Information technology — Determination of chemical emission rates from electronic equipment — Part 1: Using consumables

This document (all parts) specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of analytes from ICT & CE equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC). This document (all parts) includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC’s. Part 1 specifies the methods to determine the emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds, ozone, particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and ultra-fine particles (UFP) from electronic equipment using consumables. The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis, calculation and reporting of emission rates. Part 1 has two different methods for the determination of emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds. The two methods use two different emission models, the quasi-equilibrium model (QEM) and the constant emission model (CEM) respectively, to determine the emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds during the pre-operating phase. The quasi-equilibrium model method has been developed with hard copy devices for office or home use in mind whose energy-saving modes automatically activate during most intervals between operations. The calculation of emission rates during the pre-operating phase is based on the quasi-equilibrium assumption as shown in Annex C. The emission rates determined with this method can be used to compare equipment in the same class since test procedures are specified more narrowly than the other method (CEM). The constant emission model (CEM) has been developed for hard copy devices whose energy-saving modes have such a negligible effect on the determination of emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds that the generalised constant emission model shown in Annex D can be used for the determination of their emission rates during the pre-operating phase. This method presents more flexible test procedures than the QEM. Due to such features of this method, it may be used for hard copy devices whose idling mode usually lasts throughout intervals between operations, such as large hard copy devices used professionally. It may also be used for various equipment having different functions and structure for its intended use and the determination of carbonyl compounds requiring longer sampling duration due to a lack of sensitivity. Annex A specifies monochrome and colour print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using consumables. The operational readiness of AMS is confirmed according to Annex B. Predictions of “real indoor” concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this document.

Technologies de l'information — Détermination des taux d'émission chimique d'un équipement électronique — Partie 1: Utilisation de consommables

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Oct-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
28-Oct-2021
Completion Date
28-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 28360-1
Second edition
2021-10
Information technology —
Determination of chemical emission
rates from electronic equipment —
Part 1:
Using consumables
Technologies de l'information — Détermination des taux d'émission
chimique d'un équipement électronique —
Partie 1: Utilisation de consommables
Reference number
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
© ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2

4 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and Abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Method overview ................................................................................................................................... 8

7 ETC requirements .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 Construction materials ......................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Air tightness ........................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Air mixing efficiency ........................................................................................................................... 10

8 Determination method ........................................................................................................................ 10

8.1 Test conditions .................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.1.2 Operating temperature and relative humidity (RH) .......................................................................... 10

8.1.3 Air exchange rate (n) ........................................................................................................................... 10

8.1.4 Air velocity ........................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1.5 Sampled air flow .................................................................................................................................. 10

8.2 Handling of EUT and ETC ................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.1 Selection and storage of EUT ............................................................................................................ 10

8.2.2 Loading Factor ..................................................................................................................................... 11

8.2.3 ETC purging ......................................................................................................................................... 11

8.2.4 Background concentrations (Cbg and Cpbg) ...................................................................................... 11

8.2.5 EUT unpacking .................................................................................................................................... 12

8.2.6 Preparation of the EUT before testing ............................................................................................... 12

8.2.7 EUT installation ................................................................................................................................... 12

8.3 EUT Operation during Test ................................................................................................................. 13

8.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.3.2 Pre-operating phase ............................................................................................................................ 13

8.3.3 Operating phase .................................................................................................................................. 13

8.3.4 Post-operating phase .......................................................................................................................... 14

8.3.5 Recording of EUT operation ............................................................................................................... 14

8.4 VOC and carbonyl compounds .......................................................................................................... 14

8.4.1 Sorbents ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.4.2 Sample collection ................................................................................................................................ 14

8.4.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 15

8.4.4 Total VOC emission rate ..................................................................................................................... 17

8.5 Ozone .................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.5.1 Analyser and sampling line requirements ........................................................................................ 18

8.5.2 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................ 18

8.5.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 18

8.6 Particulate matter ................................................................................................................................ 19

8.6.1 Weighing and Filter conditioning ...................................................................................................... 20

8.6.2 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 20

8.6.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 20

8.7 Fine and Ultrafine Particles (FP and UFP) ........................................................................................ 21

8.7.1 General Requirements for Aerosol Measuring Systems (AMS) ..................................................... 22

8.7.2 Measurement ....................................................................................................................................... 24

8.7.3 Calculation ........................................................................................................................................... 24

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)

9 Test report ............................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (normative) Print Patterns ...............................................................................................................31

