Interior air of road vehicles

This document describes and specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling assembly and the operating conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs; for more information see Annex E), and carbonyl compounds in vehicle cabin air. There are three measurements performed: one (for VOCs and carbonyl compounds) during the simulation of ambient conditions (ambient mode) at standard conditions of 23 °C with no air exchange; a second only for the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated temperatures (parking mode); and a third for VOCs and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after the vehicle has been parked in the sun starting at elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the simulation of the mean sun irradiation, fixed irradiation in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed. The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles described in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed. Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA®1) sorbent tubes described in ISO 16000‑6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16. The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption. Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration range 1 μg/m3 to 1 mg/m3. This method applicable to trucks and buses, as defined in ISO 3833:1977 3.1.1 to 3.1.6. This document describes: a) Transport and storage of the test vehicle until the start of the test. b) Conditioning of the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole vehicle test chamber. c) Conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements. d) Simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode). e) Formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode). f) Simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode). 1)Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers

Notranji zrak v cestnih vozilih - 10. del: Preskusna komora za celotno vozilo - Specifikacija in metode za določevanje hlapnih organskih spojin v notranjosti kabine - Tovornjaki in avtobusi

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Published
Publication Date
07-Jun-2021
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5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-10
First edition
2021-06
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 10:
Whole vehicle test chamber —
Specification and methods for the
determination of volatile organic
compounds in cabin interiors —
Trucks and buses
Reference number
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Heating radiator ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Sampling trains ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle .................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber ........................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Sampling line ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analytical equipment and materials .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Test vehicle ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and measurement

procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber .................................................................................................. 5

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Requirements for VOC and carbonyl compound air sampling and measurement methods 7

6.4 Field blank measurement .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Pre-arrangements and preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber and the

vehicle performing field blanks ................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Pre-arrangements ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber .......................................................................... 9

7.2.3 Preconditioning of the test vehicle ................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.4 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Detailed description of the test procedure ..................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Ambient mode .................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Parking mode ...................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Driving mode ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Calculation, presentation of results, and precision and uncertainty .........................................................12

9 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Whole vehicle test chamber and the ambient mode chamber condition ......13

Annex B (informative) VOC concentration distribution in the bus cabin ....................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Temperature measuring points for parking mode ................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Very volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds and

semi-volatile organic compounds ...................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Indoor air.
A list of all parts in the ISO 12219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and can be emitted by many every-day

products and materials. They have attracted much attention in recent years because of their impact

on cabin air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is

important to determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable

level. Therefore, it is important to get comprehensive and reliable information about the types of

organic compounds in the interior air of vehicles and also their concentrations.

This document outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs in vehicle cabin air under

controlled conditions. It describes requirements for a whole vehicle test chamber and a test protocol.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 10:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and methods
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors — Trucks and buses
1 Scope

This document describes and specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling

assembly and the operating conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs;

for more information see Annex E), and carbonyl compounds in vehicle cabin air. There are three

measurements performed: one (for VOCs and carbonyl compounds) during the simulation of ambient

conditions (ambient mode) at standard conditions of 23 °C with no air exchange; a second only for

the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated temperatures (parking mode); and a third for VOCs

and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after the vehicle has been parked in the sun starting at

elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the simulation of the mean sun irradiation, fixed irradiation

in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed.

The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range

of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles

described in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed.

®1)

Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA sorbent

tubes described in ISO 16000-6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16.

The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed

by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent

analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption.

Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration

3 3
range 1 μg/m to 1 mg/m .

This method applicable to trucks and buses, as defined in ISO 3833:1977 3.1.1 to 3.1.6.

This document describes:
a) Transport and storage of the test vehicle until the start of the test.

b) Conditioning of the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole

vehicle test chamber.
c) Conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements.
d) Simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode).
e) Formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode).

f) Simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode).

1) Tenax TA is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products

may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-1, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method

for the determination of volatile organic compounds

ISO 16000-3, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor

air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6, Indoor Air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber

air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS or MS-

FID
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background concentration

analyte concentration in the whole vehicle test chamber, when the vehicle is inside

3.2
test vehicle
new vehicle to be tested

Note 1 to entry: The test vehicle used can be of any type specified in ISO 3833:1977, 3.1.2 to 3.1.6.

Note 2 to entry: See also 3.5
3.3
total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)

sum of volatile organic compounds sampled on Tenax TA and eluting between and including n-hexane

and n-hexadecane, detected with a flame ionization detector (TVOC ) or mass spectrometric detector

FID

(TVOC ) and quantified converting the total area of the chromatogram in that analytical window to

toluene equivalents
3.4
carbonyl compound

compound containing the functional group -C(=O)- determined according to ISO 16000-3

3.5
ambient mode

mode in which sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in the cabin of a test vehicle under

standardized ambient temperature conditions is performed, defined as 23 °C

Note 1 to entry: Engine off, radiators off, trucks and buses sampling time 30 min.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
3.6
parking mode

mode in which sampling of formaldehyde in the cabin of a test vehicle under standardized elevated

temperature conditions is performed

Note 1 to entry: Engine off, radiators on, trucks and buses sampling time 30 min.

