Road vehicles -- Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP)

This document specifies the requirements for secured and unsecured diagnostic communication between client DoIP entity and server(s) installed in the vehicle using Internet protocol (IP) as well as the transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP). This includes the definition of vehicle gateway requirements (e.g. for integration into an existing computer network) and test equipment (client DoIP entity) requirements (e.g. to detect and establish communication with a vehicle). This document specifies features that are used to detect a vehicle in a network and enable communication with the vehicle gateway as well as with its sub-components during the various vehicle states. These features are separated into two types: mandatory and optional. This document specifies the following mandatory features: — vehicle network integration (IP address assignment); — vehicle announcement and vehicle discovery; — vehicle basic status information retrieval (e.g. diagnostic power mode); — connection establishment (e.g. concurrent communication attempts), connection maintenance and vehicle gateway control; — data routing to and from the vehicle's sub-components; — error handling (e.g. physical network disconnect). This document specifies the following optional features: — DoIP entity status monitoring; — transport layer security (TLS); — DoIP entity firewall capabilities.

Véhicules routiers -- Communication de diagnostic au travers du protocole internet (DoIP)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Nov-2019
Completion Date
13-Dec-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13400-2
Second edition
2019-12
Road vehicles — Diagnostic
communication over Internet Protocol
(DoIP) —
Part 2:
Transport protocol and network layer
services
Véhicules routiers — Communication de diagnostic au travers du
protocole internet (DoIP) —
Partie 2: Protocole de transport et services de la couche réseau
Reference number
ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 DoIP introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.1 General information ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Connection establishment and vehicle discovery ..................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 Direct connection scenario ..................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.2 Network connection scenario ............................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.3 Internal tester scenario (optional) ................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Unsecured DoIP session ............................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.5 Secured (TLS) DoIP session.................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Vehicle network integration .....................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Vehicle identification .................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Multiple vehicles in a single network..........................................................................................................12

6.4 Communication examples using message sequence charts ..........................................................................13

6.5 IP-based vehicle communication protocol — General information .......................................................14

7 Application (APP) requirements ......................................................................................................................................................14

7.1 APP implementation of DoIP requirements ...............................................................................................................14

7.2 APP data transmission order ...................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 APP DoIP entity synchronization of a vehicle's GID.............................................................................................14

7.4 APP vehicle identification and announcement request message .............................................................17

7.5 APP diagnostic power mode information request and response .............................................................24

7.6 APP DoIP entity status information request and response ...........................................................................25

7.7 APP timing and communication parameters .............................................................................................................25

7.8 APP logical addressing ..................................................................................................................................................................26

7.9 APP communication environments and recommended timings ..............................................................27

7.10 APP DoIP entity functional requirements ....................................................................................................................28

8 Service interface ................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.2 Service primitive parameters (SPP) ..................................................................................................................................30

8.2.1 SPP data type definitions .......................................................................................................................................30

8.2.2 SPP DoIP_AI, address information .................................................................................................................30

8.2.3 SPP Length, length of PDU ....................................................................................................................................31

8.2.4 SPP PDU, protocol data unit ................................................................................................................................31

8.2.5 SPP DoIP_Result.............................................................................................................................................................31

8.3 SPP DoIP layer service interface ...........................................................................................................................................31

8.3.1 SPP DoIP_Data.request ............................................................................................................................................31

8.3.2 SPP DoIP_Data.confirm............................................................................................................................................32

8.3.3 SPP DoIP_Data.indication ......................................................................................................................................32

9 Application layer (AL) ..................................................................................................................................................................................32

9.1 AL dynamic host control protocol (DHCP)...................................................................................................................32

9.1.1 AL general ...........................................................................................................................................................................32

9.1.2 AL IP address assignment .....................................................................................................................................34

9.1.3 AL IP address validity and renewal ..............................................................................................................37

9.2 AL generic DoIP protocol message structure ............................................................................................................38

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)

9.3 AL handling of UDP packets and TCP data ...................................................................................................................43

9.4 AL supported payload types over TCP and UDP ports ......................................................................................43

9.5 AL diagnostic message and diagnostic message acknowledgement .....................................................44

9.6 AL alive check request and alive check response ...................................................................................................49

10 Transport layer security (TLS) ............................................................................................................................................................50

10.1 TLS secure diagnostic communication ............................................................................................................................50

10.2 TLS DoIP application profile ....................................................................................................................................................52

10.2.1 TLS general ........................................................................................................................................................................52

10.2.2 TLS accepted TLS versions for DoIP ............................................................................................................52

10.2.3 TLS accepted cipher suites ...................................................................................................................................52

10.2.4 TLS accepted TLS extensions .............................................................................................................................53

11 Transport layer (TL) ......................................................................................................................................................................................54

