Space systems - Debris mitigation design and operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages

ISO/TR 20590:2017 contains non-normative information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital stages for mitigating space debris. ISO/TR 20590:2017 can be used to guide engineers in the application of the family of space debris mitigation standards (see 4.2) to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime.

Systèmes spatiaux - Conception pour l'attenuation des débris et manuel d'utilisation à étages orbitaux pour les véhicules de lancement

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
05-Feb-2017
Withdrawal Date
05-Feb-2017
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
06-Feb-2017
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Technical report
ISO/TR 20590:2017 - Space systems - Debris mitigation design and operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages
English language
33 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 20590
First edition
2017-02
Space systems - Debris mitigation
design and operation manual for
launch vehicle orbital stages
Systèmes spatiaux - Conception pour l’attenuation des débris et
manuel d’utilisation à étages orbitaux pour les véhicules de lancement
Reference number
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Related documents and abbreviated terms and symbols .......................................................................................... 1

4.1 Overview of ISO debris-related standards ...................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 ISO debris-related standards for launch vehicles as of 2016.......................................................................... 2

4.3 Spacecraft related ISO standards ............................................................................................................................................ 2

4.4 Other ISO standards ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Other documents ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Requirements in ISO Standards and system-level methodologies for complying with

the requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Refrain from releasing objects ......... .......................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures ................................................................ 6

5.3 Break-up prevention .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.3 Identification of the sources of break-up .................................................................................................... 8

5.3.4 Design measures .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.5 Monitoring during operations .............................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.6 Preventive measures for break-up after mission completion ................................................... 9

5.4 Disposal manoeuvres at the end of operation ............................................................................................................. 9

5.4.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.3 LEO mission ......................................................................................................................................................................11

5.4.4 GEO mission and other high-elliptical orbit missions ..................................................................12

5.5 Ground safety from re-entering objects .........................................................................................................................13

5.5.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................13

5.5.3 Preventive measures .................................................................................................................................................14

5.5.4 Risk detection: Notification .................................................................................................................................15

5.5.5 Countermeasures: Controlled re-entry and Monitoring.............................................................16

5.6 Collision avoidance ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.7 Reliability and QA ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Debris-related work in the development lifecycle .........................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Concept of debris-related work in each phase .........................................................................................................17

6.3 Mission Requirements Analysis Phase (pre-phase A)........................................................................................20

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.2 Debris-related works ................................................................................................................................................20

6.4 Feasibility phase (phase A) .......................................................................................................................................................20

6.5 Definition phase (phase B) ........................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.1 Work in phase B .............................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.2 Work procedure .............................................................................................................................................................21

6.6 Development phase (phase C) ................................................................................................................................................21

6.7 Production phase (phase D) .....................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.1 Work in phase D ............................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)

6.7.2 Qualification review ...................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.3 Launch service ................................................................................................................................................................22

6.8 Utilization phase (phase E) .......................................................................................................................................................22

6.9 Disposal Phase (phase F) ............................................................................................................................................................22

7 System-level considerations ..................................................................................................................................................................23

7.1 System design........................................................................................................................................................................................23

7.2 Mission analysis for each launch mission .....................................................................................................................23

8 Subsystem / Component design and operation ................................................................................................................23

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.1.1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.1.2 Debris-mitigation measures and subsystem-level actions for realizing them ........24

8.2 Propulsion subsystem ....................................................................................................................................................................24

8.2.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................24

8.2.2 Considerations for propulsion subsystems ...........................................................................................25

8.2.3 Considerations for component design .......................................................................................................26

8.3 Guidance and control subsystem .........................................................................................................................................28

8.3.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................28

8.3.2 Considerations for the guidance and control subsystem ...........................................................28

8.4 Electric power-supply subsystem .......................................................................................................................................29

8.4.1 Debris related design ................................................................................................................................................29

8.4.2 Considerations for power subsystems .......................................................................................................29

8.4.3 Consideration in component design ............................................................................................................29

8.5 Communication subsystem .......................................................................................................................................................30

8.5.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................30

8.5.2 Design of communication subsystem .........................................................................................................30

8.5.3 Considerations for component design .......................................................................................................30

8.6 Structure subsystem .......................................................................................................................................................................31

8.6.1 Design measures ...........................................................................................................................................................31

8.6.2 Practices for structure subsystem .................................................................................................................31

8.6.3 Considerations for component design .......................................................................................................31

8.7 Range safety subsystem (Self-destruct subsystem) .............................................................................................32

8.7.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................32

8.7.2 Consideration for command destruction subsystem ....................................................................32

8.7.3 Considerations for component design .......................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
Foreword

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). International Standards are generally prepared by ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to represent that committee. International organizations, both governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to the conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles, Subcommittee

SC 14, Space systems and operations.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
Introduction

Coping with debris is essential to preventing the deterioration of the orbital environment and ensuring

the sustainability of space activities. Effective actions can also be taken to ensure the safety of those on

the ground from re-entering objects that were disposed of from Earth orbit.