3.7
driving mode

mode in which sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in the cabin of a test vehicle (3.2) under

standardized conditions starting at elevated temperatures is performed, simulating a vehicle driven

after being parked in the sun

Note 1 to entry: Engine on, radiators on, air conditioning on, trucks sampling time 30 min, buses sampling time

120 min.
3.8
sampling train

apparatus to collect the sample gas inside the test vehicle (3.2) cabin (indoor) and the whole vehicle test

chamber, trapping the VOCs and carbonyl compounds on sorbent tubes under standardized conditions

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 16000-3 for formaldehyde and ISO 16000-6 the VOCs.
3.9
field blank

air quality sample taken in an identical manner as the real sample, but without sucking air through the

sampling apparatus

[SOURCE: ISO 16000-16; 3.7, modified — Note to entry has been deleted since it does not apply to this

document.]
4 Apparatus and materials
4.1 General

The whole vehicle test chamber is big enough to house the test vehicle completely. An air conditioning

system is installed to allow standardized air conditions for a temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C, humidity

of 50 % RH ± 10 % RH. A solar radiator system is installed to heat the test vehicle cabin to a defined

temperature (see also Figure 1).
4.2 Heating radiator

Infrared radiator, halogen radiator or other radiators (simulating sunlight). The heating radiators used

shall be powered to maintain a temperature of 40°C ± 2 °C for trucks and 35°C ± 2 °C for buses.

Position the heating radiators on the roof. There shall be no heating radiators shining from the side.

Take care not to have too short a distance between radiator and surface in order to avoid hot spots.

4.3 Sampling trains
4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle

Four sampling trains are employed: two for the VOC measurements in parallel and two for the carbonyl

compound measurements in parallel in the test vehicle (to check the repeatability) (see ISO 16000-3 for

carbonyl compounds and ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16017-1 for VOCs).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)

There is one sampling line with a manifold for the division of the sampling flow outside the test vehicle

(see 4.3.3). It consists of the probe, the sampling line (heated, if necessary), the sorbent tube for VOC or

the DNPH cartridge for carbonyl compound sampling respectively, the gas meters and the pumps.

All sampling trains shall be checked for leaks and shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa

for an average time of 10 s. For the leak check, the nozzle shall be plugged. Other equivalent leak checks

can be employed.
4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber

Four sampling trains are used to determine the background concentration in the whole vehicle test

chamber. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3.1, apart from the sampling line, which is much

shorter and not heated.

All sampling trains shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa for an average of 10 s. The

nozzle is plugged for the leak check. Other equivalent leak checks can be employed.

4.3.3 Sampling line

Tubing, between the sampling point (probe) inside the test vehicle, via the manifold outside the test

vehicle to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH cartridges respectively (see Figure 1).
The sampling line shall be constructed so as described in ISO 12219-1.

The tubing should be inserted between the door and the door frame or between the door frame and the

glazing and should be sufficiently non-compressible to ensure an unimpeded flow of air.

The second sampling line [tubing, between the sampling point (probe) in the whole vehicle test chamber

in the vicinity of the test vehicle (see 6.1 b)) and the manifold and to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH

cartridges, respectively is identical to that described in the preceding, but no heating is necessary. This

second sampling line is needed to monitor the background analyte concentration of the whole vehicle

test chamber.
4.4 Analytical equipment and materials

The analytical equipment used for the determination of VOCs and carbonyl compounds or formaldehyde

alone shall be in accordance with ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) or ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds),

respectively.

It shall be proven for the VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges that there is no breakthrough.

This can be identified by a back-up sorbent tube which is analysed separately (see ISO 16017-1).

4.5 Test vehicle

A new vehicle (i.e. minimum mileage after vehicle manufacture and within 28 d ± 5 d after the

completion of manufacture) to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production

process. The preferred colour of the test vehicles for the determination of the official VOC and carbonyl

compound emissions is black or a dark colour.
All manual glazing shades shall remain open.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions preventing direct solar heating,

otherwise the vehicle shall be conditioned after arrival overnight with open doors and windows before

it is transferred into the whole vehicle test chamber. No transport waxes for protection should be used.

All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be removed carefully before the test. The test vehicle shall

not be cleaned (inside) for at least 24 h before starting the measurements.

The method specified in this document can also be employed for used vehicles. In this case, it is possible

that the measurement results are not identical to those obtained on a new test vehicle due to different

usage.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
5 Principle

A whole vehicle test chamber (see Annex A) reserved for this purpose is assembled. The air in the test

vehicle cabin is measured according to a uniform standardized programme (see Figure 1). Sampling of

VOCs and carbonyl compounds is performed for the ambient mode at 23 °C. Subsequently, formaldehyde

is determined alone under elevated temperature conditions in the parking mode (see Figure 3).

