Reaction-to-fire tests for sandwich panel building systems

This document specifies a test method for evaluating the reaction-to-fire performance of thermal insulating sandwich panel building systems for large rooms and the resulting flame spread on or within the thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction when it is exposed to heat from a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on its internal corner. The test method is not intended for evaluating a product's fire resistance. This document is applicable to both freestanding and self-supporting and frame-supported thermal insulating sandwich panel systems, but only to wall and ceiling or roof constructions.

Essais de réaction au feu des systèmes de fabrication de panneaux de type sandwich

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Published
Publication Date
29-Oct-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
30-Sep-2020
Completion Date
30-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13784-2
Second edition
2020-10
Reaction-to-fire tests for sandwich
panel building systems —
Part 2:
Test method for large rooms
Essais de réaction au feu des systèmes de fabrication de panneaux de
type sandwich —
Partie 2: Méthode d'essai pour des chambres de grande taille
Reference number
ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................................................................................................2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2

5 Types of structure ...............................................................................................................................................................................................3

6 Test specimen ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................3

7 Test room design and construction ...................................................................................................................................................3

8 Ignition source ........................................................................................................................................................................................................8

9 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.1 Initial conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.2 Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 1, Fire

initiation and growth.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13784-2:2002), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— All drawings have been updated, as some were unclear and views were incorrect.

— In the Introduction, the reference to ISO/TR 3814 has been updated to ISO/TS 3814.

— In the Introduction, clarification has been added that this document deals with thermal insulating

sandwich panels as well as a widening of the use of products to reflect the current field of applications

of sandwich panels.

— In Clause 3, the term "constant mass" has been removed, as it is not used in this document, and the

term "thermal" in terms of the sandwich panel has been introduced. Terms have been renumbered.

— In Clause 8, Ignition source, the wording and locations have been altered to bring them in line with

the ISO 19075 series and cross-references to a figure have been introduced for clarity (no technical

consequences).
A list of all parts in the ISO 13784 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
Introduction

Fire is a complex phenomenon, its behaviour and effects dependent upon a number of interrelated

factors. The behaviour of materials and products depends upon the characteristics of the fire, the

method of use of the materials and the environment in which they are exposed (for the philosophy of

reaction-to-fire tests, see ISO/TS 3814).

The need for improved insulation of buildings has led to the increased use of thermal insulating

sandwich panel systems in different parts of the building industry. Thermal insulating sandwich panel

systems are applied as external cladding on factory buildings, in internal envelopes with controlled

atmospheres and in cold stores, varying from small rooms to large, coolhouses and warehouses. Other

applications are in modular building rooms and retail premises. These systems can also be used for roof

applications in traditional constructions. Multi-layered panels with other facings (e.g. plasterboard) or

sandwich panel systems can also be applied to walls as internal linings or insulation; however, this is

not within the scope of the ISO 13784 series.

There exist three primary fire-related threats to the walls and ceilings or roofs of a building insulated

with freestanding or frame-supported types of thermal insulating sandwich panel systems:

a) an interior compartment fire impinging directly onto the joints of the wall, typical ignition sources

being welding torches, burning items near the wall and fire in an adjacent room;

b) an external fire or combustibles (rubbish, vegetation, vehicles, etc.) accumulated near the wall;

c) fire spread to outside spaces.
Moreover, such a fire can spread in several ways:
— over a combustible exterior surface;

— by travelling vertically and horizontally through the combustible cores of cavities within the

external wall or ceiling/roof;

— through combustible gases which have developed due to the pyrolysis of the combustible components

and which will ignite on the surface;
— as burning debris or flaming droplets.

This document deals with a simple representation of a fire scenario involving a thermal insulating

sandwich panel system, such as that typified by a local fire impinging directly on the internal face of

a thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction. The test method specified can be used to

provide a large-room scale, end-use evaluation of all aspects of thermal insulating sandwich panel

systems, including constructional techniques (supporting frameworks, jointing detail, etc.).

The test method is intended for evaluating products which, by their nature, are not normally used as

internal linings and are unsuitable for assessment using ISO/TR 9705-2 which evaluates fire growth

from a surface product or ISO 9705-1 (test method). Nevertheless, this document provides a means by

which a freestanding or frame-supported thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction can

be built and evaluated.

Testing of this type can be used for comparative purposes or to ensure the existence of a certain quality

of performance considered to have a bearing on fire performance generally.

The ISO 13784 series consists of the following parts, under the general title "Reaction-to-fire tests for

sandwich panel building systems":
— Part 1: Test method for small rooms;
— Part 2 (this document): Test method for large rooms.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
Reaction-to-fire tests for sandwich panel building
systems —
Part 2:
Test method for large rooms

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS — In order that suitable precautions can be taken to safeguard health,

the attention of all concerned in fire tests is drawn to the possibility that toxic or harmful gases

can evolve during combustion of test specimens.

