Road vehicles -- Engine test code -- Gross power

This document specifies a method for testing internal combustion engines for propulsion of road vehicles as defined in ISO 3833. It applies to the evaluation of their performance with a view, in particular, to presenting curves of power and specific fuel consumption at full load as a function of engine speed. This document is applicable to gross power assessment. This document concerns internal combustion engines used for propulsion of passenger cars, trucks and other motor vehicles, excluding motorcycles, mopeds and agricultural tractors normally travelling on roads, and included in one of the following categories: — reciprocating internal combustion engines (spark-ignition or compression-ignition) but excluding free piston engines; — rotary piston engines. These engines can be naturally aspirated or pressure charged, either using a mechanical supercharger or turbocharger. This document is primarily intended for the communication between the engine manufacturer and the manufacturer of the vehicle. If used for advertising purposes, the ratings will clearly state that they are gross power in accordance with 9.2.

Véhicules routiers -- Code d'essai des moteurs -- Puissance brute

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Publication Date
28-May-2020
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6060 - International Standard published
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2534
Third edition
2020-05
Road vehicles — Engine test code —
Gross power
Véhicules routiers — Code d'essai des moteurs — Puissance brute
Reference number
ISO 2534:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Accuracy of measuring equipment and instruments ..................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Torque ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Engine speed (rotational frequency) ................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Fuel flow ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Fuel temperature................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.5 Air temperature ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.6 Barometric pressure .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.7 Back pressure in exhaust system ............................................................................................................................................ 3

4.8 Depression in inlet system ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.9 Absolute pressure in inlet duct ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Auxiliaries ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.1 Auxiliaries to be fitted ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.2 Auxiliaries to be removed ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.3 Compression-ignition engine starting auxiliaries ............................................................................... 6

5.2 Setting conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Test conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Data to be recorded ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Power correction factors .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Definition of factor α for power correction .................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Atmospheric conditions .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.1 Reference atmospheric conditions ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Test atmospheric conditions ................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Determination of power correction factors ................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 Naturally aspirated and pressure-charged spark-ignition engines — Factor α ..10

6.3.2 Compression-ignition engines — Factor α .................. ........................................................................10

6.3.3 Turbocharged engine with a system compensating the ambient conditions ...........12

6.3.4 Other types of engine ................................................................................................................................................12

7 Measurement of and correction for smoke value for compression-ignition engines ...............12

7.1 Correction factor for light absorption coefficient of smoke ..........................................................................12

7.2 Determination of correction factor for light absorption coefficient of smoke ..............................12

7.3 Limits of application........................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Compression-ignition engines — Essential characteristics ..........................................................................13

8.1.1 Description of engine ................................................................................................................................................13

8.1.2 Cooling system ................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1.3 Temperatures specified by the manufacturer .....................................................................................14

8.1.4 Pressure charger (with/without) (delete where inapplicable) ...........................................14

8.1.5 Inlet system .......................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.6 Additional smoke control devices (if any, and if not covered by another

heading) ........................................................................................................................................... .....................................15

8.1.7 Fuel feed system ............................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.8 Valve timing .......................................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.9 Exhaust system ...............................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.10 Lubrication system .....................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.11 Electrical equipment .................................................................................................................................................17

8.1.12 Other engine-driven equipment ......................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)

8.2 Spark-ignition engines — Essential characteristics ............................................................................................17

8.2.1 Description of engine ................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.2 Cooling system ................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Temperature specified by the manufacturer ........................................................................................18

8.2.4 Pressure charger (with/without) (delete where inapplicable) ...........................................18

8.2.5 Inlet system .......................................................................................................................................................................19

8.2.6 Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another

heading) ........................................................................................................................................... .....................................19

8.2.7 Fuel feed system ............................................................................................................................................................19

8.2.8 Valve timing .......................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.9 Ignition system ...............................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.10 Exhaust system ...............................................................................................................................................................21

8.2.11 Lubrication system .....................................................................................................................................................21

8.2.12 Electrical equipment .................................................................................................................................................21

8.2.13 Other auxiliaries fitted to engine ....................................................................................................................21

8.3 Test conditions for measuring engine gross power .............................................................................................21

8.4 Statement of results as function of engine speed...................................................................................................24

9 Verification of engine performance ...............................................................................................................................................25