Sunshine is simulated by the use of heating radiators providing fixed irradiation for 3,5 h, after which

a third sample is taken in the driving mode. The humidity and temperature of the air inside the whole

vehicle test chamber are measured.

The VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the driver breathing zone and collected

on VOC sorbent tubes and DNPH cartridges. Later the samples shall be analysed in the laboratory

according to ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16000-3, respectively.

Furthermore, VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the whole vehicle test chamber

to determine background concentrations. Altogether, a total of eight VOC and 12 carbonyl compound

samples are required: two duplicate room temperature samplings (ambient mode) and two duplicate

elevated temperature samplings (driving mode), and the same duplicate background samples in the

whole test chamber in each of the modes as well as the two formaldehyde measurements under the

elevated temperature conditions (parking mode).

The analytical part of the overall measurement procedure is based on the use of sorbent tubes with

subsequent thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis for VOCs (according to ISO 16000-6)

and the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges for the determination of carbonyl

compounds (according to ISO 16000-3).
6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and
measurement procedures
6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber

The whole vehicle test chamber with the following requirements is assembled as shown in Figure 1.

The following requirements shall be met:

a) The whole vehicle test chamber shall be large enough to accommodate the complete test vehicle.

b) The whole vehicle test chamber shall be capable of maintaining a temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C. A

heating and ventilation system (including the adjustment of the humidity) and, if necessary, a

cooling system is necessary. The sampling point for the background concentrations in the whole

test chamber shall be more than 1 m from the side of the test vehicle passenger seat door for trucks

or passenger entrance door closer to the front for buses and at the height of 1m from the chamber

floor.

NOTE An air filter system can be used to keep the whole vehicle test chamber clean.

c) The temperature profile shall be in accordance with Figure 3.

d) Relative humidity (RH) during the ambient mode in the whole vehicle test chamber shall be

50 % RH ± 10 % RH.

e) Relative humidity RH during the parking and driving mode in the whole vehicle test chamber shall

be documented.

f) The maximum background concentration for each analyte shall not exceed 20 µg/m for each

single component and 200 µg/m for TVOCs or a maximum of 10 % of the respective measured

values (whichever is greater). If this is not met, the source of the contamination shall be identified

and removed or covered to exclude it from the test.

g) Two duplicate VOCs and tow duplicate carbonyl background samples (one during parking mode

and one during driving mode) as well as one duplicate formaldehyde background sample (parking

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)

mode) are required. The VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges for the VOC and carbonyl

compound sampling in the test vehicle as well as the pumps and the other sampling devices are

positioned in the whole vehicle test chamber. The air exchange rate of the whole vehicle test

chamber during the driving mode should be a minimum of twice per hour.

h) The heating radiators are fixed above the test vehicle overlapping the footprint of the cabin of the

test vehicle. The heating radiators used shall be powered to maintain a temperature of 40 °C ± 2 °C

for trucks and 35 °C ± 2 °C for buses.

i) Various measuring instruments and data recording for continuous recording of signals measured

(e.g. for temperature and humidity measurements).
j) Door for the entry and exit of the test vehicle.

k) A hydrocarbon air warning system should be installed (option) to avoid explosive workplace

atmospheres; workplace regulations shall be followed.

l) A pipe at the exhaust pipe liner of the test vehicle to remove the waste gas outdoors.

Key
1 irradiation lamp 4 sorbent tube
2 about the level of driver's nose 5 pump
3 sampling line 6 exhaust duct
Figure 1 — Overview of test chamber

Care shall be taken to ensure that the sampling train components remain at or near ambient temperature

and are protected from the direct effects of the heating radiators of the whole vehicle test chamber.

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle

a) A new vehicle to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production process. The

test data depends on the trim level of the selected test vehicle. A detailed specification of the trim

level of the test vehicle shall be included in the test report. Any deviation from that specified for the

6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)

ideal situation shall be noted and the effect of any deviation from the test results shall be explained

and reported.

NOTE Trim level denotes the version of a vehicle model and the combination of features it is required

with. Higher trim levels come with more features while an entry-level trim comes with less features.

b) The test for a new test vehicle shall be carried out within 28 d ± 5 d after completion of assembly.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions with no direct heating such as in

the shadow or sales rooms which are described in 3.5. All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be

removed carefully. In cases where a vehicle cannot be transported it may have to be driven to the

test chamber. If this is the case all relevant data shall be reported (mileage, temperatures, etc.).

c) The sensors and cables for the temperature measurements shall be installed at the driver’s nose

position.
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-10
First edition
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 10:
Whole vehicle test chamber —
Specification and methods for the
determination of volatile organic
compounds in cabin interiors —
Trucks and buses
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/TC
22 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Heating radiator ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Sampling trains ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle .................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber ........................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Sampling line ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analytical equipment and materials .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Test vehicle ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and measurement

procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber .................................................................................................. 5

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Requirements for VOC and carbonyl compound air sampling and measurement methods 7