A.1 Monochrome print pattern, 5% coverage ..........................................................................................31

A.2 Colour print pattern, 20% coverage ...................................................................................................33

Annex B (normative) Preparatory AMS Test Procedures ...........................................................................34

B.1 Procedures for operational readiness of AMS .................................................................................34

B.1.1 Particle size concentration range measurements ............................................................................34

B.1.2 Particle number concentration range measurements .....................................................................34

B.2 Procedures for operational readiness test of Fast AMS..................................................................35

B.2.1 Set up of instrument ............................................................................................................................35

B.2.2 Preparation for measurement .............................................................................................................35

B.3 Procedures for operational readiness test of CPC ..........................................................................36

B.3.1 Set up the instrument ..........................................................................................................................36

B.3.2 Preparation for measurement .............................................................................................................37

Annex C (informative) Model for QEM ...........................................................................................................38

C.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................38

C.2 Approach ..............................................................................................................................................38

C.3 General mass balance and concentration equations ......................................................................40

C.4 Background Concentration ................................................................................................................40

C.5 Emission rate calculation ...................................................................................................................41

C.5.1 Emission during pre-operating phase ...............................................................................................41

C.5.2 Emission during operating phase ......................................................................................................41

Annex D (informative) Model for CEM ...........................................................................................................45

D.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................45

D.2 Approach ..............................................................................................................................................45

D.3 General mass balance and concentration equations ......................................................................47

D.4 Background concentrations ...............................................................................................................47

D.5 Emission rate calculation ...................................................................................................................47

D.5.1 Emission during pre-operating phase ...............................................................................................47

D.5.2 Emission during operating and post-operating phase ....................................................................48

Annex E (Informative) DE-UZ 205 Options ....................................................................................................52

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................54

iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described

in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the different types of

document should be noted (see www.iso.org/directives or www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on the ISO

list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent declarations received

(see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions

related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade

Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by ECMA International (as ECMA-328-1) and was adopted, under a special

“fast-track procedure”, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with

its approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018), which has been technically

revised.
The main change compared to the previous edition is as follows:

— reorganization to incorporate RAL-UZ Options into the main text as one of the two methods for

determining emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 28360 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and www.iec.ch/national-

committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Globally, governmental agencies, academic institutions, environmental organizations and manufacturers have

started to develop methods to determine chemical emissions from electronic equipment. These attempts

however, initially resulted in a range of tests from which the results were not necessarily comparable, either

qualitatively or quantitatively.

Following the publications of the 1st edition of ECMA-328 in 2001 and the “Test method for the determination

of emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from BAM and Ecma have collaborated to

harmonise methods to determine the chemical emission rates from ICT & CE equipment in the 2nd edition.

In addition to stricter test procedures, the 2nd edition used generalised emission formulae, and their

derivations developed in Annex C, to calculate emission rates from concentrations of analytes that are

measured in Emission Test Chambers.

The 3rd edition was fully aligned with the 1st edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2007 adopted under ISO/IEC JTC 1

fast track procedure and published in September 2007.

In addition, the 4th edition fixed a number of errata on ISO/IEC 28360:2007 that JTC 1/SC 28 identified.

Following the publications of the 4th edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination of

emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from BAM, WKI, JBMIA and Ecma have

collaborated to harmonise methods to determine the Fine Particle (FP) and Ultrafine Particle (UFP) emissions

from hard copy devices in the 5th edition.

The 6th edition was aligned with the 2nd edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2012, and it added a new ozone calculation

method. “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122) has been

replaced by “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 171) published

in January 2013. Therefore, “RAL-UZ 122 option” is replaced with “RAL-UZ 171 option” in the 6th edition.

The 7th edition of ECMA-328 is fully aligned with ISO/IEC 28360:2015.

The 8th edition was divided into two parts, a part for electronic equipment using consumables and a part for

electronic equipment not using consumables:

• Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment – Part 1 (using consumables)

• Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment – Part 2 (not using consumables)

The purpose of the split was to make the description of test procedures simpler (they included considerable

differences between the two equipment categories) and to facilitate users’ understanding.

This 8th edition is fully aligned with “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices”

(RAL-UZ 205).
The 9th edition is fully aligned with the third edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2018.

The 10th edition has been re-organised to incorporate RAL-UZ Options into the main text as one of the two

methods for determining emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds.

