Ships and marine technology — Heading control systems

This document specifies the minimum operational, functional and performance requirements, as well as methods of testing and the corresponding required test results, for heading control systems installed on board ships conforming to performance standards adopted by IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3. In addition, it takes into account parts of IMO resolution A.694(17) to which IEC 60945 is associated. Also it takes into account IMO resolution MSC.302(87) on bridge alert management (BAM). In this document, the ship models of simulators used for performance testing are based on those from ships with a combined system of propeller propulsion and conventional rudder, with a speed range of up to 30 knots. The test results are considered also to be valid for ships with multiple parallel operated rudders. NOTE The text in this document that is identical to that in IMO Resolution A.342(IX), as amended by IMO Resolution MSC.64(67) Annex 3, and IMO Resolution A.694(17), is printed in italics.

Navires et technologie maritime — Systèmes de contrôle du cap

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Published
Publication Date
26-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
27-Nov-2019
Completion Date
27-Nov-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11674
Third edition
2019-11
Ships and marine technology —
Heading control systems
Navires et technologie maritime — Systèmes de contrôle du cap
Reference number
ISO 11674:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
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© ISO 2019

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Operational requirements ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.1 Change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice versa........................................... 7

4.2.2 Operational controls including adjustment controls........................................................................ 7

4.2.3 Manual change-over from track control to heading control ...................................................... 8

4.3 Functional requirements ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.1 Rudder angle limitation ............................................................................................................................................. 8

4.3.2 Heading monitor .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.3.3 Interfaces ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.4 Alert management .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3.5 Mandatory displayed information .................................................................................................................11

4.4 Control performance requirements ...................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.2 Heading keeping function under wave disturbance.......................................................................12

4.4.3 Heading changing function ..................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Display .........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

5 Set-up .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.2 Ship motion simulator and starting condition .........................................................................................................15

6 Tests of operational requirements .................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 Change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice versa — Method of

testing and required test results ...........................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Operational controls including adjustment controls — Method of testing and

required test results ........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Manual change-over from track control to heading control .........................................................................17

6.3.1 Application .........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3.2 Method of testing and required test results ..........................................................................................17

6.4 Display test ..............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Tests of functional requirements .....................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 Rudder angle limitation ................................................................................................................................................................18

7.1.1 Method of testing ..........................................................................................................................................................18

7.1.2 Required test results .................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Heading monitor.................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.3 Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.1 Method of testing ..........................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.2 Required test results .................................................................................................................................................19

7.4 Alert management ............................................................................................................................................................................19

7.4.1 Basic test for alert management ......................................................................................................................19

7.4.2 ‘Lost HDG control’ alert and escalation to BNWAS ..........................................................................19

7.4.3 ‘Off-heading’ alert.........................................................................................................................................................20

7.4.4 Alert detected by the heading monitor (‘Doubtful heading’ alert) ....................................21

7.4.5 ‘No SPD adaptive’ alert ............................................................................................................................................22

7.4.6 ‘Low speed’ alert ...........................................................................................................................................................22

7.4.7 Failure or reduction in the power supply to the EUT or an external

heading monitor (‘HCS power fail’ alert) .................................................................................................23

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ISO 11674:2019(E)

7.4.8 System failure of EUT or an external heading monitor (‘HCS fault’ alert) ..................24

7.5 Mandatory displayed information — Method of testing and required test results ..................24

8 Tests of control performance ...............................................................................................................................................................24

8.1 Heading keeping test under wave disturbance ........................................................................................................24

8.1.1 Method of testing ..........................................................................................................................................................24

8.1.2 Required test results .................................................................................................................................................25

8.2 Heading changing test ...................................................................................................................................................................25

8.2.1 Application .........................................................................................................................................................................25

8.2.2 Small heading changing test ...............................................................................................................................25

8.2.3 Heading changing test with preset turn rate ........................................................................................26

8.2.4 Heading changing test with preset turning radius ..........................................................................27

8.2.5 200° heading changing test .................................................................................................................................28

8.2.6 Heading changing test under wave disturbance ...............................................................................28

9 Information .............................................................................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (normative) Use of IEC 62065 ship models and wave disturbances for the HCS

performance tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex B (normative) Alerts definition for HCS ......................................................................................................................................43

Annex C (normative) IEC 61162 interfaces .................................................................................................................................................44

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................47

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Navigation and ship operations.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 11674:2006), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows.
— Clause 1: The bridge alert management (BAM) requirement was added.
— Clause 2: The referenced documents such as related to BAM were added.

— Clause 3: Along with renewal of the overall structure of the document, the terms, definitions and

abbreviated terms were also updated.

— Clause 4: The IMO performance requirements that were defined in each clauses were summarized

in Clause 4. In addition, Clause 4 was classified into Operational requirements (4.2), Functional

requirements (4.3), and Control performance requirements (4.4) and the corresponding tests are

specified in Clause 6, Clause 7 and Clause 8.