6.4 Field blank measurement .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Pre-arrangements and preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber and the

vehicle performing field blanks ................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Pre-arrangements ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber .......................................................................... 9

7.2.3 Preconditioning of the test vehicle ................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.4 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Detailed description of the test procedure ..................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Ambient mode .................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Parking mode ...................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Driving mode ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Calculation, presentation of results, and precision and uncertainty .........................................................12

9 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Whole vehicle test chamber and the ambient mode chamber condition ......13

Annex B (informative) VOC concentration distribution in the bus cabin ....................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Temperature measuring poinst for parking mode ................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Very volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds and

semi-volatile organic compounds ...................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Indoor air.
A list of all parts in the ISO 12219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and can be emitted by many every-day

products and materials. They have attracted much attention in recent years because of their impact

on cabin air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is

important to determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable

level. Therefore, it is important to get comprehensive and reliable information about the types of

organic compounds in the interior air of vehicles and also their concentrations.

This document outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs in vehicle cabin air under

controlled conditions. It describes requirements for a whole vehicle test chamber and a test protocol.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 10:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and methods
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors — Trucks and buses
1 Scope

This document describes and specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling

assembly and the operating conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs;

for more information see Annex E), and carbonyl compounds in vehicle cabin air. There are three

measurements performed: one (for VOCs and carbonyl compounds) during the simulation of ambient

conditions (ambient mode) at standard conditions of 23 °C with no air exchange; a second only for

the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated temperatures (parking mode); and a third for VOCs

and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after the vehicle has been parked in the sun starting at

elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the simulation of the mean sun irradiation, fixed irradiation

in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed.

The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range

of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles

described in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed.

®1)

Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA sorbent

tubes described in ISO 16000-6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16.

The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed

by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent

analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption.

Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration

3 3
range 1 μg/m to 1 mg/m .

This method applicable to trucks and buses, as defined in ISO 3833:1977 3.1.1 to 3.1.6.

This document describes:
a) Transport and storage of the test vehicle until the start of the test;

b) Conditioning of the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole

vehicle test chamber;
c) Conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements;
d) Simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode);
e) Formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode);

f) Simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode).

1) Tenax TA is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products

may be used if thex can be shown to lead to the same results.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
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ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-1, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method

for the determination of volatile organic compounds

ISO 16000-3, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor

air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6, Indoor Air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test

chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using

MS or MS-FID
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background concentration

analyte concentration in the whole vehicle test chamber, when the vehicle is inside

3.2
test vehicle
new vehicle to be tested

Note 1 to entry: The test vehicle used can be of any type specified in ISO 3833:1977, 3.1.2 to 3.1.6

Note 2 to entry: See also 3.5
3.3
total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)

sum of volatile organic compounds sampled on Tenax TA and eluting between and including n-hexane

and n-hexadecande, detected with a flame ionization detector (TVOC ) or mass spectrometric

FID

detector (TVOC ) and quantified converting the total area of the chromatogram in that analytical

window to toluene equivalents
3.4
carbonyl compound

compound containing the functional group -C(=O)- determined according to ISO 16000-3

3.5
ambient mode

mode in which sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in the cabin of a test vehicle under

standardized ambient temperature conditions is performed, defined as 23 °C

Note 1 to entry: Engine off, radiators off, trucks and buses sampling time 30 min.

2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
3.6
parking mode

mode in which sampling of formaldehyde in the cabin of a test vehicle under standardized elevated

temperature conditions is performed

Note 1 to entry: Engine off, radiators on, trucks and buses sampling time 30 min.

3.7
driving mode

mode in which sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in the cabin of a test vehicle (3.2) under

standardized conditions starting at elevated temperatures is performed, simulating a vehicle driven

after being parked in the sun

Note 1 to entry: Engine on, radiators on, air conditioning on, trucks sampling time 30 min, buses sampling time

120 min.
3.8
sampling train

apparatus to collect the sample gas inside the test vehicle (3.2) cabin (indoor) and the whole vehicle test

chamber, trapping the VOCs and carbonyl compounds on sorbent tubes under standardized conditions

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 16000-3 for formaldehyde and ISO 16000-6 the VOCs.
3.9
field blank

air quality sample taken in an identical manner as the real sample, but without sucking air through the

sampling apparatus

[SOURCE: ISO 16000-16; 3.7, modified – Note to entry has been deleted since it does not apply to this

document.]
4 Apparatus and materials
4.1 General

The whole vehicle test chamber is big enough to house the test vehicle completely. An air conditioning

system is installed to allow standardized air conditions for a temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C, humidity

of 50 % RH ± 10 % RH. A solar radiator system is installed to heat the test vehicle cabin to a defined

temperature (see also Figure 1).
4.2 Heating radiator

Infrared radiator, halogen radiator or other radiators (simulating sunlight). The heating radiators used

shall be powered to maintain a temperature of 40°C ± 2 °C for trucks and 35°C ± 2 °C for buses.