9.1 Designation .............................................................................................................................................................................................25

9.2 Notation .....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

9.2.1 Declared gross power and corresponding engine speed (range) .......................................25

9.2.2 Declared gross torque and corresponding engine speed (range) ......................................25

9.2.3 Declared specific gross fuel consumption and corresponding engine

speed (range) ...................................................................................................................................................................25

9.3 Tolerances – Declared values ...................................................................................................................................................25

9.3.1 Power ......................................................................................................................................................................................25

9.3.2 Torque ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

9.3.3 Specific fuel consumption .....................................................................................................................................26

9.3.4 Numerical tolerances ................................................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 2534:1998), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— a requirement for exhaust particulate filter restriction has been added;

— a requirement for engine cooling active thermal management system settings has been added;

— a power correction factor for turbocharged engines with a system compensating the ambient

conditions has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2534:2020(E)
Road vehicles — Engine test code — Gross power
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for testing internal combustion engines for propulsion of road

vehicles as defined in ISO 3833. It applies to the evaluation of their performance with a view, in

particular, to presenting curves of power and specific fuel consumption at full load as a function of

engine speed.
This document is applicable to gross power assessment.

This document concerns internal combustion engines used for propulsion of passenger cars, trucks and

other motor vehicles, excluding motorcycles, mopeds and agricultural tractors normally travelling on

roads, and included in one of the following categories:

— reciprocating internal combustion engines (spark-ignition or compression-ignition) but excluding

free piston engines;
— rotary piston engines.

These engines can be naturally aspirated or pressure charged, either using a mechanical supercharger

or turbocharger.

This document is primarily intended for the communication between the engine manufacturer and the

manufacturer of the vehicle. If used for advertising purposes, the ratings will clearly state that they are

gross power in accordance with 9.2.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2710-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary — Part 1: Terms for engine design

and operation
ISO 7876-1, Fuel injection equipment — Vocabulary — Part 1: Fuel injection pumps

ISO 7967-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 1:

Structure and external covers

ISO 7967-2, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 2:

Main running gear

ISO 7967-3, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 3:

Valves, camshaft drives and actuating mechanisms

ISO 7967-4, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 4:

Pressure charging and air/exhaust gas ducting systems

ISO 7967-5, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 5:

Cooling systems

ISO 7967-8, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 8:

Starting systems
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)

ISO 11614, Reciprocating internal combustion compression-ignition engines — Apparatus for measurement

of the opacity and for determination of the light absorption coefficient of exhaust gas

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 2710-1, ISO 7876-1, ISO 7967-1,

ISO 7967-2, ISO 7967-3, ISO 7967-4, ISO 7967-5 and ISO 7967-8 and the following definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
gross power

power obtained on a test bed at the end of the crankshaft or its equivalent at the corresponding engine

speed with the equipment and auxiliaries listed in Table 1

Note 1 to entry: If the power measurement can only be carried out with a mounted gearbox, the losses in the

gearbox should be added to the measured power to give the engine power.
3.2
standard production equipment
any equipment provided by the manufacturer for a particular engine application
4 Accuracy of measuring equipment and instruments
4.1 Torque

The dynamometer torque-measuring system shall have an accuracy within ±1 % in the range of scale

values required for the test.
4.2 Engine speed (rotational frequency)

The engine speed (rotational frequency) measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±0,5 %.

4.3 Fuel flow
The fuel flow measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±1 %.
4.4 Fuel temperature
The fuel temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±2 K.
4.5 Air temperature
The air temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±1 K.
4.6 Barometric pressure
The barometric pressure measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±100 Pa.
NOTE 1 Pa = 1 N/m .
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)
4.7 Back pressure in exhaust system

The system used to measure the back pressure in the exhaust system shall have an accuracy of ±200 Pa.