11.1 TL transmission control protocol (TCP) ........................................................................................................................54

11.2 TL user datagram protocol (UDP) .......................................................................................................................................57

11.3 TL handling of UDP messages .................................................................................................................................................61

12 Network layer (NL) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................61

12.1 NL internet protocol (IP) .............................................................................................................................................................61

12.2 NL IPv4 address resolution protocol (ARP)................................................................................................................61

12.3 NL IPv6 neighbour discovery protocol (NDP) ..........................................................................................................62

12.4 NL internet control message protocol (ICMP) ..........................................................................................................62

12.5 NL IP-based vehicle communication protocol ..........................................................................................................63

12.6 NL socket handling ...........................................................................................................................................................................68

12.6.1 NL connection states .................................................................................................................................................68

12.6.2 NL general inactivity timer ..................................................................................................................................70

12.6.3 NL initial inactivity timer ......................................................................................................................................71

12.6.4 NL socket handler and alive check ................................................................................................................72

13 Data link layer (DLL) .....................................................................................................................................................................................76

13.1 DLL general .............................................................................................................................................................................................76

13.2 DLL MAC-layer ......................................................................................................................................................................................77

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................78

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 31,

Data communication.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13400-2:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— addition of TLS (Transport Layer Security);
— major restructuring of document content.
A list of all parts in the ISO 13400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
Introduction

Vehicle diagnostic communication has been developed starting with the introduction of the first

legislated emissions-related diagnostics and has evolved over the years, now covering various use

cases ranging from emission-related diagnostics to vehicle-manufacturer-specific applications like

calibration or electronic component software updates.

With the introduction of new in-vehicle network communication technologies, the interface between

the vehicle's servers and the client DoIP entity has been adapted several times to address the specific

characteristics of each new network communication technology requiring optimized data link layer

definitions and transport protocol developments in order to make the new in-vehicle networks usable

for diagnostic communication.

With increasing memory size of servers, the demand to update this increasing amount of software

and an increasing number of functions provided by these control units, technology of the connecting

network and buses has been driven to a level of complexity and speed similar to computer networks.

Various applications (x-by-wire, infotainment) require high band-width and real-time networks (like

FlexRay, MOST), which cannot be adapted to provide the direct interface to a vehicle. This requires

gateways to route and convert messages between the in-vehicle networks and the vehicle interface to

client DoIP entity.

All parts of ISO 13400 are applicable to vehicle diagnostic systems implemented on an IP communication

network.

The ISO 13400 series has been established in order to define common requirements for vehicle

diagnostic systems implemented on an IP communication link.

Although primarily intended for diagnostic systems, ISO 13400 has been developed to also meet

requirements from other IP-based systems needing a transport protocol and network layer services.

The intent of the ISO 13400 series is to describe a standardized vehicle interface which

— separates in-vehicle network technology from the client DoIP entity vehicle interface requirements

to allow for a long-term stable external vehicle communication interface,

— utilizes existing industry standards to define a long-term stable state-of-the-art communication

standard usable for legislated diagnostic communication as well as for manufacturer-specific

use cases,

— can easily be adapted to new physical and data link layers, including wired and wireless connections,

by using existing adaptation layers, and
— allows connections of vehicle-internal and vehicle-external DoIP entities.

To achieve this, it is based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model specified

[1]

in ISO/IEC 7498-1 and ISO/IEC 10731 , which structures communication systems into seven layers.

Figure 1 illustrates an overview of communication frameworks beyond the scope of this document

including related standards:
[3] [4]

— Vehicle diagnostic communication framework, which is composed of ISO 14229-1 , ISO 14229-2 ,

[5]
and ISO 14229-5 .
[6]

— Presentation layer standards, for example vehicle manufacturer- (VM-) specific or ISO 22901 ODX .

[2]
— OSI lower layers framework, which is composed of ISO 13400-3 and ISO 13400-4 .
[5]

The ISO 13400 series and ISO 14229-5 are based on the conventions specified in the OSI Service

[1]

Conventions (ISO/IEC 10731) as they apply for all layers and the diagnostic services.

vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
Figure 1 — DoIP document reference according to OSI model

Figure 2 illustrates vehicle network architecture schematics from a functional viewpoint.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
Figure 2 — Vehicle network architecture schematics (functional view)

This protocol standard is implemented by one or more DoIP entities, depending on the vehicle’s network

architecture. Figure 2 illustrates a client 1 (external client), which is connected to the DoIP edge node

and a client 2 (internal client) in the vehicle's internal network. If not stated otherwise, the DoIP client

entities are assumed to behave the same regardless to which network they are connected.

If necessary, this document distinguishes between an “internal client” and “external client” to apply a

requirement or statement.