— 4.3.4, 7.4, Annex B: Because the HCS becomes the BAM compliant equipment, alerts with a

standard alert identifier, BAM requirements, test methods, communication procedures, and other

requirements regarding implementation were added.

— Clause 5: To harmonize with IEC 62065:2014, the test procedure positively utilizing the ship motion

simulator of IEC 62065:2014 and the required test results were specified.

— Annex A: In connection with the change in Clause 8, the use of IEC 62065:2014 ship models and wave

disturbances for the HCS performance test was specified.

— The IEC 61162 interface requirements specified in the main body of this document were transferred

to Annex C, and details were specified.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 11674:2019(E)

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11674:2019(E)
Ships and marine technology — Heading control systems
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum operational, functional and performance requirements, as well

as methods of testing and the corresponding required test results, for heading control systems installed

on board ships conforming to performance standards adopted by IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3.

In addition, it takes into account parts of IMO resolution A.694(17) to which IEC 60945 is associated.

Also it takes into account IMO resolution MSC.302(87) on bridge alert management (BAM).

In this document, the ship models of simulators used for performance testing are based on those from

ships with a combined system of propeller propulsion and conventional rudder, with a speed range of

up to 30 knots.

The test results are considered also to be valid for ships with multiple parallel operated rudders.

NOTE The text in this document that is identical to that in IMO Resolution A.342(IX), as amended by IMO

Resolution MSC.64(67) Annex 3, and IMO Resolution A.694(17), is printed in italics.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 61162-1, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Digital interfaces —

Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners

IEC 61162-2, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Digital interfaces —

Part 2: Single talker and multiple listeners, high-speed transmission

IEC 61162-450, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Digital

interfaces — Part 450: Multiple talkers and multiple listeners — Ethernet interconnection

IEC 62288, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Presentation of

navigation-related information on shipborne navigational displays — General requirements, methods of

testing and required test results

IEC 62065:2014, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Track control

systems — Operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results

IEC 62923-1:2018, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Bridge alert

management — Part 1: Operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required

test results

IEC 62923-2, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Bridge alert

management — Part 2: Alert and cluster identifiers and other additional features
IMO Resolution MSC.302(87), Performance standards for bridge alert management
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp/
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
adjustment control

control which changes the characteristics of an automatic heading (3.1.7) control unit

3.1.2
back-up navigator

individual, generally an officer, designated by the ship master to be on call if assistance is needed on

the bridge
[SOURCE: IMO Resolution MSC.74(69), Annex 2:1998, para 4]
3.1.3
change-over control

function for changing over from automatic to manual steering (3.1.10) and vice versa

3.1.4
central alert management
CAM

functionality for the management of the presentation of alerts on the CAM-HMI (3.1.5), the

communication of alert states between CAM-HMI and navigational systems and sensors

Note 1 to entry: The functions may be centralized or partly centralized in subsystems and interconnected via a

standardized alert-related communication.
[SOURCE: IMO Resolution MSC.302(87):2010, Appendix 1]
3.1.5
central alert management HMI
CAM-HMI

human machine interface for centralized presentation and handling of alerts on the bridge

[SOURCE: IMO Resolution MSC.302(87):2010, Appendix 1]
3.1.6
central alert management system
CAM system
combined functionality of CAM (3.1.4) and CAM-HMI (3.1.5)
[SOURCE: IEC 62923-1:2018, 3.1.18]
3.1.7
heading

direction in which the longitudinal axis of the ship is pointed, defined by the angle between the meridian

through its position and the fore-and-aft line of the ship, expressed in angular units from true north

Note 1 to entry: The heading is expressed in degrees from true north 000° clockwise through 360°, where 360°

becomes identical to 000°.
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
3.1.8
heading changing

function of the heading (3.1.7) control unit to change a ship’s heading towards the altered preset heading

(3.1.14) by taking the rudder order within the rudder limit, while if possible turning with a preset turn

rate or with a preset turning radius, within limits related to the ship's manoeuvrability

3.1.9
heading keeping

function of the heading (3.1.7) control unit to keep a ship’s heading at the preset heading (3.1.14) by

taking the rudder order within the rudder limit, within limits related to the ship's manoeuvrability

3.1.10
manual steering
method of controlling the steering gear manually
EXAMPLE Using a steering wheel.
3.1.11
off-heading

situation in heading keeping (3.1.9), where the ship’s heading (3.1.7) has deviated from the preset heading

(3.1.14) beyond a preset limit
3.1.12
overshoot

occurrence of a ship’s heading (3.1.7) response exceeding the preset heading (3.1.14) during heading

changing (3.1.8), when the preset heading is given as a step input to the HCS
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Key
Δh absolute value of overshoot

y ship’ s heading response relative to the previous preset heading during heading changing

k change of the preset heading
t time when ship's heading response reached the maximum value after exceeding k
m s
t time
Figure 1 — Overshoot
3.1.13
power supply
connection point of the HCS to the electrical system on board