The measurement shall be made subject to footnote b of Table 1.
4.8 Depression in inlet system

The system used to measure the depression in the inlet system shall have an accuracy of ±50 Pa. The

measurement shall be made subject to footnote a of Table 1.
4.9 Absolute pressure in inlet duct

The system used to measure the absolute pressure in the inlet duct shall have an accuracy of ±2 % of

the measured pressure.
Table 1 — Installation of equipment and auxiliaries during test
No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for gross power test
1 Inlet system
Inlet manifold Yes, standard production equipment
Crankcase emission control system Optional

Control devices for dual induction inlet manifold system Yes, standard production equipment

Air flow meter Yes, standard production equipment
Air inlet ductwork
Air filter Optional
Inlet silencer
Speed-limiting device No
2 Induction heating device of inlet manifold Yes, standard production equipment
If possible, to be set in the most favour-
able position
3 Exhaust system
Exhaust purifier (s)
Exhaust manifold Yes, standard production equipment
Pressure-charging devices
Connecting pipes
Optional, may use minimum loss
Silencer
bench system
Tail pipe
Exhaust brake No
4 Fuel supply pump Yes, standard production equipment
5 Carburation equipment
Carburettor
Electronic control system, air-flow meter, etc. (if fitted)
Equipment for gaseous fuel engines Yes, standard production equipment
Pressure reducer
Evaporator
Mixer
6 Fuel injection equipment [spark-ignition and compression
ignition (diesel)]
Prefilter Optional
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for gross power test
Filter Optional
Pump
High-pressure pipe
Injector
Yes, standard production equipment
Air inlet valve (if fitted)
Electronic control system, etc. (if fitted)
Governor/control system: automatic full-load stop for
the control depending on atmospheric conditions
7 Liquid cooling equipment
Radiator
Fan No
Fan cowl
Water pump Yes, standard production equipment
Thermostat or thermal management system Optional
8 Air cooling
Cowl
Fan or blower
Temperature regulating device
9 Electrical or electronic equipment
Generator/alternator
Spark distribution system
Coil(s)
Yes, standard production equipment
Wiring
Spark plugs
Electronic control system including knock sensor/spark
retard system
10 Pressure-charging equipment (if fitted)
Compressor driven either directly by the engine, and/or
by the exhaust gases
Boost control
Yes, standard production equipment
g,h,k
Charge-air-cooler
Coolant pump or fan (engine driven)
Coolant flow control devices (if fitted)
11 Auxiliary test bed fan Yes, if necessary
12 Anti-pollution devices Yes, standard production equipment
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 2534:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for gross power test

Except when there is a risk of the system having a noticeable influence upon engine power, an equivalent

system may be used. In this case, a check should be made to ascertain that inlet depression does not differ by

more than 100 Pa from the limit specified by the manufacturer for a clean air filter.

For the case of an exhaust filter, the restriction shall represent the clean state.

Except when there is a risk of the system having a noticeable influence upon engine power, an equivalent

system may be used. In this case, a check should be made to ascertain that the back pressure in the engine

exhaust system does not differ by more than 1 000 Pa from that specified by the manufacturer. However, a

minimum loss system may be used.

If an exhaust brake is incorporated in the engine, the throttle valve shall be fixed fully open.

The fuel feed pressure may be adjusted, if necessary, to reproduce the inlet pump pressure conditions consist-

ent with the particular engine application (particularly where a "fuel return" system, e.g. to tank or filter, is used).

The air inlet valve is the control valve for the pneumatic governor of the injection pump. The governor of the

fuel injection equipment may contain other devices which may affect the amount of fuel injected.

When the cooling fan or blower is a fixed type, that is neither disconnectable nor progressive, and is fitted

for the test, then the power absorbed shall be added to the test results. The fan or blower power shall be deter-

mined at the speeds corresponding to the engine speeds used for the measurement of engine power either by

calculation from standard characteristics or by practical tests.

Where a separate disconnectable or progressive fan or blower, the test shall be made with the disconnecta-

ble fan or blower disconnected or with the progressive fan running at the maximum slip.

The thermostat may be fixed in the fully open position. For the case of an active thermal management sys-

tem, control settings shall be representative of full load operation.

Minimum power of the generator/alternator: the power of the generator/alternator shall be limited to that

necessary for the operation of accessories which are indispensable for engine operation. If the connection of a

battery if necessary, a fully charged battery in good order shall be used.

Charge-air-cooled engines shall be tested complete with charge-air-cooling whether liquid or air-cooled

but if the engine manufacturer prefers, a test bed system may replace the air-cooled cooler. In either case the

measurement of power at each speed shall be made with the pressure drop and temperature drop of the engine

air across the charge air cooler in the test bed the same as those specified by the manufacturer for the system

on the complete vehicle.