One method (QEM), which is in harmony with DE-UZ 205 , Test Method for the Determination of Emissions

from Hardcopy Devices (Appendix S-M), originates from the former RAL-UZ 205 Options. The other method

(CEM) employs the generalised constant emission model in the former editions. The two methods may yield

slightly different emission rates, so the user is encouraged to select the one that satisfies their technical

application.
vi © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)

Different elements of the two methods are described alongside each other in the main text. The models used

to calculate emission rates in each method are explained in the informative Annexes C and D. Some

requirements in the former RAL-UZ Options which appear too detailed and stringent as an international

standard are now listed in the informative Annex E so that users can fully meet the requirements of DE-

UZ 205 (Appendix S-M).

In this edition, it is deduced in the CEM that emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds during the

operating phase (SER ) originate from the pre-operating phase (SER ) and printing (SER ) operations as

ope pre prp
well as in the QEM and the former RAL-UZ Options.
This part of the Standard is Part 1.

This Ecma Standard was developed by Technical Committee 38 and was adopted by the General

Assembly of December 2020.

The German Blue Angel Environmental Label changed the naming convention of its award criteria from

RAL-UZ 205 to DE-UZ 205 in 2019.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Determination of chemical
emission rates from electronic equipment —
Part 1:
Using consumables
1 Scope

This Standard (all parts) specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of analytes from ICT & CE

equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC).

This Standard (all parts) includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and

equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC’s.

Part 1 specifies the methods to determine the emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds, ozone,

particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and ultra-fine particles (UFP) from electronic equipment using

consumables.

The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis,

calculation and reporting of emission rates.

Part 1 has two different methods for the determination of emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds.

The two methods use two different emission models, the quasi-equilibrium model (QEM) and the constant

emission model (CEM) respectively, to determine the emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds during

the pre-operating phase.

The quasi-equilibrium model method has been developed with hard copy devices for office or home use in

mind whose energy-saving modes automatically activate during most intervals between operations. The

calculation of emission rates during the pre-operating phase is based on the quasi-equilibrium assumption as

shown in Annex C.

The emission rates determined with this method can be used to compare equipment in the same class since

test procedures are specified more narrowly than the other method (CEM).

The constant emission model (CEM) has been developed for hard copy devices whose energy-saving modes

have such a negligible effect on the determination of emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds that the

generalised constant emission model shown in Annex D can be used for the determination of their emission

rates during the pre-operating phase. This method presents more flexible test procedures than the QEM. Due

to such features of this method, it may be used for hard copy devices whose idling mode usually lasts

throughout intervals between operations, such as large hard copy devices used professionally. It may also be

used for various equipment having different functions and structure for its intended use and the determination

of carbonyl compounds requiring longer sampling duration due to a lack of sensitivity.

Annex A specifies monochrome and colour print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using

consumables.
The operational readiness of AMS is confirmed according to Annex B.

Predictions of “real indoor” concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this

document.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
2 Conformance

Determinations of emission rates and total number of emitted particles conform to this Standard (Part 1) when:

1. Executed using a Quality Assurance Project Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control as specified in

ISO 16000-9;
2. Tested in a controlled ETC as specified in Clause 7;
3. Sampled/monitored and calculated as specified in Clause 8 and Annex B;
4. Reported as specified in Clause 9.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 554:1976, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications

ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air – Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds –

Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air – Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air

by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

ISO 16000-9:2006, Indoor air – Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from

building products and furnishing – Emission test chamber method

ISO 16017-1:2000, Indoor ambient and workplace air - Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds

by sorbent tube / thermal desorption / capillary gas chromatography – Part 1: Pumped sampling

CIE 15:2004, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage – Colorimetry, 3 edition
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
averaged concentration time series

simple moving average of total particle number concentration (Cp) over 31 ± 3 seconds

4.2
averaged ozone concentration time series
simple moving average of ozone concentration (Co ) over 80 ± 5 seconds
4.3
aerosol
suspension of solid particles and/or liquid droplets in a gas
4.4
aerosol measuring system
AMS

device category for measuring the total particle number concentration of an aerosol within a size range at a

certain frequency
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
NOTE CPC (4.8) and fast AMS (4.14) belong to AMS.
4.5
air exchange rate
3 3

ratio (n) of the volume of clean air brought into the ETC per hour [m /h] to the unloaded ETC volume [m ]

4.6
air velocity
air speed [m/s] measured in the unloaded ETC
4.7
analyte

volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbonyl compounds, ozone, particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and

ultrafine particles (UFP)
4.8
condensation particle counter
CPC
instrument that measures the particle number concentration of an aerosol

NOTE For the purpose of this standard a CPC is used as a standalone instrument which measures the total particle

number concentration within a device dependent size range.
4.9
constant emission model method
CEM

method to determine emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds using the constant emission model,

assuming that an emission rate is constant throughout the pre-operating phase

NOTE This method can apply to the pre-operating phase which consists of the warming-up and following idling and

energy saving modes as far as constant emission during that phase can be assumed.

