Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification for electric propulsion components — Part 3: Performance testing of the motor and the inverter

This document specifies performance tests for the motor and the inverter designed as a voltage class B electric propulsion system for electrically propelled road vehicles.

Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique — Spécification d'essai pour les composants de propulsion électrique — Partie 3: Essais de performance du moteur et du variateur de vitesse

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Published
Publication Date
28-Aug-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Aug-2019
Completion Date
29-Aug-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21782-3
First edition
2019-08
Electrically propelled road vehicles —
Test specification for electric
propulsion components —
Part 3:
Performance testing of the motor and
the inverter
Reference number
ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5.1 Motor test .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5.1.1 Measurement of loss and efficiency ................................................................................................................ 1

5.1.2 Temperature rise test................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.3 Torque characteristic test ........................................................................................................................................ 5

5.1.4 Cogging torque test ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2 Inverter test ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 Measurement of loss, efficiency and conversion rate ...................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Temperature rise test................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Chopper test ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.1 Measurement of loss, efficiency and conversion rate ...................................................................13

5.3.2 Temperature rise test................................................................................................................................................16

6 Test reports .............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Precautions for measuring motor/inverter loss and efficiency ..............................18

Annex B (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. (see www .iso .org/directives)

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. (see www .iso .org/patents)

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road Vehicles, Subcommittee SC 37,

Electrically propelled vehicles.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21782 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification
for electric propulsion components —
Part 3:
Performance testing of the motor and the inverter
1 Scope

This document specifies performance tests for the motor and the inverter designed as a voltage class B

electric propulsion system for electrically propelled road vehicles.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21782-1, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification for electric propulsion components

— Part 1: General test conditions and definitions
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21782-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
4 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in ISO 21782-1 apply.

5 Tests
5.1 Motor test
5.1.1 Measurement of loss and efficiency
5.1.1.1 General

The purpose of this test is to operate the motor under the specified operating conditions and to measure

the loss and efficiency of the motor in order to ensure that the performance is as designed.

5.1.1.2 Test diagram
The test diagram is shown in Figure 1.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)

Either the two-wattmeter method or the three-wattmeter method may be used for the three-phase

power measurement.
Using the three-wattmeter method is recommended.
Key
1 DUT
2 motor
3 inverter
4 load
5 torque/speed detector
6 spectrum analyser/power meter
7 torque/speed meter
8 motor input current (in A)
9 motor input voltage (in V)
10 motor torque (in Nm)
11 motor speed (in min )
Figure 1 — Diagram for measurement of loss and efficiency of the motor
5.1.1.3 Test conditions
The test conditions are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 — Conditions for measurement of loss and efficiency of the motor
Test conditions Value Remark

Inverter input voltage Rated voltage as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, 3.22. For the inverter input

voltage tolerance, see
ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.3.
Ambient conditions Room temperature (RT) and humidity as defined in
ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.4.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Test conditions Value Remark

Coolant temperature Maximum temperature for unlimited operating capability — In case of liquid

cooling
— Ethylene glycol and
propylene glycol as
examples of coolant
— If technically
feasible, the tests
shall be performed at
coolant temperature
of 65 °C. Otherwise
the deviation shall be
documented in the
test report.
Coolant flow Liquid Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating capability
rate
Air Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating capability
Operating point Test points as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, Figure 1
— "a", "a’", "b", "p " to "p " (optional "e", "e’", "f", "p ’" to "p ’")
1 10 1 10
Switching frequency The frequency shall be agreed between the supplier and
customer.

Operating time — The operating points "a", "a’", "p ", "p ", "p ", "p ", "p ", For regenerative

1 3 5 7 9
"p ": 2 s or 10 s (optional 30 s, 60 s) operating points, the
same operating time
— The operating point "b": 1 800 s
applies as for corre-
sponding motoring
— The operating points "p ", "p ", "p ", "p ": 1 800 s or maxi-
2 4 6 8
operating points.
mum allowable time for temperature protection
5.1.1.4 Test procedure

1) The test motor shall be operated at specified operating points for the operating time defined in

Table 1. Motor input power, output torque and speed shall be recorded. Each average of the last

one second of the records shall be used. See Annex A for information about the input power

measurement.
2) The loss and efficiency shall be calculated by using Formulae (1) and (2):
η =×100 (1)
PP=− P (2)
ml mi mo
where
η is the efficiency of the motor (in %);
P is the motor output power (in W);
P is the motor input power (in W);
P is the loss of the motor (in W).

The measurement of regenerate operation may be decided by agreement between the supplier and

customer.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
5.1.2 Temperature rise test
5.1.2.1 General

The purpose of this test is to operate the motor under the specified conditions and to measure the

temperature rise in the motor in order to ensure that the motor thermal performance is as designed.