The test procedures concerned involve high temperatures and combustion processes, from

ignition to a fully developed room fire. Therefore, hazards can exist for burns, ignition of

extraneous objects or clothing. Operators should use protective clothing, helmet, face-shield

and equipment for avoiding exposure to toxic gases.

Laboratory safety procedures shall be set up which ensure the safe termination of tests on

sandwich panel products. Specimens with combustible content burning inside metallic facings

can be difficult to extinguish with standard laboratory fire fighting equipment. Adequate means

of extinguishing such a fire shall be provided.

When tests are conducted using freestanding or frame-supported constructions, specimens

could emit combustion products from their external faces, especially if joints open up. Specimen

collapse can also occur. Laboratory safety procedures shall be set up to ensure the safety of

personnel with due consideration to such situations.

For construction of the test enclosure using a freestanding structure without structural

framework, because of the size and weight of the individual panels it is strongly recommended

that construction be accomplished within an additional external support framework (e.g.

scaffolding). If the test enclosure is erected in an outside environment, it is further recommended

that the external framework remain in place during the test. The purpose of this framework is

only to avoid collapse of the test room caused by wind action. This additional framework shall

not be used to fix and support the sandwich panels.
1 Scope

This document specifies a test method for evaluating the reaction-to-fire performance of thermal

insulating sandwich panel building systems for large rooms and the resulting flame spread on or

within the thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction when it is exposed to heat from

a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on its internal corner. The test method is not

intended for evaluating a product's fire resistance.

This document is applicable to both freestanding and self-supporting and frame-supported thermal

insulating sandwich panel systems, but only to wall and ceiling or roof constructions.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples — Part 1: EMF specifications and tolerances
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 13784-2:2020(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
composite

combination of materials generally recognized in building construction as discrete entities

EXAMPLE Coated or laminated materials.
3.2
exposed surface
surface of the product (3.2) subjected to the heating conditions of the test
3.3
product
material, composite (3.1) or assembly
3.4
surface product

any part of a building constituting an exposed surface on the walls or ceiling/roof, or on both

EXAMPLE Panel or board.
3.5
thermal insulating sandwich panel
sandwich panel

building product (3.2) consisting of two metal faces positioned on either side of a core that is a thermally

insulating material, which is firmly bonded to both faces so that the three components act compositely

when under load

Note 1 to entry: One layer is an insulating material, such as mineral or glass wool, cellular plastics or a natural

material (e.g. corkboard), protected by facings on both sides. Facings can be selected from a variety of materials

and can be either flat or profiled. The most widely used facing is coated steel. The composite varies from a

simple construction to a complex composite system with specific fixing joints and supports, depending on the

application and on the performance requirements.
3.6
specimen
assembly representing the end-use construction
4 Principle
The reaction to fire performance of a sandwic
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 13784-2
ISO/TC 92/SC 1 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-01-31 2020-04-24
Reaction-to-fire tests for sandwich panel building
systems —
Part 2:
Test method for large rooms

Essais de réaction au feu des systèmes de fabrication de panneaux de type sandwich —

Partie 2: Méthode d'essai pour des chambres de grande taille
ICS: 13.220.50
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Types of structure ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test specimen .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Test room design and construction ................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Ignition source ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

9 Apparatus .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................9

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.1 Initial conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.2 Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member

bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the

member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO 13784 may be the

subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO 13784-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety,

Subcommittee SC 1, Fire initiation and growth.

ISO 13784 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reaction-to-fire tests for sandwich

panel building systems:
— Part 1: Test method for small rooms
— Part 2: Test method for large rooms
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)
Introduction

Fire is a complex phenomenon, its behaviour and effects dependent upon a number of interrelated

factors. The behaviour of materials and products depends upon the characteristics of the fire, the

method of use of the materials and the environment in which they are exposed (for the philosophy of

reaction-to-fire tests, see ISO/TS 3814).

The need for improved insulation of buildings has led to the increased use of thermal insulating

sandwich panel systems in different parts of the building industry. Thermal insulating sandwich panel

systems are applied as external cladding on factory buildings, in internal envelopes with controlled

atmospheres and in cold stores — varying from small rooms to large, cool- and ware-houses. Other

applications are in modular building rooms and retail premises. These systems can also be used for roof

applications in traditional constructions. Multi-layered panels with other facings (e.g. plasterboard) or

sandwich panel systems can also be applied to walls as internal linings or insulation; however, this is

not within the scope of ISO 13784.