4.10
consumables
toner, ink, paper and ribbon
4.11
emission test chamber
ETC

enclosure with controlled operational parameters for testing analyte mass emitted from EUT

4.12
energy saving mode

mode in a lower power state than that of the idling mode which hard copy devices enter after a period of

inactivity
4.13
equipment under test
EUT
electronic equipment from which chemical emission rates are determined
4.14
fast AMS
instrument with rapid time resolution and particle size classification
4.15
fine particles
particles with particle size / diameter range between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μm
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
4.16
hard copy devices

class of EUT using Consumables that includes printers, (photo)copiers and Multi-Functional Devices (MFD)

4.17
idling mode

mode where hard copy devices are kept ready to perform its intended functions lasting from the end of

warming-up mode or its operation to the start of an energy saving mode
4.18
loading factor
ratio of the EUT volume to the volume of the unloaded ETC
4.19
operating phase
phase in which the EUT is performing its intended functions
4.20
particle
solid or liquid matter with defined physical boundaries suspended in a gas
4.21
particle emission rate
PER

averaged time dependent particle emission rate between the points in time of the start (tstart) and end (tstop) of

particle emission
4.22
time dependent particle emission rate
PER(t)

time dependent emission rate of particles in a specified particle size range after the start of the operating

phase
4.23
particle loss coefficient

coefficient describes the loss of particles in a specified particle size range in an ETC

4.24
particle size / particle diameter
measurement category to describe the phy
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 28360-1
Second edition
Information technology —
Determination of chemical emission
rates from electronic equipment —
Part 1:
Using consumables
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted (see www.iso.org/directives or
www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT),

see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by ECMA International (as ECMA-328-1) and was adopted, under a special

“fast-track procedure”, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel

with its approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018), which has been

technically revised.
The main change compared to the previous edition is as follows:

— reorganization to incorporate RAL-UZ Options into the main text as one of the two methods for

determining emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 28360 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and www.iec.ch/national-

committees.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2

4 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and Abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Method overview ................................................................................................................................... 8

7 ETC requirements .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 Construction materials ......................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Air tightness ........................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Air mixing efficiency ........................................................................................................................... 10

8 Determination method ........................................................................................................................ 10

8.1 Test conditions .................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.1.2 Operating temperature and relative humidity (RH) .......................................................................... 10

8.1.3 Air exchange rate (n) ........................................................................................................................... 10

8.1.4 Air velocity ........................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1.5 Sampled air flow .................................................................................................................................. 10

8.2 Handling of EUT and ETC ................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.1 Selection and storage of EUT ............................................................................................................ 10

8.2.2 Loading Factor ..................................................................................................................................... 11

8.2.3 ETC purging ......................................................................................................................................... 11

8.2.4 Background concentrations (C and C ) ....................................................................................... 11

bg pbg

8.2.5 EUT unpacking .................................................................................................................................... 12

8.2.6 Preparation of the EUT before testing ............................................................................................... 12

8.2.7 EUT installation ................................................................................................................................... 12

8.3 EUT Operation during Test ................................................................................................................. 13

8.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.3.2 Pre-operating phase ............................................................................................................................ 13

8.3.3 Operating phase .................................................................................................................................. 13

8.3.4 Post-operating phase .......................................................................................................................... 14

8.3.5 Recording of EUT operation ............................................................................................................... 14

8.4 VOC and carbonyl compounds .......................................................................................................... 14

8.4.1 Sorbents ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.4.2 Sample collection ................................................................................................................................ 14

8.4.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 15

8.4.4 Total VOC emission rate ..................................................................................................................... 17

8.5 Ozone .................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.5.1 Analyser and sampling line requirements ........................................................................................ 18

8.5.2 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................ 18

8.5.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 18

8.6 Particulate matter ................................................................................................................................ 19

8.6.1 Weighing and Filter conditioning ...................................................................................................... 20

8.6.2 Sampling............................................................................................................................................... 20