Position the heating radiators on the roof. There shall be no heating radiators shining from the side.

Take care not to have too short a distance between radiator and surface in order to avoid hot spots.

4.3 Sampling trains
4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle

Four sampling trains are employed: two for the VOC measurements in parallel and two for the carbonyl

compound measurements in parallel in the test vehicle (to check the repeatability) (see ISO 16000-3 for

carbonyl compounds and ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16017-1 for VOCs).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
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ISO 12219-10:2021(E)

There is one sampling line with a manifold for the division of the sampling flow outside the test vehicle

(see 4.3.3). It consists of the probe, the sampling line (heated, if necessary), the sorbent tube for VOC or

the DNPH cartridge for carbonyl compound sampling respectively, the gas meters and the pumps.

All sampling trains shall be checked for leaks and shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa

for an average time of 10 s. For the leak check, the nozzle shall be plugged. Other equivalent leak checks

can be employed.
4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber

Four sampling trains are used to determine the background concentration in the whole vehicle test

chamber. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3.1, apart from the sampling line, which is much

shorter and not heated.

All sampling trains shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa for an average of 10 s. The

nozzle is plugged for the leak check. Other equivalent leak checks can be employed.

4.3.3 Sampling line

Tubing, between the sampling point (probe) inside the test vehicle, via the manifold outside the test

vehicle to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH cartridges respectively (see Figure 1).
The sampling line shall be constructed so as described in ISO 12219-1.

The tubing should be inserted between the door and the door frame or between the door frame and the

glazing and should be sufficiently non-compressible to ensure an unimpeded flow of air.

The second sampling line [tubing, between the sampling point (probe) in the whole vehicle test chamber

in the vicinity of the test vehicle (see 6.1 b)) and the manifold and to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH

cartridges, respectively is identical to that described in the preceding, but no heating is necessary. This

second sampling line is needed to monitor the background analyte concentration of the whole vehicle

test chamber.
4.4 Analytical equipment and materials

The analytical equipment used for the determination of VOCs and carbonyl compounds or formaldehyde

alone shall be in accordance with ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) or ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds),

respectively.

It shall be proven for the VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges that there is no breakthrough.

This can be identified by a back-up sorbent tube which is analysed separately (see ISO 16017-1).

4.5 Test vehicle

A new vehicle (i.e. minimum mileage after vehicle manufacture and within 28 d ± 5 d after the

completion of manufacture) to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production

process. The preferred colour of the test vehicles for the determination of the official VOC and carbonyl

compound emissions is black or a dark colour.
All manual glazing shades shall remain open.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions preventing direct solar heating,

otherwise the vehicle shall be conditioned after arrival overnight with open doors and windows before

it is transferred into the whole vehicle test chamber. No transport waxes for protection should be used.

All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be removed carefully before the test. The test vehicle shall

not be cleaned (inside) for at least 24 h before starting the measurements.

The method specified in this documentcan also be employed for used vehicles. In this case, it is

possible that the measurement results are not identical to those obtained on a new test vehicle due to

different usage.
4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12219-10:2021(E)
5 Principle

A whole vehicle test chamber (see Annex A) reserved for this purpose is assembled. The air in the test

vehicle cabin is measured according to a uniform standardized programme (see Figure 1). Sampling of

VOCs and carbonyl compounds is performed for the ambient mode at 23 °C. Subsequently, formaldehyde

is determined alone under elevated temperature conditions in the parking mode (see Figure 3).

Sunshine is simulated by the use of heating radiators providing fixed irradiation for 3,5 h, after which

a third sample is taken in the driving mode. The humidity and temperature of the air inside the whole

vehicle test chamber are measured.

The VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the driver breathing zone and collected

on VOC sorbent tubes and DNPH cartridges. Later the samples shall be analysed in the laboratory

according to ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16000-3, respectively.

Furthermore, VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the whole vehicle test chamber

to determine background concentrations. Altogether, a total of eight VOC and 12 carbonyl compound

samples are required: two duplicate room temperature samplings (ambient mode) and two duplicate

elevated temperature samplings (driving mode), and the same duplicate background samples in the

whole test chamber in each of the modes as well as the two formaldehyde measurements under the

elevated temperature conditions (parking mode).

The analytical part of the overall measurement procedure is based on the use of sorbent tubes with

subsequent thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis for VOCs (according to ISO 16000-6)

and the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges for the determination of carbonyl

compounds (according to ISO 16000-3).
6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and
measurement procedures
6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber

The whole vehicle test chamber with the following requirements is assembled as shown in Figure 1.

The following requirements shall be met:

a) The whole vehicle test chamber shall be large enough to accommodate the complete test vehicle.

b) The whole vehicle test chamber shall be capable of maintaining a temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C. A

heating and ventilation system (including the adjustment of the humidity) and, if necessary, a

cooling system is necessary. The sampling point for the background concentrations in the whole test

chamber shall be more than 1 m from the side of the test vehicle passanger seat door for trucks or

passanger entrance soor closer to the front for buses and at the height of 1m from the chamber floor.