5.1.2.2 Test diagram
The test diagram is shown in Figure 2.
Key
1 DUT
2 motor
3 inverter
4 load
5 torque/speed detector
6 thermometer
7 torque/speed meter
8 measurement point temperature (in °C)
9 motor torque (in Nm)
10 motor speed (in min )
Figure 2 — Diagram for temperature rise test of the motor
5.1.2.3 Test conditions
The test conditions are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 — Conditions for temperature rise test of the motor
Test conditions Value Remark

Inverter input voltage Rated voltage as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, 3.22. For the inverter input

voltage tolerance, see
ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.3.
Ambient conditions RT and humidity as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.4.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Test conditions Value Remark

Coolant temperature Maximum temperature for unlimited operating capability — In case of liquid

cooling
— Ethylene glycol and
propylene glycol as
examples of coolant
— If technically
feasible, the tests
shall be performed at
coolant temperature
of 65 °C. Otherwise
the deviation shall be
documented in the
test report.
Coolant flow Liquid Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating capability
rate
Air Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating capability

Operating point The points as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, Figure 1 May be set by agree-

ment between the
— "a", "b"
supplier and customer.
Switching frequency The frequency shall be set by agreement between the
supplier and customer.
Operating time — The operating point "a": 2 s or 10 s
— The operating point "b": 1 800 s
5.1.2.4 Test procedure

The test motor shall be operated at specified operating points, and the temperature at the measurement

points shall be recorded.

For each torque-speed point, after the operating time as defined in Table 2 passes, the temperature

shall be recorded.

An inverter that has the ability to operate continuously at the maximum torque point may be used.

The temperature of coil shall be measured at the points assumed as the highest. The measurement

points in the coil and other measurement points can be added by agreement between the supplier and

customer.
5.1.3 Torque characteristic test
5.1.3.1 General

The purpose of this test is to operate the motor under the specified operating conditions and to check

the torque characteristics in order to ensure that the motor performance is as designed.

5.1.3.2 Test diagram
The test diagram is shown in Figure 3.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Key
1 DUT
2 motor
3 inverter
4 load
5 torque/speed detector
6 torque/speed meter
7 motor torque (in Nm)
8 motor speed (in min )
Figure 3 — Diagram for torque characteristic test of the motor
5.1.3.3 Test conditions
The test conditions are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 — Conditions for torque characteristic test of the motor
Test conditions Value Remark

Inverter input voltage Rated voltage as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, 3.22. For the inverter input

voltage tolerance, see
ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.3.
Ambient conditions RT and humidity as defined in ISO 21782-1 2019, 5.4.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Test conditions Value Remark

Coolant temperature Maximum temperature for unlimited operating capability — In case of liquid

cooling
— Ethylene glycol and
propylene glycol as
examples of coolant
— If technically
feasible, the tests
shall be performed at
coolant temperature
of 65 °C. Otherwise
the deviation shall be
documented in the
test report.
Coolant flow Liquid Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating capability
rate
Air Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating capability
Operating point The points as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, Figure 1
— "a", "a’", "c", "d"
Operating time — The operating points "a", "a’", "c" and "d": 2 s or 10 s (op-
tional 30 s, 60 s)
5.1.3.4 Test procedure

The test motor shall be operated at specified operating points for the operating time as defined in

Table 3. Motor input power, output torque and speed shall be recorded. Each average of the last one

second of the records shall be used.
5.1.4 Cogging torque test
5.1.4.1 General

The purpose of this test is to operate the permanent-magnet motor at a low speed on the motor

dynamometer and to measure the waveform of torque in order to ensure that the cogging torque is as

designed.
5.1.4.2 Test diagram
The test diagram is shown in Figure 4.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
Key
1 DUT
2 motor
3 dynamometer
4 torque/speed detector
5 torque/speed meter
6 motor torque (in Nm)
7 motor speed (in min )
Figure 4 — Diagram for cogging torque test of the motor
5.1.4.3 Test conditions
The test conditions are shown in Table 4.
Table 4 — Conditions for cogging torque test of the motor
Test conditions Value Remark
Ambient conditions RT and humidity as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.4.
5.1.4.4 Test procedure

1) A motor shaft shall be connected to the torque detector such as a rotary encoder or a dedicated

measurement system. During the measurement at no load and at a speed as low as possible, the

cogging torque waveform shall be measured.
2) The cogging torque shall be the peak to peak value of the measured waveform.
8 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)
5.2 Inverter test
5.2.1 Measurement of loss, efficiency and conversion rate
5.2.1.1 General

The purpose of this test is to operate the inverter under the specified conditions and to measure the

loss and efficiency of the inverter in order to ensure that the inverter performance is as designed.

5.2.1.2 Test diagram
The test diagram is shown in Figure 5.

Either the two-wattmeter method or the three-wattmeter method may be used for three-phase power

measurement.
Using the three-wattmeter method is recommended.
Key
1 DUT
2 inverter
3 DC power supply
4 AC load
5 spectrum analyser/power meter
6 inverter input current (in A)
7 inverter input voltage (in V)
8 inverter output voltage (in V)
9 inverter output current (in A)

Figure 5 — Diagram for measurement of loss, efficiency and conversion rate of the inverter

Examples of AC loads are shown below:
— actual motor: Motor specified by agreement between the supplier and customer;
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 21782-3:2019(E)

— motor emulator: Electric load which emulates electric characteristic of actual motor;

— ACL: 3-phase inductance equivalent to the leakage inductance of the motor;

— RL load: ACL with series resistance equivalent to phase resistance of the motor.

5.2.1.3 Test conditions
The test conditions are shown in Table 5.

Table 5 — Conditions for measurement of loss, efficiency and conversion rate of the inverter

Test conditions Value Remark

Inverter input voltage Rated voltage as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, 3.22. For the inverter input voltage tol-

erance, see ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.3.

Operating point The points as defined in ISO 21782-1:2019, Figure 1 In case of no paired motor, a

representati
...

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