Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – Bar code printer and bar code reader performance testing specification

This document specifies the performance evaluation specifications of thermal transfer type printers (hereinafter referred to as bar code printers), consumables, and bar code readers (regardless of the reading method) used in bar code systems. The rank of performance is also defined by the evaluation items. This document can be applied to the following evaluation tests by combining ISO/IEC 15416 and ISO/IEC 15415, which define the print qualities of bar code symbols. NOTE This document is not prevented from being cited in the evaluation of thermal printers using thermal paper and printers using “plain or exclusive paper” (commercial printing, ink jet printers, electrophotographic printers, etc.). a) Print performance of bar code printers (including consumables) b) Brightness and smoothness of “reception paper or label”, and adhesion of the label c) Strength of reception paper or label on which the bar code is printed d) Reading performance of bar code readers e) Electrical, mechanical and environmental characteristics of bar code printers and bar code readers

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 24458
First edition
2022-05
Information technology – Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques – Bar code printer and
bar code reader performance testing
specification
Reference number
ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Bar code printer and consumables ..................................................................................................................................................5

4.1 Bar code printer..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.2 Performance evaluation items and test methods ................................................................................. 6

4.1.3 Performance ranking .................................................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Consumables (reception papers, labels and ribbons) ....................................................................................... 18

4.2.1 General requirement ........................................................................................................................................... ......... 18

4.2.2 Performance evaluation items and test methods .............................................................................. 19

4.2.3 Performance ranking .................................................................................................................................................. 21

4.3 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 23

5 Bar code reader ..................................................................................................................................................................................................23

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

5.1.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 23

5.1.2 Ambient environment conditions..................................................................................................................... 24

5.2 Performance evaluation items and test methods ................................................................................................. 25

5.2.1 Test chart for reading performance tests ................................................................................................. 25

5.2.2 Reading performance ..................................................................................................................................................30

5.2.3 Electrical property ........................................................................................................................................................ 35

5.2.4 Environmental characteristic..............................................................................................................................36

5.2.5 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................................ 36

5.3 Performance ranking .....................................................................................................................................................................38

5.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................38

5.3.2 Reading performance ..................................................................................................................................................38

5.3.3 Electrical property ........................................................................................................................................................ 41

5.3.4 Environmental characteristic.............................................................................................................................. 42

5.3.5 Mechanical property .................................................................................................................................................... 43

5.4 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

Annex A (informative) Standard image components corresponding to nominal dpi ..................................45

Annex B (informative) Read record form ....................................................................................................................................................49

Annex C (informative) Outline of ISO/IEC 15416:2016, E.3 ......................................................................................................52

Annex D (informative) Test report .....................................................................................................................................................................53

Annex E (normative) Test chart for bar code reader reading performance test ...............................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

iii
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
Introduction

Bar code printers and bar code readers are key equipment in auto-ID systems. However, manufacturers

of this equipment evaluate their products’ performance by their own test methods and measures,

specifying this performance in their catalogues. As a result, actual performance varies, although there

are some performance values that are the same across catalogues. Therefore, users are forced to test

the equipment in order to find the most suitable solutions for their applications, at their own cost.

This document was developed to provide standard test and ranking methods giving users a common

ruler to be able to evaluate performance values in selecting equipment to meet their needs.

Furthermore, this document is expected to be used in avoiding using poor quality products.

NOTE There are ISO/IEC 15419 and ISO/IEC 15423. ISO/IEC 15419 mainly specifies how to print a barcode

as a digital image, so that the contents focus on software development and look like a technical suggestion with

no details on how to evaluate performances of a bar code printer in total.

This document specifies more details how to test and evaluate complete printer performances including

durability of printed labels.

ISO/IEC 15423 is made based on that a scanner and a decoder are separated devices, which is a quite

old fashion system. Although, a combination case of a scanner and a decoder is mentioned.

This document specifies more details how to test and evaluate reader performances, which covers test

items specified in ISO/IEC 15423.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
Information technology – Automatic identification and
data capture techniques – Bar code printer and bar code
reader performance testing specification
1 Scope

This document specifies the performance evaluation specifications of thermal transfer type printers

(hereinafter referred to as bar code printers), consumables, and bar code readers (regardless of the

reading method) used in bar code systems. The rank of performance is also defined by the evaluation

items.

This document can be applied to the following evaluation tests by combining ISO/IEC 15416 and

ISO/IEC 15415, which define the print qualities of bar code symbols.