ISO 24113 “Space debris mitigation requirements,” and other ISO documents, introduced in Clause 4,

were developed to encourage debris mitigation. Table 1 shows those requirements together with the

recommendations in the United Nations Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines and the Inter-Agency Space

Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) Space debris guidelines referred to in the United Nations (UN)

guidelines.

Table 1 lists the main debris mitigation requirements defined in the standards and compares them to

equivalent recommendations published by the UN and the IADC.

In Clause 5, the main space debris mitigation requirements are reported and analyzed.

In Clause 6, the guidance for life-cycle implementation of space debris mitigation related activities are

provided.

In Clause 7, the system level aspects stemming from the space debris mitigation requirements are

highlighted; while in Clause 8, the impacts at subsystem and component levels are detailed.

In this document, where the content is not directly required by existing ISO Standards but considered

relevant to launch vehicle orbital stages operations or design and debris mitigation, it is labelled as

“[Information].”
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii

Table 1 — Comparison of ISO debris-related documents with UN and IADC space debris mitigation guidelines

Measures ISO Standards (or Technical Reports) UN Guidelines IADC Guidelines

Limiting Released General measures for avoiding ISO 24113, 6.1.1 Recommendation-1 5.1

debris gener- objects the release of objects
ation
Slag from solid motors ISO 24113, 6.1.2.2, 6.1.2.3 -- --
Combustion products from ISO 24113, 6.1.2.1 -- --
pyrotechnics
(Combustion Products < 1 mm)
On-orbit- Intentional destruction ISO 24113, 6.2.1 Recommendation-4 5.2.3
al break-
Accidental break-ups during ISO 24113, 6.2.2 Recommendation-2 5.2.2
ups
operation (Monitoring)
(Probability < 10 )

Post-mission break-up ISO 24113, 6.2.2.3 (Detailed in ISO 16127) Recommendation-5 5.2.1

(Passivation, etc.)

Disposal at GEO Reorbit at end of operation ISO 24113, 6.3.2 (Detailed in ISO 26872) Recommendation-7 5.3.1

end-of-opera-
6.3.2.1: General Requirement (No quantitative requirements) 235 km+
tions
(1 000•Cr•A/m),
6.3.2.2: 235 km+ (1 000•Cr•A/m), e < 0,003 Note: ITU-R S.1003-1 recom-
mends; 235 km + 1,000 Cr*A/M e < 0,003
6.3.1: Success Probability > 0,9
Here, A[m ], M[kg], Cr[-]

LEO Reduction of orbital lifetime ISO 24113, 6.3.3 (Detailed in ISO 16164, 16699) Recommendation-6 5.3.2

6.3.3.1: Orbital lifetime after end of operation (No quantitative requirements) (Recommend 25

years)
< 25 years
6.3.1: Success Probability > 0,9

Transfer to out of protected ISO 24113, 6.3.3.2 (f) Mentioned in Recommendation-6 5.3.2

region
(Guarantee 100 years of non-interference)
Other options ISO 24113, 6.3.3.2 (a) ~ (e) -- 5.3.2

Re-entry Avoidance of ground casualties ISO 24113, 6.3.4 (Detailed in ISO 27875) Included in Recommendation-6 5.3.2

Collision avoidance for large debris ISO/TR-16158 (for assessment only) Recommendation-3 5.4

Protection from the impact of micro-debris ISO 16126 (for assessment only) -- 5.4

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
Space systems - Debris mitigation design and operation
manual for launch vehicle orbital stages
1 Scope

This document contains non-normative information on the design and operational practices for launch

vehicle orbital stages for mitigating space debris.

This document can be used to guide engineers in the application of the family of space debris mitigation

standards (see 4.2) to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that launch vehicle orbital stages

are designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris

throughout their orbital lifetime.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10795:2011 and the other

standards listed in 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
4 Related documents and abbreviated terms and symbols
4.1 Overview of ISO debris-related standards

The requirements, recommendations, and best practices for mitigating debris generation and

preventing other debris related problems are examined in this clause.
Figure 1 shows a general diagram of major ISO documents related to debris.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
Figure 1 — Structure of major debris related standards for orbital stages
4.2 ISO debris-related standards for launch vehicles as of 2016

