Information technology — MPEG systems technologies — Part 12: Image File Format

This document specifies the Image File Format, an interoperable storage format for a single image, a collection of images, and sequences of images. The format defined in this document is built on tools defined in ISO/IEC 14496-12 and enables the interchange, editing, and display of images, as well as the carriage of metadata associated with those images. The Image File Format defines structures used to contain metadata, how to link that metadata to the images, and defines how metadata of certain forms is carried. This document also specifies brands for the storage of images and image sequences conforming to High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), Advanced Video Coding (AVC), JPEG, Versatile Video Coding (VVC) and Essential Video Coding (EVC). NOTE The storage of HEVC, AVC, VVC and EVC video sequences is out of scope and is provided in ISO/IEC 14496‑15.

Technologies de l'information — Technologies des systèmes MPEG — Partie 12: Format de fichier d'image

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Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Sep-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
23-Jan-2023
Completion Date
29-Sep-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23008-12
Second edition
2022-09
Information technology — MPEG
systems technologies —
Part 12:
Image File Format
Technologies de l'information — Technologies des systèmes MPEG —
Partie 12: Format de fichier d'image
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... vi

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General requirements on files .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 General requirements on readers.......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Multi-purpose files .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Other boxes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Single image and image collection ....................................................................................................................................................7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Derivation from the ISO base media file format ....................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Derivation of an output image of an image item ...................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Roles of images ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4.2 Hidden images ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.3 Cover image ........................................................................................................................................... .................................. 9

6.4.4 Thumbnail images ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4.5 Auxiliary images ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4.6 Master images ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.7 Pre-derived coded images ......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.8 Multi-layer images ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.4.9 Predictively coded image items ......................................................................................................................... 10

6.5 Image properties ............................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5.2 Decoder configuration and initialization .................................................................................................. 11

6.5.3 Image spatial extents .................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.5.4 Pixel aspect ratio .............................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.5 Colour information ........................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.6 Pixel information ............................................................................................................................................................13

6.5.7 Relative location .............................................................................................................................................................. 14

6.5.8 Image properties for auxiliary images ........................................................................................................ 14

6.5.9 Clean aperture ................................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.5.10 Image rotation ................................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.5.11 Layer selection .................................................................................................................................................................. 16

6.5.12 Image mirroring .............................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.5.13 Image scaling ...................................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.5.14 Content light level ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.5.15 Mastering display colour volume ..................................................................................................................... 19

6.5.16 Content colour volume ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.5.17 Required reference types ........................................................................................................................................ 19

6.5.18 Creation time information ...................................................................................................................................... 20

6.5.19 Modification time information ........................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.20 User description ............................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.21 Accessibility text .............................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.22 Auto Exposure Information ................................................................................................................................... 22

6.5.23 White balance information .................................................................................................................................... 23

6.5.24 Focus information .......................................................................................................................................................... 24

iii
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)

6.5.25 Flash exposure information .................................................................................................................................. 24

6.5.26 Depth of field information ...................................................................................................................................... 25

6.5.27 Panorama information ...............................................................................................................................................25

6.5.28 Sub-sample information ........................................................................................................................................... 26

6.5.29 Target output layer set ............................................................................................................................................... 27

6.5.30 Wipe transition effect ................................................................................................................................................. 27

6.5.31 Zoom transition effect ................................................................................................................................................29

6.5.32 Fade transition effect ..................................................................................................................................................30

6.5.33 Split transition effect ...................................................................................................................................................30

6.5.34 Suggested transition period .................................................................................................................................. 32

6.5.35 Suggested time display duration ...................................................................................................................... 32

6.5.36 Ambient viewing environment ........................................................................................................................... 33

6.6 Derived images and derived image items.................................................................................................................... 33

6.6.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

6.6.2 Derived image types and derived image item types .......................................................................34

6.7 Image metadata .................................................................................................................................................................................. 36

6.8 Entity and sample groups ..........................................................................................................................................................36

6.8.1 Relating an untimed item to a timed sequence ....................................................................................36

6.8.2 Burst images ....................................................................................................................................................................... 37

6.8.3 'tsyn' entity group ......................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.4 'iaug' entity group ......................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.5 'ster' entity grouping .............................................................................................................................................. 39

6.8.6 Bracketed sets/logically group of images at capture-time .......................................................39

6.8.7 User-defined image collections .......................................................................................................................... 43