NOTE This document is not prevented from being cited in the evaluation of thermal printers using thermal

paper and printers using “plain or exclusive paper” (commercial printing, ink jet printers, electrophotographic

printers, etc.).
a) Print performance of bar code printers (including consumables)

b) Brightness and smoothness of “reception paper or label”, and adhesion of the label

c) Strength of reception paper or label on which the bar code is printed
d) Reading performance of bar code readers

e) Electrical, mechanical and environmental characteristics of bar code printers and bar code readers

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 105-A03, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part A03: Grey scale for assessing staining

ISO 105-C06, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part C06: Colour fastness to domestic and commercial

laundering

ISO 105-F09, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part F09: Specification for cotton rubbing cloth

ISO 105-X11, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part X11: Colour fastness to hot pressing

ISO 105-X12, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part X12: Colour fastness to rubbing

ISO 2470-1, Paper, board and pulps — Measurement of diffuse blue reflectance factor — Part 1: Indoor

daylight conditions (ISO brightness)
ISO 29862, Self adhesive tapes — Determination of peel adhesion properties

ISO 6353-2, Reagents for chemical analysis — Part 2: Specifications — First series

ISO 8791-5, Paper and board — Determination of roughness/smoothness (air leak methods) — Part 5: Oken

method
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)

ISO/IEC 15426-1, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar

code verifier conformance specification — Part 1: Linear symbols

ISO/IEC 15426-2, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar

code verifier conformance specification — Part 2: Two-dimensional symbols

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
ISO/IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing — Part 2-1: Tests — Test A: Cold

ISO/IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing — Part 2-6: Tests — Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

ISO/IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing — Part 2-78: Tests — Test Cab: Damp heat, steady state

ISO/IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

ISO/IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques

— Electrostatic discharge immunity test

ISO/IEC 61000-4-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-3: Testing and measurement techniques

— Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test

ISO/IEC 61000-4-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-4: Testing and measurement techniques

— Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

IEC CISPR 32, Electromagnetic compatibility of multimedia equipment — Emission requirements

3 Terms, definitions and symbols

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762, and the following

apply

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
adhesion characteristics
clinging performance of a label attached to a base material to be adhered.
3.1.2
brightness
degree of whiteness of the print surface of the reception paper or label.
3.1.3
ceramic label

label in which a bar code symbol is printed on the surface of a raw ceramic material before-burning,

and then is burned to form a ceramic.
3.1.4
consumables

reception papers, labels and ribbons that shall be refilled by the user as needed.

3.1.5
fixed mount reader

bar code reader (also called a stationary reader) that is fixed to specific locations.

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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
3.1.6
label
reception paper having an adhesive applied to the back surface thereof.
3.1.7
ladder type print

print state in which the height direction of the bar is perpendicular to the movement direction of the

medium to be printed.
3.1.8
lateral motion reading speed

maximum speed at which a one-dimensional symbol can be read while the symbol or the bar code

reader is moving in a direction perpendicular to the elements of symbols.
3.1.9
nominal dpi

number of dots per inch, rounded to be conventionally an integral number, multiplied by 25,4 times the

number of dots per mm.
3.1.10
performance rank
ranking for performance of each evaluation item.
3.1.11
picket fence print

print state in which the height direction of the bar is in the horizontal direction with respect to the

movement direction of the medium to be printed.
3.1.12
print

transfer ink from a ribbon to a reception paper or a label using a thermal transfer printer and represent

a bar code, etc.
3.1.13
printing
press a bar code using a plate and ink.
3.1.14
reception paper
paper or film having an ink receptible layer.
3.1.15
release liner

paper or film (also referred to as backing paper) having a surface processed to be anti-adhesive.

3.1.16
ribbon
roll of hot-melt ink applied to one side of a film.
3.1.17
smoothness
degree of the flatness of a reception paper or label surface.
3.1.18
test chart

high-precision bar code symbol printed on a photo paper for use in the reading performance test of bar

code readers.
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
3.1.19
thermal print head

electronic component having a structure in which a multiple of minute heating resistors are linearly

arranged, and which works to apply heat to a ribbon.
3.1.20
thermal transfer printer and bar code printer

equipment that incorporates a function of converting data into a bar code image and transfers ink from

a ribbon using heat (by any method of thermal transfer) to the image.
3.2 Symbols
In this document, unless otherwise specified, the following symbols are used:

AV Variation of read time between print quality grades in axial non-uniformity test

B Number of bends in the interface cable strength test
BRPT Test charts for bar code reader performance tests

DCV Variation of reading time between print quality grades in decoding facility test

DOF Reading depth when bar code reader reads symbol (depth of field)
DV Variation of read time between print quality grades in defect test
F Smoothness of the reception paper

FV Variation of read time between print quality grades in fixed pattern damage test

GV Variation of read time between print quality grades in grid non-uniformity test

H Fall distance in non-pack drop test
L Maximum illuminance in the ambient illuminance test
Ms Moving speed of the moving object reading speed test
MV Variation of read time between print quality grades in modulation test
N Number of depressions in the trigger switch endurance test
PSmax Maximum print speed
Re Minimum print resolution

RT Value obtained by dividing the reading time in the reading speed test by the number of read-

ings (100)

RTV Time obtained by subtracting the minimum reading time from the maximum reading time in

the symbol contrast test
T Time to print 50 consecutive sets of standard images

Tmps The value obtained by dividing T by 50 when consecutive sets of standard images were print-

ed with print quality overall grade 1,5 or a value more than but close to 1,5

UV Variation of read Time between print quality grades in unused error correction capacity test

Va Electrostatic strength in the air discharge test
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
Vc Electrostatic strength in contact discharge test
4 Bar code printer and consumables
4.1 Bar code printer
4.1.1 General requirements

Basic print-mechanism of a general thermal transfer printer is shown in Figure 1.

Key
1 thermal print head
2 ribbon (unwinding)
3 reception paper of label roles (supplying)
4 platen roller
5 ribbon (winding)
Figure 1 — Basic print mechanism of thermal transfer printer

As shown in Figure 1, a "reception paper or label" and a ribbon are passed between the platen roller and

the thermal print head, and the thermal print head is normally pressed down and secured to provide

the appropriate print pressure. As the platen roller rotates in the direction of the arrow, the "reception

paper or label" and ribbon move in the transport direction. In synchronism with this movement, the ink

on the ribbon is melted by heating the heating elements of the thermal print head and transferred to the

“reception paper or label”. At this time, the heating element that heats is only an element corresponding

to the image to be printed.
Print condition setting and environmental conditions are as follows.
a) Print condition setting on thermal transfer printer to be evaluated

It is desirable that a thermal transfer printer to be evaluated in this document is set to a condition

estimated to be optimal for the "reception paper or label" and the ribbon used in the test. This print

setting serves to maximize the print performance of the bar code printer to be evaluated.

NOTE In the thermal transfer type, it is known that the print quality varies depending on the combination of

the "reception paper or label" and the ribbon.
b) Ambient environment conditions
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)

For bar code printers in which ink is melted by heat and transferred to a “reception paper or label”,

ambient temperature affects print quality, but also thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, etc. of

the “reception paper or label”, the ribbon, the platen, etc. affect print quality. Also, condensation on the

thermal print head may cause failure. In order to print bar codes while maintaining high print quality,

precaution shall be paid to the surrounding environment.

Performance tests of bar code printers shall be performed under the following environmental conditions.

However, when the environmental conditions are individually stipulated in each performance

evaluation test item, or when there is a quote standard in each evaluation test item, the stipulations or

standard shall be given priority. In addition, during tests, the temperature and/or humidity shall not be

abruptly changed to conditions where condensation occurs.
— temperature : 18 °C to 28 °C
— humidity : 30 % Rh to 70 % Rh

— Before starting the performance evaluation tests, the main body of the bar code printer (non-en-

ergization), the "reception paper or label" and the ribbon used for the tests shall be left in the

above-mentioned temperature and humidity environment for at least 6 h.

Ambient environmental conditions at the time of the tests shall be recorded in the test result report of

4.3 together with the test results.
4.1.2 Performance evaluation items and test methods
4.1.2.1 Standard image for evaluation of printer performance tests

Standard images for evaluation of printer performance (hereinafter referred to as standard images)

shall be used and evaluated under the specified conditions.

The standard image is based on BCP-nnn-1 (nnn is nominal dpi; the same applies hereinafter) and BCP-

nnn-2 (see Figure 2), and the combination shown in Figure 4 is set in accordance with the width of the

reception paper or label. The standard image has the following features (see Annex A).

