Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Measurement of Young’s modulus of thermal barrier coatings at elevated temperature by flexural resonance method

This document specifies a method for measuring the in-plane Young’s modulus of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) formed on substrates, from room temperature up to 1 000 °C.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Apr-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Apr-2021
Completion Date
13-Apr-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23486
First edition
2021-04
Metallic and other inorganic
coatings — Measurement of Young’s
modulus of thermal barrier coatings
at elevated temperature by flexural
resonance method
Reference number
ISO 23486:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus for measuring resonance frequency .................................................................................................................. 2

6 Specimen ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Preheat treatment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Measuring procedure ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Dimension and mass of specimen .......................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Resonance frequency ......... ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Calculation of Young’s modulus ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Young’s modulus of the substrate ........................................................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Young’s modulus of BC ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.4 Young’s modulus of TC ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) An example of the apparatus for measuring the resonance frequency ..............9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
Introduction

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are highly advanced material systems, generally applied to surfaces

of hot-section components made of nickel or cobalt-based superalloys, such as combustors, blades and

vanes of power-generation gas turbines in thermal power plants and aero-engines operated at elevated

temperatures.

The function of these coatings is to protect metallic components for extended periods at elevated

temperatures by employing thermally insulating materials which can sustain an appreciable

temperature difference between load-bearing alloys and coating surfaces. These coatings permit the

high-temperature operation by shielding these components, thereby extending their lives.

Although Young’s modulus is an important property of TBCs, the existing ISO 19477 only describes a

method for measuring this parameter at room temperature.

This document specifies a method for measuring the Young’s modulus of TBCs that consist of multilayers

formed on substrate by thermal spraying, from room temperature up to elevated temperature.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23486:2021(E)
Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Measurement of
Young’s modulus of thermal barrier coatings at elevated
temperature by flexural resonance method
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for measuring the in-plane Young’s modulus of thermal barrier

coatings (TBCs) formed on substrates, from room temperature up to 1 000 °C.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics

ISO 13385 (all parts), Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment

ISO 14188:2012, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Test methods for measuring thermal cycle

resistance and thermal shock resistance for thermal barrier coatings

ISO 17561:2016, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Test method for

elastic moduli of monolithic ceramics at room temperature by sonic resonance

ISO 19477, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Measurement of Young's modulus of thermal barrier

coatings by beam bending
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14188 and ISO 19477 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
thermal barrier coating
TBC

two-layer coating consisting of a metallic bond coat (BC) and a ceramic top coat (TC), in ord

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23486
First edition
Metallic and other inorganic
coatings — Measurement of Young’s
modulus of thermal barrier coatings
at elevated temperature by flexural
resonance method
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 23486:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus for measuring resonance frequency .................................................................................................................. 2

6 Specimen ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Preheat treatment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Measuring procedure ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Dimension and mass of specimen .......................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Resonance frequency ......... ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Calculation of Young’s modulus ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Young’s modulus of the substrate ........................................................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Young’s modulus of BC ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.4 Young’s modulus of TC ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) An example of the apparatus for measuring the resonance frequency ..............9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23486:2021(E)
Introduction

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are highly advanced material systems, generally applied to surfaces

of hot-section components made of nickel or cobalt-based superalloys, such as combustors, blades and

vanes of power-generation gas turbines in thermal power plants and aero-engines operated at elevated

temperatures.

The function of these coatings is to protect metallic components for extended periods at elevated

temperatures by employing thermally insulating materials which can sustain an appreciable

temperature difference between load-bearing alloys and coating surfaces. These coatings permit the

high-temperature operation by shielding these components, thereby extending their lives.

Although Young’s modulus is an important property of TBCs, the existing ISO 19477 only describes a

method for measuring this parameter at room temperature.

This document specifies a method for measuring the Young’s modulus of TBCs that consist of multilayers

formed on substrate by thermal spraying, from room temperature up to elevated temperature.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23486:2021(E)
Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Measurement of
Young’s modulus of thermal barrier coatings at elevated
temperature by flexural resonance method
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for measuring the in-plane Young’s modulus of thermal barrier

coatings (TBCs) formed on substrates, from room temperature up to 1 000 °C.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics

ISO 13385 (all parts), Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment

ISO 14188:2012, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Test methods for measuring thermal cycle

resistance and thermal shock resistance for thermal barrier coatings

ISO 17561:2016, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Test method for

elastic moduli of monolithic ceramics at room temperature by sonic resonance

ISO 19477, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Measurement of Young's modulus of thermal barrier

coatings by beam bending
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14188 and ISO 19477 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
thermal barrier coating
TBC

two-layer coating consisting of a metallic bond coat (BC) and a ceramic top coat (TC), in order to reduce

heat transfer from outside th
...

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