6.8.8 Panorama ............................................................................................................................................................................... 43

6.8.9 Slideshow ...............................................................................................................................................................................44

6.9 Auxiliary image item types and sample formats .................................................................................................. 45

6.9.1 CICP-compliant alpha plane ................................................................................................................................... 45

6.9.2 CICP-compliant depth map .....................................................................................................................................46

6.10 Region items and region annotations .............................................................................................................................46

6.10.1 Region item...........................................................................................................................................................................46

6.10.2 Mask item ...............................................................................................................................................................................50

6.10.3 Region annotation .......................................................................................................................................................... 51

6.11 Derived region items ...................................................................................................................................................................... 52

6.11.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 52

6.11.2 Derived region item types ...................................................................................................................................... 52

7 Image sequences ...............................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.2 Derivation from the ISO base media file format .................................................................................................... 53

7.2.1 Track Header box ............................................................................................................................................................ 53

7.2.2 Handler type .......................................................................................................................................................................53

7.2.3 Coding Constraints box .............................................................................................................................................54

7.3 Presentation of an image sequence track ....................................................................................................................54

7.4 Sample groups ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 55

7.4.1 Direct reference samples list ................................................................................................................................ 55

7.5 Other tracks ...........................................................................................................................................................................................56

7.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................56

7.5.2 Thumbnail image sequence track ....................................................................................................................56

7.5.3 Auxiliary image sequence track......................................................................................................................... 57

8 Metadata support .............................................................................................................................................................................................57

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 57

8.2 Metadata for image items ..........................................................................................................................................................58

8.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................58

8.2.2 Deductive information ...............................................................................................................................................58

8.3 Metadata for image sequence tracks ...............................................................................................................................58

8.4 Integrity checks .................................................................................................................................................................................. 59

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 59

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)

8.4.2 Syntax ........................................................................................................................................... ............................................. 59

8.4.3 Semantics ...............................................................................................................................................................................60

9 Extensions to the ISO base media file format.....................................................................................................................60

10 Image File Format brands .......................................................................................................................................................................60

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................60

10.2 Image and image collection brands ..................................................................................................................................60

10.2.1 General requirements on brands ......................................................................................................................60

10.2.2 'mif1' structural brand .............................................................................................................................................. 61

10.2.3 'mif2' structural brand ..............................................................................................................................................63

10.2.4 'pred' brand ..........................................................................................................................................................................63

10.2.5 '1pic' brand ...........................................................................................................................................................................64

10.3 Image sequence brands................................................................................................................................................................64

10.3.1 'msf1' structural brand..............................................................................................................................................64

Annex A (normative) Storage of externally specified metadata .........................................................................................66

Annex B (normative) HEVC Image File Format ......................................................................................................................................68

Annex C (normative) High efficiency image file MIME type registration..................................................................79

Annex D (normative) High efficiency image sequence file MIME type registration ......................................82

Annex E (normative) AVC in the Image File Format ..........................................................................................................................84

Annex F (normative) Advanced coding image MIME type registration ......................................................................88

Annex G (normative) Advanced coding sequence MIME type registration .............................................................90

Annex H (normative) JPEG in the Image File Format .......................................................................................................................92

Annex I (informative) Guidelines for specifying storage of image coding formats ........................................95

Annex J (informative) Examples of image collections ....................................................................................................................96

Annex K (informative) Guidelines for progressive refinement ....................................................................................... 100

Annex L (normative) VVC Image File Format ....................................................................................................................................... 102

Annex M (normative) EVC Image File Format ..................................................................................................................................... 112

Annex N (informative) Privacy and security considerations ..............................................................................................117

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................119

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, SC 29,

Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 23008-12:2017), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendments ISO/IEC 23008-12:2017/Amd.1:2020,

ISO/IEC 23008-12:2017/DAmd.2:2019 and the Technical Corrigendum ISO/IEC 23008-12:2017/Cor.

1:2020.
The main changes are as follows:
— addition of Annexes L to N;

— support for predictive image coding, bursts, bracketing and region annotations.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23008 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-12:2022(E)
Introduction

The Image File Format is designed to enable the interchange of images and image sequences, as well as

their associated metadata. It forms part of a family of specifications that are box-structured, and is built

using tools defined in the ISO base media file format. This document specifies both structural brands

that can be used with any codec and brands specific to High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The file

format specified in this document is referred to as the High Efficiency Image File Format (HEIF). It is

suggested that HEIF be pronounced "heaff" (like heath with an
...