NOTE An air filter system can be used to keep the whole vehicle test chamber clean.

c) The temperature profile shall be in accordance with Figure 3.

d) Relative humidity (RH) during the ambient mode in the whole vehicle test chamber shall be

50 % RH ± 10 % RH.

e) Relative humidity RH during the parking and driving mode in the whole vehicle test chamber shall

be documented.

f) The maximum background concentration for each analyte shall not exceet 20 µg/m for each single

component and 200 µg/m for TVOCs or a maximum of 10 % of the respective measured values

(whichever is greater). If this is not met, the source of the contamination shall be identified and

removed or covered to exclude it from the test.

g) Two duplicate VOCs and tow duplicate carbonyl background samples (one during parking mode

and one during driving mode) as well as one duplicate formaldehyde background sample (parking

mode) are required. The VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges for the VOC and carbonyl

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 5
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ISO 12219-10:2021(E)

compound sampling in the test vehicle as well as the pumps and the other sampling devices are

positioned in the whole vehicle test chamber. The air exchange rate of the whole vehicle test

chamber during the driving mode should be a minimum of twice per hour.

h) The heating radiators are fixed above the test vehicle overlapping the footprint of the cabin of the

test vehicle. The heating radiators used shall be powered to maintain a temperature of 40 °C ± 2 °C

for trucks and 35 °C ± 2 °C for buses.

i) Various measuring instruments and data recording for continouous recording of signals measured

(e.g. for temperature and humidity measurements).
j) Door for the entry and exit of the test vehicle.

k) A hydrocarbon air warning system should be installed (option) to avoid explosive workplace

atmospheres; workpace regulations shall be followed.

l) A pipe ad the exhaust pipe liner of the test vehile to remove the waste gas outdoors.

Key
1 irradiation lamp 4 sorbent tube
2 about the level of dirver's nose 5 pump
3 sampling line 6 exhaust duct
Figure 1 — Overview of test chamber

Care shall be taken to ensure that the sampling train components remain at or near ambient temperature

and are protected from the direct effects of the heating radiators of the whole vehicle test chamber.

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle

a) A new vehicle to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production process. The

test data depends on the trim level of the selected test vehicle. A detailed specification of the trim

level of the test vehicle shall be included in the test report. Any deviation from that specified for the

ideal situation shall be noted and the effect of any deviation from the test results shall be explained

and reported.
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ISO 12219-10:2021(E)

NOTE Trim level denotes the version of a vehicle model and the combination of features it is required

with. Higher trim levels come with more features while an entry-level trim comes with less features.

b) The test for a new test vehicle shall be carried out within 28 d ± 5 d after completion of assembly.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions with no direct heating such as in

the shadow or sales rooms which are described in 3.5. All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be

removed carefully. In cases where a
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
01-februar-2021
Notranji zrak v cestnih vozilih - 10. del: Preskusna komora za celotno vozilo -
Specifikacija in metode za določevanje hlapnih organskih spojin v notranjosti
kabine - Tovornjaki in avtobusi

Interior air of road vehicles - Part 10: Whole vehicle test chamber - Specification and

methods for the determination of volatile organic compounds in cabin interiors - Trucks

and buses
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 12219-10
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12219-10
ISO/TC 146/SC 6 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-08-20 2020-11-12
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 10:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and methods
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors — Trucks and buses
ICS: 13.040.20; 43.020
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/TC
22 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12219-10:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-10:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-10:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Heating radiator ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Sampling trains ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle .................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber ........................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Sampling line ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analytical equipment and materials .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Test vehicle ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and measurement

procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber .................................................................................................. 5

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Requirements for VOC and carbonyl compound air sampling and measurement methods 7

6.4 Field blank measurement .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Pre-arrangements and preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber and the

vehicle performing field blanks ................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Pre-arrangements ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber .......................................................................... 9

7.2.3 Preconditioning of the test vehicle ................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.4 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Detailed description of the test procedure ..................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Ambient mode .................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Parking mode ...................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Driving mode ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Calculation, presentation of results, and precision and uncertainty .........................................................12

9 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Whole vehicle test chamber ..........................................................................................................................13

Annex B (informative) VOC concentration distribution in the bus cabin ....................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Temperature measuring poinst for parking mode ................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Very volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds and

semi-volatile organic compounds ...................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-10:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Indoor air.
A list of all parts in the ISO 12219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-10:2020(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and can be emitted by many every-day

products and materials. They have attracted much attention in recent years because of their impact

on cabin air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is

important to determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable

level. Therefore, it is important to get comprehensive and reliable information about the types of

organic compounds in the interior air of vehicles and also their concentrations.