If a test bed system is used on a compression-ignition engine without a wastegate, or with the wastegate not

operating the correction factor given in 6.3.2.1 b) is to be used. If a wastegate is both fitted and operating, then

the correction factor in 6.3.2.1 a) is to be used.

They may include for example EGR system, catalytic converter, particulate filter, thermal reactor, secondary

air supply system and fuel evaporating protecting system.

The spark advance shall be representative of in-use conditions established with the minimum octane fuel

recommended by the manufacturer.

For engines equipped with variable boost as a function of charge or inlet air temperature, octane rating and/

or engine speed, the boost pressure shall be representative of in-vehicle conditions established with the mini-

mum octane fuel as recommended by the manufacturer.
5 Tests
5.1 A
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 2534
ISO/TC 22/SC 34
Road vehicles — Engine test code —
Secretariat: ANSI
Gross power
Voting begins on:
2020­03­06
Véhicules routiers — Code d'essai des moteurs — Puissance brute
Voting terminates on:
2020­05­01
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Accuracy of measuring equipment and instruments ..................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Torque ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Engine speed (rotational frequency) ................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Fuel flow ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Fuel temperature................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.5 Air temperature ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.6 Barometric pressure .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.7 Back pressure in exhaust system ............................................................................................................................................ 3

4.8 Depression in inlet system ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.9 Absolute pressure in inlet duct ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Auxiliaries ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.1 Auxiliaries to be fitted ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.2 Auxiliaries to be removed ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.3 Compression-ignition engine starting auxiliaries ............................................................................... 6

5.2 Setting conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Test conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Data to be recorded ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Power correction factors .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Definition of factor α for power correction .................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Atmospheric conditions .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.1 Reference atmospheric conditions ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Test atmospheric conditions ................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Determination of power correction factors ................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 Naturally aspirated and pressure-charged spark-ignition engines — Factor α ..10

6.3.2 Compression-ignition engines — Factor α .................. ........................................................................10

6.3.3 Turbocharged engine with a system compensating the ambient conditions ...........12

6.3.4 Other types of engine ................................................................................................................................................12

7 Measurement of and correction for smoke value for compression-ignition engines ...............12

7.1 Correction factor for light absorption coefficient of smoke ..........................................................................12

7.2 Determination of correction factor for light absorption coefficient of smoke ..............................12

7.3 Limits of application........................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Compression-ignition engines — Essential characteristics ..........................................................................13

8.1.1 Description of engine ................................................................................................................................................13

8.1.2 Cooling system ................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1.3 Temperatures specified by the manufacturer .....................................................................................14

8.1.4 Pressure charger (with/without) (delete where inapplicable) ...........................................14

8.1.5 Inlet system .......................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.6 Additional smoke control devices (if any, and if not covered by another

heading) ........................................................................................................................................... .....................................15

8.1.7 Fuel feed system ............................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.8 Valve timing .......................................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.9 Exhaust system ...............................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.10 Lubrication system .....................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.11 Electrical equipment .................................................................................................................................................17

8.1.12 Other engine-driven equipment ......................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)

8.2 Spark-ignition engines — Essential characteristics ............................................................................................17

8.2.1 Description of engine ................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.2 Cooling system ................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Temperature specified by the manufacturer ........................................................................................18

8.2.4 Pressure charger (with/without) (delete where inapplicable) ...........................................18

8.2.5 Inlet system .......................................................................................................................................................................19

8.2.6 Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another

heading) ........................................................................................................................................... .....................................19

8.2.7 Fuel feed system ............................................................................................................................................................19

8.2.8 Valve timing .......................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.9 Ignition system ...............................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.10 Exhaust system ...............................................................................................................................................................21

8.2.11 Lubrication system .....................................................................................................................................................21

8.2.12 Electrical equipment .................................................................................................................................................21

8.2.13 Other auxiliaries fitted to engine ....................................................................................................................21

8.3 Test conditions for measuring engine gross power .............................................................................................21

8.4 Statement of results as function of engine speed...................................................................................................24

9 Verification of engine performance ...............................................................................................................................................25

9.1 Designation .............................................................................................................................................................................................25

9.2 Notation .....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

9.2.1 Declared gross power and corresponding engine speed (range) .......................................25

9.2.2 Declared gross torque and corresponding engine speed (range) ......................................25

9.2.3 Declared specific gross fuel consumption and corresponding engine

speed (range) ...................................................................................................................................................................25