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 N
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 N
Date: 2021-09-292022-06-02
MPEG N20585
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12 2nd Edition
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 3
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 3
Secretariat: JISC
Information technology — MPEG systems technologies — Part 12: Image
File Format

Élément introductif — Élément central — Partie 12: Cryptage commun des fichiers de format de fichier ISO de base

pour les médias
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© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
Information technology — MPEG systems technologies — Part 12: Image File Format

Élément introductif — Élément central — Partie 12: Cryptage commun des fichiers de format de

fichier ISO de base pour les médias
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ISO/IEC FDIS 28002-12:2022(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a working draft or committee draft and is copyright-protected by ISO. While

the reproduction of working drafts or committee drafts in any form for use by participants in the

ISO standards development process is permitted without prior permission from ISO, neither this

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Requests for permission to reproduce this document for the purpose of selling it should be

addressed as shown below or to ISO's member body in the country of the requester:

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Reproduction for sales purposes may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.

Violators may be prosecuted.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
iii
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Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

4 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 General requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.1 General requirements on files .................................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 General requirements on readers ............................................................................................................................. 10

5.3 Multi-purpose files .......................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Other boxes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10

6 Single image and image collection ............................................................................................................................ 10

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

6.2 Derivation from the ISO base media file format .................................................................................................. 11

6.3 Derivation of an output image of an image item .................................................................................................. 11

6.4 Roles of images ................................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 12

6.4.2 Hidden images .................................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.4.3 Cover image ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.4.4 Thumbnail images ........................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.4.5 Auxiliary images .............................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.4.6 Master images ................................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.4.7 Pre-derived coded images ............................................................................................................................................ 13

6.4.8 Multi-layer images .......................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.4.9 Predictively coded image items ................................................................................................................................. 14

6.5 Image properties ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

6.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.5.2 Decoder configuration and initialization ............................................................................................................... 15

6.5.3 Image spatial extents ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.5.4 Pixel aspect ratio ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

6.5.5 Colour information ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.5.6 Pixel information ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

6.5.7 Relative location .............................................................................................................................................................. 19

6.5.8 Image properties for auxiliary images .................................................................................................................... 20

6.5.9 Clean aperture .................................................................................................................................................................. 20

6.5.10 Image rotation .................................................................................................................................................................. 21

6.5.11 Layer selection ................................................................................................................................................................. 22

6.5.12 Image mirroring ............................................................................................................................................................... 23

6.5.13 Image scaling ..................................................................................................................................................................... 23

6.5.14 Content light level ........................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.5.15 Mastering display colour volume .............................................................................................................................. 25

6.5.16 Content colour volume .................................................................................................................................................. 26

6.5.17 Required reference types ............................................................................................................................................. 26

6.5.18 Creation time information ........................................................................................................................................... 27

6.5.19 Modification time information ................................................................................................................................... 28

6.5.20 User description ............................................................................................................................................................... 28

6.5.21 Accessibility text .............................................................................................................................................................. 30

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ISO/IEC FDIS 28002-12:2022(E)

6.5.22 Auto Exposure Information ......................................................................................................................................... 31

6.5.23 White balance information .......................................................................................................................................... 32

6.5.24 Focus information ........................................................................................................................................................... 32

6.5.25 Flash exposure information ........................................................................................................................................ 33

6.5.26 Depth of field information ........................................................................................................................................... 34

6.5.27 Panorama information .................................................................................................................................................. 35

6.5.28 Sub-sample information ............................................................................................................................................... 36

6.5.29 Target output layer set .................................................................................................................................................. 37

6.5.30 Wipe transition effect .................................................................................................................................................... 38

6.5.31 Zoom transition effect ................................................................................................................................................... 40

6.5.32 Fade transition effect ..................................................................................................................................................... 42

6.5.33 Split transition effect ..................................................................................................................................................... 43

6.5.34 Suggested transition period ........................................................................................................................................ 45

6.5.35 Suggested time display duration ............................................................................................................................... 45

6.5.36 Ambient viewing environment .................................................................................................................................. 46