Note 1 to entry: A power supply is an external interface to the HCS and may include any AC or DC voltage as

defined by the manufacturer. A HCS may have multiple power supplies.
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
3.1.14
preset heading

direction in which a ship is steered or intended to be steered as entered into the heading (3.1.7)

control system

Note 1 to entry: Preset heading is expressed as the angular direction in degrees from true north 000° clockwise

through 360°, where 360° becomes identical to 000°.
3.1.15
single operator action
one manual control

procedure achieved by no more than one hard-key or soft-key action, excluding any necessary cursor

movements, or voice actuation using programmed codes
[SOURCE: IMO Resolution MSC.302(87):2010, Appendix 1]
3.1.16
steering gear control system
SGCS

function that calculates and provides commands to the rudder actuator(s) to achieve the rudder angle

according to the rudder order provided
3.1.17
total power failure
absence of sufficient electrical voltage on all power supplies of the EUT
3.1.18
turning-radius control

method of controlling the rate of turn of a ship to perform turns with a preset turning radius through

the water
3.1.19
turn rate control

method of controlling the rudder of a ship to perform turns with a preset turn rate

3.1.20
undershoot

occurrence that during heading changing (3.1.8), the ship’s heading (3.1.7) has never reached the preset

heading (3.1.14) and the difference between the preset heading and the heading is not within the

specified range from the preset heading before/at specified time t
Note 1 to entry: See 4.4.3.1.
3.1.21
waypoint
geographic position together with its associated data
[SOURCE: IEC 62065:2014, 3.1.43]
3.2 Abbreviated terms
BAM bridge alert management
BNC back-up navigator call
BNWAS bridge navigational watch alarm system
CAM central alert management
CAM-HMI central alert management-human machine interface
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
CCW counterclockwise
CW clockwise
EUT equipment under test
HCS heading control system
HMI human machine interface
OOW officer of the watch
ROT rate of turn
SDME speed and distance measuring equipment
SGCS steering gear control system
SPD speed of ship
TCS track control system
UID user input device
4 Requirements
4.1 General

[IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3, para 2.1] Within limits related to the ship's manoeuvrability the

heading control system, in conjunction with their sources of heading information, shall enable a ship to

keep a preset heading with minimum operation of the ship's steering gear.

[IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3, para 2.3] A turn rate control or a turning-radius control for

performing turns may be provided.
NOTE The above IMO requirement (para 2.3) is interpreted as follows.

When the HCS performs the heading changing according to the preset heading, a turn rate (constant) control

for performing turns can be provided by setting either the maximum desired preset turn rate or the maximum

desired preset turning radius. (See IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3, para 3.2).

[IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3, para 3.1] The heading control system shall be capable of adapting

manually or automatically to different steering characteristics of the ship under various speed, weather and

loading conditions, and provide reliable operation under prevailing environment and normal operational

conditions.

A heading control system (HCS) shall be composed, as a minimum, of the following components (see

Figure 2).

— 4 components of HCS, in addition to an external heading monitor ( in Figure 2):

preset heading control, adjustment controls, serial/DIO interface ports, heading control unit.

— The heading control unit includes the following functions:

adjustment of control parameters (automatic/manual), heading keeping, display and indication of

mandatory/relevant information, alert management. If possible, heading changing with preset turn

rate or with preset turning radius. If applicable, automatic adaption control to ship speed (change)

and/or disturbances, an internal heading monitor ( in Figure 2).
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
— The alert management includes the following functions:

alert activation, alert presentation, alert handling, alert communication with CAM system, self-

diagnostic function to notify OOW.
Key
δo rudder order
δ actual rudder angle

In case the heading monitor is (a function of) an external device. (e.g. heading information system composed

of multiple heading sensors and heading distribution unit).
In case the heading monitor is an internal function of the heading control unit.

Manual devices for example include a steering wheel and steering UIDs installed on the bridge.

Plural SG control units are usually installed to drive hydraulic power units of steering gear.

Steering gear usually includes the plural hydraulic power units.

When the HCS utilizes speed information for automatic heading control adaptation.

For example: an autopilot adaptive to speed; a HCS with turning-radius control.

When a ship simulator is used for test, the part surrounded by a dash-dotted line is replaced by

IEC 62065:2014 ship motion simulator.
NOTE 1 During the tests, the CAM system can be replaced by a CAM simulator.
NOTE 2 During the tests, the BNWAS can be replaced by a simulator.
NOTE 3 Dotted line: equipment/function is optional.
NOTE 4 Dashed line: not part of the system to be tested in this document.

Figure 2 — Typical block diagram for a heading control system installed on the bridge

6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11674:2019(E)
4.2 Operational requirements
4.2.1 Change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice versa

[IMO Resolution MSC.64(67), Annex 3, para 4.1] Change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice

versa shall be possible at any position of the rudder and s
...

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