In this document, the requirements are assigned a unique number of the form "X.DoIP-yyy", allowing

for easier requirement tracking and reference.
— X = OSI layer number; and
— DoIP-yyy = requirement number; and

— xL = x = OSI layer abbrevation[8 = APP, 7 = AL, 6 = PL, 5 = SL, 4 = TL, 3 = NL, 2 = DLL, 1 = PHY, 0 = SPP].

NOTE Requirements in this document are not numbered sequentially because the order of individual

requirements changed during document development.

Requirements formulated as “The vehicle shall implement …” imply that this is a requirement for all

DoIP entities to implement the required functionality if not explicitly stated otherwise. If multiple

DoIP entities are present on a vehicle network, implementation details may differ slightly for each DoIP

entity (e.g. for identification purposes), so that the client DoIP entity is able to identify the individual

DoIP gateways that support this protocol standard.
viii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)

Where reference is made to RFC documents, note that the forms “shall/shall not” are used to express

requirements in these documents.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved ix
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
Road vehicles — Diagnostic communication over Internet
Protocol (DoIP) —
Part 2:
Transport protocol and network layer services
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for secured and unsecured diagnostic communication

between client DoIP entity and server(s) installed in the vehicle using Internet protocol (IP) as well as

the transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP). This includes the definition

of vehicle gateway requirements (e.g. for integration into an existing computer network) and test

equipment (client DoIP entity) requirements (e.g. to detect and establish communication with a vehicle).

This document specifies features that are used to detect a vehicle in a network and enable

communication with the vehicle gateway as well as with its sub-components during the various vehicle

states. These features are separated into two types: mandatory and optional.
This document specifies the following mandatory features:
— vehicle network integration (IP address assignment);
— vehicle announcement and vehicle discovery;
— vehicle basic status information retrieval (e.g. diagnostic power mode);

— connection establishment (e.g. concurrent communication attempts), connection maintenance and

vehicle gateway control;
— data routing to and from the vehicle's sub-components;
— error handling (e.g. physical network disconnect).
This document specifies the following optional features:
— DoIP entity status monitoring;
— transport layer security (TLS);
— DoIP entity firewall capabilities.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994, Information processing systems — Open systems interconnection — Basic

reference model

ISO 13400-3, Road vehicles — Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) — Part 3: Wired

vehicle interface based on IEEE 802.3

ISO/IEC/IEEE 8802-3, Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between

systems — Local and metropolitan area networks — Specific requirements — Part 3: Standard for Ethernet

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
IETF RFC 768, User Datagram Protocol

IETF RFC 791:1981, Internet Protocol — DARPA Internet Program — Protocol Specification

IETF RFC 792, Internet Control Message Protocol — DARPA Internet Program — Protocol Specification

IETF RFC 793, Transmission Control Protocol — DARPA Internet Program — Protocol Specification

IETF RFC 826, An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol
IETF RFC 1122, Requirements for Internet Hosts — Communication Layers
IETF RFC 2131, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
IETF RFC 2132, DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions
IETF RFC 2460, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) — Specification
IETF RFC 2375, IPv6 Multicast Address Assignments
IETF RFC 3315, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
IETF RFC 3484, Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
IETF RFC 3927, Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses
IETF RFC 4291, IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture

IETF RFC 4443, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP v6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

Specification

IETF RFC 4492, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)

IETF RFC 4702, The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client Fully Qualified Domain Name

(FQDN) Option
IETF RFC 4861, Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)
IETF RFC 4862, IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
IETF RFC 5246, The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2
IETF RFC 8446:2018, The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 7498-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13400-2:2019(E)
3.1
diagnostic power mode

abstract vehicle internal power supply state, which affects the diagnostic capabilities of all servers on

the in-vehicle networks and which identifies the state of all servers of all gateway sub-networks that

allow diagnostic communication

Note 1 to entry: The intent is to provide information to the client DoIP entity about whether diagnostics can be

performed on the connected vehicle or whether the vehicle needs to be put into a different diagnostic power

mode (i.e. technician interaction required). In this document, the following states are relevant: Not Ready (not all

servers accessible via DoIP can communicate), Ready (all servers accessible via DoIP can communicate) and Not

Supported (the Diagnostic Information Power Mode Information Request message is not supported).

3.2
DoIP edge node

host (3.4) inside the vehicle, where an Ethernet activation line in accordance with ISO 13400-3 is

terminated and where the link from the first node/host in the external network is terminated

[SOURCE: ISO 13400-3:2011, 3.1.2, modified — definition editorially revised.]
3.3
DoIP entity certificate

certificate issued by an intermediate CA (3.5)to the DoIP entity presented during the TLS handshake to

the client DoIP entity to verify the authenticity of this DoIP entity
3.4
host
node connected to the IP-based network
3.5
inter
...

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