6.6 Derived images and derived image items .............................................................................................................. 47

6.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 47

6.6.2 Derived image types and derived image item types .......................................................................................... 47

6.7 Image metadata ............................................................................................................................................................... 51

6.8 Entity and sample groups ............................................................................................................................................. 51

6.8.1 Relating an untimed item to a timed sequence .................................................................................................... 51

6.8.2 Burst images ..................................................................................................................................................................... 53

6.8.3 'tsyn' entity group ...................................................................................................................................................... 53

6.8.4 'iaug' entity group ...................................................................................................................................................... 53

6.8.5 'ster' entity grouping ................................................................................................................................................ 54

6.8.6 Bracketed sets/logically group of images at capture-time .............................................................................. 55

6.8.7 User-defined image collections .................................................................................................................................. 60

6.8.8 Panorama ........................................................................................................................................................................... 60

6.8.9 Slideshow ........................................................................................................................................................................... 62

6.9 Auxiliary image item types and sample formats ................................................................................................. 62

6.9.1 CICP-compliant alpha plane ........................................................................................................................................ 62

6.9.2 CICP-compliant depth map .......................................................................................................................................... 64

6.10 Region items and region annotations ...................................................................................................................... 64

6.10.1 Region item ........................................................................................................................................................................ 64

6.10.2 Mask item ........................................................................................................................................................................... 71

6.10.3 Region annotation ........................................................................................................................................................... 72

6.11 Derived region items ..................................................................................................................................................... 73

6.11.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 73

6.11.2 Derived region item types............................................................................................................................................ 74

7 Image sequences.............................................................................................................................................................. 74

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 74

7.2 Derivation from the ISO base media file format .................................................................................................. 74

7.2.1 Track Header box ............................................................................................................................................................ 74

7.2.2 Handler type ..................................................................................................................................................................... 75

7.2.3 Coding Constraints box ................................................................................................................................................. 75

7.3 Presentation of an image sequence track .............................................................................................................. 76

7.4 Sample groups .................................................................................................................................................................. 77

7.4.1 Direct reference samples list ...................................................................................................................................... 77

7.5 Other tracks ....................................................................................................................................................................... 79

7.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 79

7.5.2 Thumbnail image sequence track ............................................................................................................................. 79

7.5.3 Auxiliary image sequence track................................................................................................................................. 80

8 Metadata support ............................................................................................................................................................ 81

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 81

8.2 Metadata for image items ............................................................................................................................................. 81

8.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 81

8.2.2 Deductive information .................................................................................................................................................. 81

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8.3 Metadata for image sequence tracks ........................................................................................................................ 82

8.4 Integrity checks ................................................................................................................................................................ 82

8.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 82

8.4.2 Syntax ................................................................................................................................................................................... 83

8.4.3 Semantics ............................................................................................................................................................................ 84

9 Extensions to the ISO base media file format ........................................................................................................ 85

10 Image File Format brands ............................................................................................................................................ 85

10.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 85

10.2 Image and image collection brands .......................................................................................................................... 85

10.2.1 General requirements on brands .............................................................................................................................. 85

10.2.2 'mif1' structural brand .................................................................................................................................................. 85

10.2.3 'mif2' structural brand .................................................................................................................................................. 88

10.2.4 'pred' brand ....................................................................................................................................................................... 89

10.2.5 '1pic' brand ........................................................................................................................................................................ 90

10.3 Image sequence brands ................................................................................................................................................. 90

10.3.1 'msf1' structural brand.................................................................................................................................................. 90

Annex A (normative) Storage of externally specified metadata ................................................................................... 92

A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 92

A.2 Exif ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 92

A.2.1 Untimed Exif metadata .................................................................................................................................................. 92

A.2.2 Exif metadata in tracks .................................................................................................................................................. 92

A.3 XMP metadata ................................................................................................................................................................... 93

A.4 MPEG-7 metadata ............................................................................................................................................................ 93

Annex B (normative) HEVC Image File Format ................................................................................................................... 94

B.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 94

B.2 HEVC images and image collections ......................................................................................................................... 94

B.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................ 94

B.2.2 Image data .......................................................................................................................................................................... 94

B.2.3 Image properties ............................................................................................................................................................. 96

B.2.4 HEVC auxiliary images ................................................................................................................................................... 98

B.2.5 HEVC tile Items ................................................................................................................................................................. 99