9.3 Tolerances – Declared values ...................................................................................................................................................25

9.3.1 Power ......................................................................................................................................................................................25

9.3.2 Torque ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

9.3.3 Specific fuel consumption .....................................................................................................................................26

9.3.4 Numerical tolerances ................................................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 2534:1998), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— a requirement for exhaust particulate filter restriction has been added;

— a requirement for engine cooling active thermal management system settings has been added;

— a power correction factor for turbocharged engines with a system compensating the ambient

conditions has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
Road vehicles — Engine test code — Gross power
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for testing internal combustion engines for propulsion of road

vehicles as defined in ISO 3833. It applies to the evaluation of their performance with a view, in

particular, to presenting curves of power and specific fuel consumption at full load as a function of

engine speed.
This document is applicable to gross power assessment.

This document concerns internal combustion engines used for propulsion of passenger cars, trucks and

other motor vehicles, excluding motorcycles, mopeds and agricultural tractors normally travelling on

roads, and included in one of the following categories:

— reciprocating internal combustion engines (spark-ignition or compression-ignition) but excluding

free piston engines;
— rotary piston engines.

These engines can be naturally aspirated or pressure charged, either using a mechanical supercharger

or turbocharger.

This document is primarily intended for the communication between the engine manufacturer and the

manufacturer of the vehicle. If used for advertising purposes, the ratings will clearly state that they are

gross power in accordance with 9.2.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2710­1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary — Part 1: Terms for engine design

and operation
ISO 7876­1, Fuel injection equipment — Vocabulary — Part 1: Fuel injection pumps

ISO 7967­1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 1:

Structure and external covers

ISO 7967­2, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 2:

Main running gear

ISO 7967­3, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 3:

Valves, camshaft drives and actuating mechanisms

ISO 7967­4, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 4:

Pressure charging and air/exhaust gas ducting systems

ISO 7967­5, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 5:

Cooling systems

ISO 7967­8, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 8:

Starting systems
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ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)

ISO 11614, Reciprocating internal combustion compression-ignition engines — Apparatus for measurement

of the opacity and for determination of the light absorption coefficient of exhaust gas

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 2710-1, ISO 7876-1, ISO 7967-1,

ISO 7967-2, ISO 7967-3, ISO 7967-4, ISO 7967-5 and ISO 7967-8 and the following definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
gross power

power obtained on a test bed at the end of the crankshaft or its equivalent at the corresponding engine

speed with the equipment and auxiliaries listed in Table 1

Note 1 to entry: If the power measurement can only be carried out with a mounted gearbox, the losses in the

gearbox should be added to the measured power to give the engine power.
3.2
standard production equipment
any equipment provided by the manufacturer for a particular engine application
4 Accuracy of measuring equipment and instruments
4.1 Torque

The dynamometer torque-measuring system shall have an accuracy within ±1 % in the range of scale

values required for the test.
4.2 Engine speed (rotational frequency)

The engine speed (rotational frequency) measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±0,5 %.

4.3 Fuel flow
The fuel flow measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±1 %.
4.4 Fuel temperature
The fuel temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±2 K.
4.5 Air temperature
The air temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±1 K.
4.6 Barometric pressure
The barometric pressure measuring system shall have an accuracy of ±100 Pa.
NOTE 1 Pa = 1 N/m .
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ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
4.7 Back pressure in exhaust system

The system used to measure the back pressure in the exhaust system shall have an accuracy of ±200 Pa.

The measurement shall be made subject to footnote b of Table 1.
4.8 Depression in inlet system

The system used to measure the depression in the inlet system shall have an accuracy of ±50 Pa. The

measurement shall be made subject to footnote a of Table 1.
4.9 Absolute pressure in inlet duct

The system used to measure the absolute pressure in the inlet duct shall have an accuracy of ±2 % of

the measured pressure.
Table 1 — Installation of equipment and auxiliaries during test
No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for gross power test
1 Inlet system
Inlet manifold Yes, standard production equipment
Crankcase emission control system Optional

Control devices for dual induction inlet manifold system Yes, standard production equipment