This part of ISO 12219 outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs in vehicle cabin

air under controlled conditions. It describes requirements for a whole vehicle test chamber and a test

protocol.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-10:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12219-10:2020(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 10:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and methods
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors — Trucks and buses
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12219 describes and specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling

assembly and the operating conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),

and carbonyl compounds in vehicle cabin air. There are three measurements performed: one (for VOCs

and carbonyl compounds) during the simulation of ambient conditions (ambient mode) at standard

conditions of 23 °C with no air exchange; a second only for the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated

temperatures (parking mode); and a third for VOCs and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after

the vehicle has been parked in the sun starting at elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the

simulation of the mean sun irradiation, fixed irradiation in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed.

The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range

of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles

described in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed.

®1)

Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA sorbent

tubes described in ISO 16000-6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16.

The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed

by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent

analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption.

Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration

3 3
range 1 μg/m to 1 mg/m .
This method is valid for trucks and buses, as defined in ISO 3833 3.1.1 – 3.1.6.
This part of ISO 12219 describes:
a) Transport and storage of the test vehicle until the start of the test;

b) Conditioning of the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole

vehicle test chamber;
c) Conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements;
d) Simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode);
e) Formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode);

f) Simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode).

1) Tenax TA is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products

may be used if thex can be shown to lead to the same results.
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2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-1, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method

for the determination of volatile organic compounds

ISO 16000-3, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor

air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6, Indoor Air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test

chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using

MS or MS-FID
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background concentration

analyte concentration in the whole vehicle test chamber, when the vehicle is inside

3.2
test vehicle
new vehicle to be tested

Note 1 to entry: The test vehicle used can be of any type specified in ISO 3833, 3.1.2–3.1.6

Note 2 to entry: See also 3.5
3.3
total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)

sum of volatile organic compounds sampled on Tenax TA and eluting between and including n-hexane

and n-hexadecande, detected with a flame ionization detector (TVOC ) or mass spectrometric

FID

detector (TVOC ) and quantified converting the total area of the chromatogram in that analytical

window to toluene equivalents.
[SOURCE: Adapted from ISO 16000-6]
3.4
carbonyl compound

compound containing the functional group -C(=O)- determined according the ISO 1600-3

3.5
ambient mode

mode in which sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in the cabin of a test vehicle under

standardized ambient temperature conditions is performed, defined as 23 °C

Note 1 to entry: Note to entry: Engine off, radiators off, trucks and buses sampling time 30 min

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3.6
parking mode

mode in which sampling of formaldehyde in the cabin of a test vehicle under standardized elevated

temperature conditions is performed

Note 1 to entry: Note to entry: Engine off, radiators on, trucks and buses sampling time 30 min

3.7
driving mode

mode in which sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in the cabin of a test vehicle under

standardized conditions starting at elevated temperatures is performed, simulating a vehicle driven

after being parked in the sun

Note 1 to entry: Note to entry: Engine on, radiators on, air conditioning on, trucks sampling time 30 min, buses

sampling time 120 min
3.8
sampling train

apparatus to collect the sample gas inside the test vehicle cabin (indoor) and the whole vehicle test

chamber, trapping the VOCs and carbonyl compounds on sorbent tubes under standardized conditions

Note 1 to entry: Note to entry: See ISO 16000-3 for formaldehyde and ISO 16000-6 the VOCs

3.9
field blank

Air quality sample taken in an identical manner as the real sample, but without sucking air through the

sampling apparatus (adapted from ISO 160000-16; 3.7)
4 Apparatus and materials
4.1 General

The whole vehicle test chamber is big enough to house the test vehicle completely. An air conditioning

system is installed to allow standardized air conditions for a temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C, humidity

of 50 % RH ± 10 % RH. A solar radiator system is installed to heat the test vehicle cabin to a defined

temperature (see also Figure 1).
4.2 Heating radiator

Infrared radiator, halogen radiator or other radiators (simulating sunlight). The heating radiators used

shall be powered to maintain a temperature of 40°C ± 2 °C for trucks and 35°C ± 2 °C for buses.

Position the heating radiators on the roof. There shall be no heating radiators shining from the side.

Take care not to have too short a distance between radiator and surface in order to avoid hot spots.

4.3 Sampling trains
4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle

Four sampling trains are employed: two for the VOC measurements in parallel and two for the carbonyl

compound measurements in parallel in the test vehicle (to check the repeatability) (see ISO 16000-3 for

carbonyl compounds and ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16017-1 for VOCs).

There is one sampling line with a manifold for the division of the sampling flow outside the test vehicle

(see 4.3.3). It consists of the probe, the sampling line (heated, if necessary), the sorbent tube for VOC or

the DNPH cartridge for carbonyl compound sampling respectively, the gas meters and the pumps.

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All sampling trains shall be checked for leaks and shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa

for an average time of 10 s. For the leak check, the nozzle shall be plugged. Other equivalent leak checks

can be employed.
4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber

Four sampling trains are used to determine the background concentration in the whole vehicle test

chamber. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3.1, apart from the sampling line, which is much

shorter and not heated.

All sampling trains shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa for an average of 10 s. The

nozzle is plugged for the leak check. Other equivalent leak checks can be employed.