— One-dimensional and two-dimensional symbols for evaluating bar code print quality

— Corner marks (see Figure 5) that help to visually determine print quality

— Image pattern to use all of the heating elements that enables failure detection of the thermal

printhead heating elements

— 90 degrees rotated bar code for knowing the quality of print in ladder type and in picket fence type

— Strings to determine the legibility of small characters
— Counter for counting the number of prints (one set)
— Logo mark may be printed in image mode (see A.2)

The corner mark shall use the bitmap image defined in A.1.1. The other images shall be created

by a dedicated commands of the bar code printer to be evaluated. The positions at which the one-

dimensional symbols and the two-dimensional symbols are printed are based on the arrangement

shown in Figure 2, but the base points of each symbol are not defined. However, it shall not be arranged

so as to infringe the quiet zone of the symbol.

The size of BCP-nnn-1 and BCP-nnn-2 is 50,8 mm × 76,2 mm (2 inches × 3 inches), which can be used

in conjunction for nominal 200, 300, 400 and 600 dpi bar code printers commonly used for “reception

papers or labels” of 50,4 mm (2 inches) to 203,2 mm (8 inches) wide and 254,0 mm (10 inches) wide (see

Figure 4).

NOTE 1 dpi is the resolution and the number of dots per inch (1 inch is 25,4 mm).

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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)

NOTE 2 The standard image is mainly used to evaluate the maximum print speed, the minimum print

resolution, the suitability of the reception paper or label with the ribbon, and the like.

Figure 2 — Example of individual image arrangement of standard image for evaluation of

performance of bar code printer

— The International Standard number ("ISO/IEC 24458"), standard image number ("BCP-300-1" and

"BCP-300-2"), number count ("count: 001") and "Standard image for bar code printer performance

evaluation." displayed on the standard image shall be selected from the fonts and sizes built into the

barcode printer.

NOTE 3 Font and size are taken into account so as not to break the overall balance.

— As the frame line width surrounding the bar code symbol, the numbers of dots constituting the

minimum element (many dots) of the one-dimensional symbol are used (see Table 1).

— The value of the number-of-sheets count is printed on anyone (or all) of the standard images in

the set of standard images defined in Figure 4. Table 1 shows the number of dots constituting the

minimum elements of the one-dimensional symbol and the two-dimensional symbol according to

dpi of the bar code printer.
Table 1 — Number of dots making up the minimum element at nominal dpi
Nominal One-dimensional symbol Two-dimensional symbol
dpi
Few dots Many dots Few dots Many dots
180 1(0,143 mm) 2(0,286 mm) 2(0,286 mm) 3(0,429 mm)
200 1(0,125 mm) 2(0,250 mm) 2(0,250 mm) 3(0,375 mm)

NOTE Numbers in parentheses are reference values obtained by converting the number of

dots into mm.
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ISO/IEC 24458:2022(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Nominal One-dimensional symbol Two-dimensional symbol
dpi
Few dots Many dots Few dots Many dots
300 2(0,167 mm) 3(0,250 mm) 3(0,250 mm) 4(0,333 mm)
360 2(0,143 mm) 3(0,214 mm) 3(0,214 mm) 5(0,357 mm)
400 2(0,125 mm) 4(0,250 mm) 3(0,188 mm) 6(0,375 mm)
600 2(0,083 mm) 6(0,250 mm) 3(0,125 mm) 8(0,333 mm)

NOTE Numbers in parentheses are reference values obtained by converting the number of

dots into mm.

The specifications of the one-dimensional symbol and the two-dimensional symbol to be printed with

the standard image are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 — Specifications of bar codes printed in standard Image
Item Code 39 Code 128 Data matrix QR code
(See ISO/ (See ISO/IEC 15417) (See ISO/IEC 16022) (See ISO/
IEC 16388) IEC 18004)
Data *%7C%* STC 65 68 91 91 10 40 "0"s 41 "0"s
Narrow/wide ratio 1:3 — — —
(N)
Intercharacter gap 1X — — —
Check character None 66(STX) — —
Bar height — —
(Regardless with
few dots or many
dots bar width)
(180 dpi) [35 dots (approx.5 mm) or more]
200 dpi 40 dots (approx.5 mm) or more
300 dpi 60 dots (approx.5 mm) or more
(360 dpi) [70 dots (approx.5 mm) or more]
400 dpi 80 dots (approx.5 mm) or more
600 dpi 120 dots (approx.5 mm) or more
Symbol size and - - 20 x 20 21 x 21
error correction
automatic L
level
Readable characters OCR B OCR B
...

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