tooth not present

tooth not visible both in clinical and in a radiologic examination or reported as not present in the

dental record

Note 1 to entry: This term is used if the tooth has been replaced by a prosthesis.

Note 2 to entry: A tooth may be considered not present even if it is replaced by a dental prosthesis (3.3.8).

Note 3 to entry: This term may be used alone or with a descriptor below. If no descriptor is found that describes

the prosthesis, then the “other- (by report)” descriptor shall be used. See Figure 3.

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ISO/FDIS 20888:2020(E)
3.3.2.1
tooth extracted

area of the jaw previously occupied by a tooth when both the coronal portion and root portion of the

both the deciduous and permanent tooth are not visible intraorally or radiographically

Note 1 to entry: This term may be used in combination with a restorative descriptor.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used when the tooth has been therapeutically lost or the loss is of unknown origin.

3.3.2.2
tooth missing
missing tooth whose socket exhibits no healing

Note 1 to entry: This term is only to be used if there is substantial evidence that the loss was traumatic and not

therapeutic or through natural causes.
3.3.2.3
tooth missing

tooth that has never been formed and without documentation that it ever existed in the

dental treatment records

Note 1 to entry: This term is only used if there is documented evidence that the tooth bud never existed.

Note 2 to entry: Qualifying a tooth as congenitally missing should
...

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