The following ISO Standards have been developed to address space debris mitigation. Readers are

expected to confirm the most up to date list of ISO standards (available at http:// www .iso .org/ iso/

store .htm. Also for 4.3 − 4.5).
(1) ISO 24113:2011, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
(2) ISO 27852:2011, Space systems — Estimation of orbit lifetime
(3) ISO 16699:2015, Space systems — Disposal of orbital launch stages
(4) ISO 20893, Space systems — Prevention of break-up of orbital launch stages
4.3 Spacecraft related ISO standards

(1) ISO 16127:2014, Space systems — Prevention of break-up of unmanned spacecraft

(2) ISO 16164:2015, Space systems — Disposal of satellites operating in or crossing LEO

(3) ISO 26872:2010, Space systems — Disposal of satellites operating at geosynchronous altitude

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
4.4 Other ISO standards

The following ISO Standards are not specific to space debris mitigation. However, they are considered

pertinent:

(1) ISO 27875:2010, Space systems — Re-entry safety control for unmanned spacecraft and launch vehicle

orbital stages

(2) ISO 14300-1:2011, Space systems — Programme management – Part 1: Structuring of a project

(3) ISO 14300-2:2011, Space systems — Product assurance — Policy and principles

(4) ISO 14623:2003, Space systems — Pressure vessels and pressurized structures - Design and operation

(5) ISO 27025:2010, Programme management —Quality assurance requirements
(6) ISO 10795:2011, Space systems – Programme management and quality –Vocabulary

(7) ISO/TR 16158:2013, Space systems — Avoiding collisions among orbiting objects: Best practices, data

requirements, and operational concept
4.5 Other documents

The following documents are referenced to understand the background of the ISO documents:

(1) Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on

the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Annex IV of A/AC.105/890, 6 March 2007, endorsed by the United

Nations General Assembly under Resolution A/RES/62/217

(2) IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, IADC-02-01, Revision 1, September 2007, available at

ht t p:// w w w .iadc -online .org/ index .cgi ?item = docs _pub

(3) Support Document to the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, IADC-04-06, Issue 1, 5 October

2004, available at ht t p:// w w w .iadc -online .org/ index .cgi ?item = docs _pub

4.6 Abbreviated terms
A/m Area-to-Mass Ratio
CDR Critical Design Review
CFRP Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales
COPUOS: Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
Cr Solar Radiation Pressure Coefficient
DAS Debris Assessment Software (NASA)
DRAMA Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (ESA)
e Eccentricity
Ec Expected number of casualties
EOMDP End-of-Mission (Operation) Disposal Plan
EOL End-of-Life
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
ESA European Space Agency
FMEA Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
GEO Geosynchronous Earth Orbit
GTO Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit
IADC Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee
ISO International Organization for Standardization
JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
JSpOC Joint Space Operations Center (USA)
LEGEND LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model
LEO Low Earth Orbit
MASTER Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference
MEO Medium Earth Orbit
MMOD Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris
NOTAM Notice To Airmen
NM Notice to Mariners
NSS NASA Safety Standard
ORDEM Orbital Debris Engineering Model
PDR Preliminary Design Review
QA Quality Assurance
QR Qualification Review
S/C Spacecraft
SDR System Definition Review
SDMP Space-Debris-Mitigation Plan
STELA Semi-analytic Tool for End of Life Analysis (CNES)
STSC Scientific and Technical Subcommittee (UNCOPUOS)
USSTRATCOM United States Strategic Command
TR Technical Report (a type of ISO document)
UN United Nations
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2017(E)
5 Requirements in ISO Standards and system-level methodologies for complying
with the requirements
5.1 General

To accomplish comprehensive activities for debris mitigation work, the following steps are considered:

(1) Identifying debris related requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

(2) Determining how to comply with requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

(3) Applying debris mitigation measures early and throughout development and manufacturing to

assure sound debris mitigation capability in the final product.

(4) Applying appropriate QA and qualification programs to ensure compliance with debris mitigation

requirements.

This clause provides methodologies for taking comprehensive action at the system level. More detailed

information for action at the subsystem and component levels is provided in Clause 8. The following

specific subjects are emphasized:
(1) Limiting the release of objects into the useful orbital regions.
(2) Preventing fragmentation in orbit.
(3) Proper disposal during the end of operation.
(4) Minimization of hazards on the ground from re-entering debris.
(5) Collision avoidance for manned or man-able systems.
(6) Quality, safety, and reliability assurance.
5.2 Refrain from releasing objects
5.2.1 Requirements

ISO 24113, 6.1, requires avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal

operations:
(1) General;

a) S/C and launch vehicle orbital stages shall be designed so as not to release space debris into

Earth orbit during normal operations.
b) Space debris released into Earth orbit as
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.