B.3 HEVC image sequences ............................................................................................................................................... 101

B.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 101

B.3.2 Derivation from ISO/IEC 14496-12 and ISO/IEC 14496-15 .......................................................................... 101

B.3.3 Auxiliary HEVC image sequence tracks ................................................................................................................ 101

B.4 HEVC-specific brands .................................................................................................................................................. 102

B.4.1 HEVC image and image collection brands ........................................................................................................... 102

B.4.2 HEVC image sequence brands .................................................................................................................................. 103

B.4.3 L-HEVC image and image collection brands ....................................................................................................... 105

B.4.4 L-HEVC image sequence brands .............................................................................................................................. 107

Annex C (normative) High efficiency image file MIME type registration ............................................................... 109

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 109

C.2 Registration .................................................................................................................................................................... 109

C.3 Examples (informative) ............................................................................................................................................. 112

Annex D (normative) High efficiency image sequence file MIME type registration ........................................... 114

D.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 114

D.2 Registration ............................................................................................................................................

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
23008-12
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29
Information technology — MPEG
Secretariat: JISC
systems technologies —
Voting begins on:
2022-07-01
Part 12:
Voting terminates on:
Image File Format
2022-08-26
Partie 12: Format de fichier d'image
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)
FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
23008-12
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29
Information technology — MPEG
Secretariat: JISC
systems technologies —
Voting begins on:
2022-07-01
Part 12:
Voting terminates on:
Image File Format
2022-08-26
Partie 12: Format de fichier d'image
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© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
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DOCUMENTATION.
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IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
Email: copyright@iso.org
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)
Website: www.iso.org
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
Published in Switzerland
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... vi

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General requirements on files .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 General requirements on readers.......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Multi-purpose files .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Other boxes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Single image and image collection ....................................................................................................................................................7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Derivation from the ISO base media file format ....................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Derivation of an output image of an image item ...................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Roles of images ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4.2 Hidden images ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.3 Cover image ........................................................................................................................................... .................................. 9

6.4.4 Thumbnail images ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4.5 Auxiliary images ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4.6 Master images ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.7 Pre-derived coded images ......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.8 Multi-layer images ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.4.9 Predictively coded image items ......................................................................................................................... 10

6.5 Image properties ............................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5.2 Decoder configuration and initialization .................................................................................................. 11

6.5.3 Image spatial extents .................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.5.4 Pixel aspect ratio .............................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.5 Colour information ........................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.6 Pixel information ............................................................................................................................................................13

6.5.7 Relative location .............................................................................................................................................................. 14

6.5.8 Image properties for auxiliary images ........................................................................................................ 14

6.5.9 Clean aperture ................................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.5.10 Image rotation ................................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.5.11 Layer selection .................................................................................................................................................................. 16

6.5.12 Image mirroring .............................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.5.13 Image scaling ...................................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.5.14 Content light level ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.5.15 Mastering display colour volume ..................................................................................................................... 19

6.5.16 Content colour volume ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.5.17 Required reference types ........................................................................................................................................ 19

6.5.18 Creation time information ...................................................................................................................................... 20

6.5.19 Modification time information ........................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.20 User description ............................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.21 Accessibility text .............................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.22 Auto Exposure Information ................................................................................................................................... 22

6.5.23 White balance information .................................................................................................................................... 23

6.5.24 Focus information .......................................................................................................................................................... 24

iii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)

6.5.25 Flash exposure information .................................................................................................................................. 24

6.5.26 Depth of field information ...................................................................................................................................... 25

6.5.27 Panorama information ...............................................................................................................................................25

6.5.28 Sub-sample information ........................................................................................................................................... 26

6.5.29 Target output layer set ............................................................................................................................................... 27

6.5.30 Wipe transition effect ................................................................................................................................................. 27

6.5.31 Zoom transition effect ................................................................................................................................................29

6.5.32 Fade transition effect ..................................................................................................................................................30

6.5.33 Split transition effect ...................................................................................................................................................30

6.5.34 Suggested transition period .................................................................................................................................. 32

6.5.35 Suggested time display duration ...................................................................................................................... 32

6.5.36 Ambient viewing environment ........................................................................................................................... 33

6.6 Derived images and derived image items.................................................................................................................... 33

6.6.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

6.6.2 Derived image types and derived image item types .......................................................................34