There exist three primary fire-related threats to the walls and ceilings or roofs of a building insulated

with freestanding or frame-supported types of thermal insulating sandwich panel systems:

a) an interior compartment fire impinging directly onto the joints of the wall, typical ignition sources

being welding torches, burning items near the wall and fire in an adjacent room;

b) an external fire or combustibles (rubbish, vegetation, vehicles, etc.) accumulated near the wall;

c) fire spread to outside spaces.
Moreover, such a fire can spread in several ways:
— over a combustible exterior surface;

— by travelling vertically and horizontally through the combustible cores of cavities within the

external wall or ceiling/roof;

— through combustible gases which have developed due to the pyrolysis of the combustible components

and which will ignite on the surface;
— as burning debris or flaming droplets.

This part of ISO 13784 deals with a simple representation of a fire scenario involving a thermal insulating

sandwich panel system — such as that typified by a local fire impinging directly on the internal face

of a thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction. The test method specified can be used

to provide a large-room scale, end-use evaluation of all aspects of thermal insulating sandwich panel

systems, including constructional techniques (supporting frameworks, jointing detail, etc.)

The test method is intended for evaluating products which, by their nature, are not normally used as

[1]

internal linings and are unsuitable for assessment using ISO 9705 , which evaluates fire growth from

a surface product. Nevertheless, this part of ISO 13784 provides a means by which a freestanding or

frame-supported thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction can be built and evaluated.

Testing of this type can be used for comparative purposes or to ensure the existence of a certain quality

of performance considered to have a bearing on fire performance generally.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)
Reaction-to-fire tests for sandwich panel building
systems —
Part 2:
Test method for large rooms

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS — In order that suitable precautions can be taken to safeguard health,

the attention of all concerned in fire tests is drawn to the possibility that toxic or harmful gases

can be evolved during combustion of test specimens.

The test procedures concerned involve high temperatures and combustion processes — from

ignition to a fully developed room fire. Therefore, hazards can exist for burns, ignition of

extraneous objects or clothing. Operators should use protective clothing, helmet, face-shield

and equipment for avoiding exposure to toxic gases.

Laboratory safety procedures shall be set up which ensure the safe termination of tests on

sandwich panel products. Specimens with combustible content burning inside metallic facings

can be difficult to extinguish with standard laboratory fire fighting equipment. Adequate means

of extinguishing such a fire shall be provided.

When tests are conducted using the freestanding or frame-supported constructions, specimens

could emit combustion products from their external faces, especially if joints open up. Specimen

collapse can also occur. Laboratory safety procedures shall be set up to ensure the safety of

personnel with due consideration to such situations.

For construction of the test enclosure using a freestanding structure without structural

framework, because of the size and weight of the individual panels it is strongly recommended

that construction be accomplished within an additional external support framework (e.g.

scaffolding). If the test enclosure is erected in an outside environment, it is further recommended

that the external framework remain in place during the test. The task of this framework is only

to avoid collapse of the test room caused by wind action. This additional framework shall not be

used to fix and support the sandwich panels.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13784 specifies a test method for evaluating the reaction-to-fire performance of

thermal insulating sandwich panel building systems for large rooms and the resulting flame spread on

or within the thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction when it is exposed to heat from

a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on its internal corner. The test method is not

intended for evaluating a product's fire resistance.

This part of ISO 13784 is applicable to both freestanding and self-supporting, and frame-supported,

thermal insulating sandwich panel systems, but only to wall and ceiling or roof constructions.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute

provisions of this part of ISO 13784. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of,

any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 13784

are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative

documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document

referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International

Standards.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13784-2:2020(E)

ISO/TR 9705-2, Reaction-to-fire tests — Full-scale room tests for surface products — Part 2: Technical

background and guidance

ISO 13784-1, Reaction to fire test for sandwich panel building systems — Part 1: Small room test

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
IEC 60584-2, Thermocouples — Part 2: Tolerances
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO 13784, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and the

following apply.
3.1
composite

combination of materials generally recognized in building construction as discrete entities

EXAMPLE Coated or laminated materials.
3.2
exposed surface
surface of the product subjected to the heating conditions of the test
3.3
product
material, composite or assembly
3.4
surface product

any part of a building constituting an exposed surface on the walls or ceiling/roof, or on both

EXAMPLE Panel or board.
3.5
thermal insulating sandwich panel

building product consisting of two metal faces positioned on either side of a core that is a thermally

insulating material, which is firmly bonded to both faces so that the three components act compositely

when under load (from now on called “sandwich panel”)

Note 1 to entry: One layer is an insulating material, such as mineral or glass wool, cellular plastics or a natural

material (e.g. corkboard), protected by facings on both sides. Facings can be selected from a variety of materials

and can be either flat or profiled. The most widely used facing is coated steel. The composite can vary from a

simple construction to a complex composite system with specific fixing joints and supports, depending on the

application and on the performance requirements.
3.6
specimen
assembly representing the end-use construction
4 Principle
The reaction to fire p
...

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