4.3.3 Sampling line

Tubing, between the sampling point (probe) inside the test vehicle, via the manifold outside the test

vehicle to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH cartridges respectively (see Figure 1).
The sampling line shall be constructed so as described in ISO 12219-1.

The tubing should be inserted between the door and the door frame or between the door frame and the

glazing and should be sufficiently non-compressible to ensure an unimpeded flow of air.

The second sampling line [tubing, between the sampling point (probe) in the whole vehicle test chamber

in the vicinity of the test vehicle (see 6.1 b)) and the manifold and to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH

cartridges, respectively is identical to that described in the preceding, but no heating is necessary. This

second sampling line is needed to monitor the background analyte concentration of the whole vehicle

test chamber.
4.4 Analytical equipment and materials

The analytical equipment used for the determination of VOCs and carbonyl compounds or formaldehyde

alone shall be in accordance with ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) or ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds),

respectively.

It shall be proven for the VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges that there is no breakthrough.

This can be identified by a back-up sorbent tube which is analysed separately (see ISO 16017-1).

4.5 Test vehicle

A new vehicle (i.e. minimum mileage after vehicle manufacture and within 28 d ± 5 d after the

completion of manufacture) to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production

process. The preferred colour of the test vehicles for the determination of the official VOC and carbonyl

compound emissions is black or a dark colour.-
All manual glazing shades shall remain open.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions preventing direct solar heating,

otherwise the vehicle shall be conditioned after arrival overnight with open doors and windows before

it is transferred into the whole vehicle test chamber. No transport waxes for protection should be used.

All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be removed carefully before the test. The test vehicle shall

not be cleaned (inside) for at least 24 h before starting the measurements.

The method specified in this part of ISO 12219 can also be employed for used vehicles. In this case, it is

possible that the measurement results are not identical to those obtained on a new test vehicle due to

different usage.
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5 Principle

A whole vehicle test chamber (see Annex A) reserved for this purpose is assembled. The air in the test

vehicle cabin is measured according to a uniform standardized programme (see Figure 1). Sampling of

VOCs and carbonyl compounds is performed for the ambient mode at 23 °C. Subsequently, formaldehyde

is determined alone under elevated temperature conditions in the parking mode (see Figure 3).

Sunshine is simulated by the use of heating radiators providing fixed irradiation for 3,5 h, after which

a third sample is taken in the driving mode. The humidity and temperature of the air inside the whole

vehicle test chamber are measured.

The VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the driver breathing zone and collected

on VOC sorbent tubes and DNPH cartridges. Later the samples shall be analysed in the laboratory

according to ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16000-3, respectively.

Furthermore, VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the whole vehicle test chamber

to determine background concentrations. Altogether, a total of eight VOC and 12 carbonyl compound

samples are required: two duplicate room temperature samplings (ambient mode) and two duplicate

elevated temperature samplings (driving mode), and the same duplicate background samples in the

whole test chamber in each of the modes as well as the two formaldehyde measurements under the

elevated temperature conditions (parking mode).

The analytical part of the overall measurement procedure is based on the use of sorbent tubes with

subsequent thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis for VOCs (according to ISO 16000-6)

and the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges for the determination of carbonyl

compounds (according to ISO 16000-3).
6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and
measurement procedures
6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber

The whole vehicle test chamber with the following requirements is assembled as shown in Figure 1.

The following requirements shall be met:

a) The whole vehicle test chamber shall be large enough to accommodate the complete test vehicle.

b) The whole vehicle test chamber shall be capable of maintaining a temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C. A

heating and ventilation system (including the adjustment of the humidity) and, if necessary, a

cooling system is necessary. The sampling point for the background concentrations in the whole

test chamber shall be more than 1 m from the side of the test vehicle passaenger seat door for

trucks or passagner entrance soor closer to the front for buses and at the heightof 1m from the

chamber floor.

NOTE An air filter system can be used to keep the whole vehicle test chamber clean.

c) The temperature profile shall be in accordance with Figure 3.

d) Relative humidity (RH) during the ambient mode in the whole vehicle test chamber shall be 50 %

RH ± 10 % RH.

e) Relative humidity RH during the parking and driving mode in the whole vehicle test chamber shall

be documented.

f) The maximum background concentration for each analyte shall not exceet 20 µg/m for each single

component and 200 µg/m for TVOCs or a maximum of 10 % of the respective measured values

(whichever is greater). If this is not met, the source of the contamination shall be identified and

removed or covered to exclude it from the test.

g) Two duplicate VOCs and tow duplicate carbonyl background samples (one during parking mode

and one during driving mode) as well as one duplicate formaldehyde background sample (parking

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mode) are required. The VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges for the VOC and carbonyl

compound sampling in the test vehicle as well as the pumps and the other sampling devices are

positioned in the whole vehicle test chamber. The air exchange rate of the whole vehicle test

chamber during the driving mode should be a minimum of twice per hour.
h) The heating ra
...

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