6.7 Image metadata .................................................................................................................................................................................. 36

6.8 Entity and sample groups ..........................................................................................................................................................36

6.8.1 Relating an untimed item to a timed sequence ....................................................................................36

6.8.2 Burst images ....................................................................................................................................................................... 37

6.8.3 'tsyn' entity group ......................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.4 'iaug' entity group ......................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.5 'ster' entity grouping .............................................................................................................................................. 39

6.8.6 Bracketed sets/logically group of images at capture-time .......................................................39

6.8.7 User-defined image collections .......................................................................................................................... 43

6.8.8 Panorama ............................................................................................................................................................................... 43

6.8.9 Slideshow ...............................................................................................................................................................................44

6.9 Auxiliary image item types and sample formats .................................................................................................. 45

6.9.1 CICP-compliant alpha plane ................................................................................................................................... 45

6.9.2 CICP-compliant depth map .....................................................................................................................................46

6.10 Region items and region annotations .............................................................................................................................46

6.10.1 Region item...........................................................................................................................................................................46

6.10.2 Mask item ...............................................................................................................................................................................50

6.10.3 Region annotation .......................................................................................................................................................... 51

6.11 Derived region items ...................................................................................................................................................................... 52

6.11.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 52

6.11.2 Derived region item types ...................................................................................................................................... 52

7 Image sequences ...............................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.2 Derivation from the ISO base media file format .................................................................................................... 53

7.2.1 Track Header box ............................................................................................................................................................ 53

7.2.2 Handler type .......................................................................................................................................................................53

7.2.3 Coding Constraints box .............................................................................................................................................54

7.3 Presentation of an image sequence track ....................................................................................................................54

7.4 Sample groups ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 55

7.4.1 Direct reference samples list ................................................................................................................................ 55

7.5 Other tracks ...........................................................................................................................................................................................56

7.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................56

7.5.2 Thumbnail image sequence track ....................................................................................................................56

7.5.3 Auxiliary image sequence track......................................................................................................................... 57

8 Metadata support .............................................................................................................................................................................................57

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 57

8.2 Metadata for image items ..........................................................................................................................................................58

8.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................58

8.2.2 Deductive information ...............................................................................................................................................58

8.3 Metadata for image sequence tracks ...............................................................................................................................58

8.4 Integrity checks .................................................................................................................................................................................. 59

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 59

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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)

8.4.2 Syntax ........................................................................................................................................... ............................................. 59

8.4.3 Semantics ...............................................................................................................................................................................60

9 Extensions to the ISO base media file format.....................................................................................................................60

10 Image File Format brands .......................................................................................................................................................................60

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................60

10.2 Image and image collection brands ..................................................................................................................................60

10.2.1 General requirements on brands ......................................................................................................................60

10.2.2 'mif1' structural brand .............................................................................................................................................. 61

10.2.3 'mif2' structural brand ..............................................................................................................................................63

10.2.4 'pred' brand ..........................................................................................................................................................................63

10.2.5 '1pic' brand ...........................................................................................................................................................................64

10.3 Image sequence brands................................................................................................................................................................64

10.3.1 'msf1' structural brand..............................................................................................................................................64

Annex A (normative) Storage of externally specified metadata .........................................................................................66

Annex B (normative) HEVC Image File Format ......................................................................................................................................68

Annex C (normative) High efficiency image file MIME type registration..................................................................79

Annex D (normative) High efficiency image sequence file MIME type registration ......................................82

Annex E (normative) AVC in the Image File Format ..........................................................................................................................84

Annex F (normative) Advanced coding image MIME type registration ......................................................................88

Annex G (normative) Advanced coding sequence MIME type registration .............................................................90

Annex H (normative) JPEG in the Image File Format .......................................................................................................................92

Annex I (informative) Guidelines for specifying storage of image coding formats ........................................95

Annex J (informative) Examples of image collections ....................................................................................................................96

Annex K (informative) Guidelines for progressive refinement ....................................................................................... 100

Annex L (normative) VVC Image File Format ....................................................................................................................................... 102

Annex M (normative) EVC Image File Format ..................................................................................................................................... 112

Annex N (informative) Privacy and security considerations ..............................................................................................117

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................119

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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-12:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of documents should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, SC 29,

Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 23008-12:2017), wh

...

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