Air flow meter Yes, standard production equipment
Air inlet ductwork
Air filter Optional
Inlet silencer
Speed­limiting device No
2 Induction heating device of inlet manifold Yes, standard production equipment
If possible, to be set in the most favour­
able position
3 Exhaust system
Exhaust purifier (s)
Exhaust manifold Yes, standard production equipment
Pressure­charging devices
Connecting pipes
Optional, may use minimum loss
Silencer
bench system
Tail pipe
Exhaust brake No
4 Fuel supply pump Yes, standard production equipment
5 Carburation equipment
Carburettor
Electronic control system, air-flow meter, etc. (if fitted)
Equipment for gaseous fuel engines Yes, standard production equipment
Pressure reducer
Evaporator
Mixer
6 Fuel injection equipment [spark-ignition and compression
ignition (diesel)]
Prefilter Optional
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ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for gross power test
Filter Optional
Pump
High­pressure pipe
Injector
Yes, standard production equipment
Air inlet valve (if fitted)
Electronic control system, etc. (if fitted)
Governor/control system: automatic full-load stop for
the control depending on atmospheric conditions
7 Liquid cooling equipment
Radiator
Fan No
Fan cowl
Water pump Yes, standard production equipment
Thermostat or thermal management system Optional
8 Air cooling
Cowl
Fan or blower
Temperature regulating device
9 Electrical or electronic equipment
Generator/alternator
Spark distribution system
Coil(s)
Yes, standard production equipment
Wiring
Spark plugs
Electronic control system including knock sensor/spark
retard system
10 Pressure-charging equipment (if fitted)
Compressor driven either directly by the engine, and/or
by the exhaust gases
Boost control
Yes, standard production equipment
g,h,k
Charge­air­cooler
Coolant pump or fan(engine driven)
Coolant flow control devices (if fitted)
11 Auxiliary test bed fan Yes, if necessary
12 Anti­pollution devices Yes, standard production equipment
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ISO/FDIS 2534:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for gross power test

Except when there is a risk of the system having a noticeable influence upon engine power, an equivalent

system may be used. In this case, a check should be made to ascertain that inlet depression does not differ by

more than 100 Pa from the limit specified by the manufacturer for a clean air filter.

For the case of an exhaust filter, the restriction shall represent the clean state.

Except when there is a risk of the system having a noticeable influence upon engine power, an equivalent

system may be used. In this case, a check should be made to ascertain that the back pressure in the engine

exhaust system does not differ by more than 1 000 Pa from that specified by the manufacturer. However, a

minimum loss system may be used.

If an exhaust brake is incorporated in the engine, the throttle valve shall be fixed fully open.

The fuel feed pressure may be adjusted, if necessary, to reproduce the inlet pump pressure conditions consist­

ent with the particular engine application (particularly where a "fuel return" system, e.g. to tank or filter, is used).

The air inlet valve is the control valve for the pneumatic governor of the injection pump. The governor of the

fuel injection equipment may contain other devices which may affect the amount of fuel injected.

When the cooling fan or blower is a fixed type, that is neither disconnectable nor progressive, and is fitted

for the test, then the power absorbed shall be added to the test results. The fan or blower power shall be deter­

mined at the speeds corresponding to the engine speeds used for the measurement of engine power either by

calculation from standard characteristics or by practical tests.

Where a separate disconnectable or progressive fan or blower, the test shall be made with the disconnecta­

ble fan or blower disconnected or with the progressive fan running at the maximum slip.

The thermostat may be fixed in the fully open position. For the case of an active thermal management sys­

tem, control settings shall be representative of full load operation.

Minimum power of the generator/alternator: the power of the generator/alternator shall be limited to that

necessary for the operation of accessories which are indispensable for engine operation. If the connection of a

battery if necessary, a fully charged battery in good order shall be used.

Charge-air-cooled engines shall be tested complete with charge-air-cooling whether liquid or air-cooled

but if the engine manufacturer prefers, a test bed system may replace the air-cooled cooler. In either case the

measurement of power at each speed shall be made with the pressure drop and temperature drop of the engine

air across the charge air cooler in the test bed the same as those specified by the manufacturer for the system

on the complete vehicle.

If a test bed system is used on a compression-ignition engine without a wastegate, or with the wastegate not

operating the correction factor given in 6.3.2.1 b) is to be used. If a wastegate is both fitted and operating, then

the correction factor
...

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