8.6.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 20

8.7 Fine and Ultrafine Particles (FP and UFP) ........................................................................................ 21

8.7.1 General Requirements for Aerosol Measuring Systems (AMS) ..................................................... 22

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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)

8.7.2 Measurement ....................................................................................................................................... 24

8.7.3 Calculation ........................................................................................................................................... 24

9 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 28

Annex A (normative) Print Patterns ............................................................................................................... 31

A.1 Monochrome print pattern, 5% coverage ......................................................................................... 31

A.2 Colour print pattern, 20% coverage .................................................................................................. 33

Annex B (normative) Preparatory AMS Test Procedures ........................................................................... 35

B.1 Procedures for operational readiness of AMS ................................................................................ 35

B.1.1 Particle size concentration range measurements ........................................................................... 35

B.1.2 Particle number concentration range measurements .................................................................... 35

B.2 Procedures for operational readiness test of Fast AMS ................................................................ 36

B.2.1 Set up of instrument ........................................................................................................................... 36

B.2.2 Preparation for measurement ............................................................................................................ 36

B.3 Procedures for operational readiness test of CPC ......................................................................... 37

B.3.1 Set up the instrument ......................................................................................................................... 37

B.3.2 Preparation for measurement ............................................................................................................ 38

Annex C (informative) Model for QEM ............................................................................................................ 39

C.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................ 39

C.2 Approach ............................................................................................................................................. 39

C.3 General mass balance and concentration equations ..................................................................... 41

C.4 Background Concentration ............................................................................................................... 41

C.5 Emission rate calculation .................................................................................................................. 42

C.5.1 Emission during pre-operating phase .............................................................................................. 42

C.5.2 Emission during operating phase ..................................................................................................... 42

Annex D (informative) Model for CEM ............................................................................................................ 47

D.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................ 47

D.2 Approach ............................................................................................................................................. 47

D.3 General mass balance and concentration equations ..................................................................... 49

D.4 Background concentrations .............................................................................................................. 49

D.5 Emission rate calculation .................................................................................................................. 49

D.5.1 Emission during pre-operating phase .............................................................................................. 49

D.5.2 Emission during operating and post-operating phase ................................................................... 50

Annex E (Informative) DE-UZ 205 Options..................................................................................................... 55

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 57

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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Globally, governmental agencies, academic institutions, environmental organizations and manufacturers have

started to develop methods to determine chemical emissions from electronic equipment. These attempts

however, initially resulted in a range of tests from which the results were not necessarily comparable, either

qualitatively or quantitatively.

Following the publications of the 1st edition of ECMA-328 in 2001 and the “Test method for the determination

of emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from BAM and Ecma have collaborated to

harmonise methods to determine the chemical emission rates from ICT & CE equipment in the 2nd edition.

In addition to stricter test procedures, the 2nd edition used generalised emission formulae, and their

derivations developed in Annex C, to calculate emission rates from concentrations of analytes that are

measured in Emission Test Chambers.

The 3rd edition was fully aligned with the 1st edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2007 adopted under ISO/IEC JTC 1

fast track procedure and published in September 2007.

In addition, the 4th edition fixed a number of errata on ISO/IEC 28360:2007 that JTC 1/SC 28 identified.

Following the publications of the 4th edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination of

emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from BAM, WKI, JBMIA and Ecma have

collaborated to harmonise methods to determine the Fine Particle (FP) and Ultrafine Particle (UFP) emissions

from hard copy devices in the 5th edition.

The 6th edition was aligned with the 2nd edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2012, and it added a new ozone calculation

method. “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122) has been

replaced by “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 171) published

in January 2013. Therefore, “RAL-UZ 122 option” is replaced with “RAL-UZ 171 option” in the 6th edition.

The 7th edition of ECMA-328 is fully aligned with ISO/IEC 28360:2015.

The 8th edition was divided into two parts, a part for electronic equipment using consumables and a part for

electronic equipment not using consumables:

• Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment – Part 1 (using consumables)

• Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment – Part 2 (not using consumables)

The purpose of the split was to make the description of test procedures simpler (they included considerable

differences between the two equipment categories) and to facilitate users’ understanding.

This 8th edition is fully aligned with “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices”

(RAL-UZ 205).
The 9th edition is fully aligned with the third edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2018.

The 10th edition has been re-organised to incorporate RAL-UZ Options into the main text as one of the two

methods for determining emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds.

One method (QEM), which is in harmony with DE-UZ 205 , Test Method for the Determination of Emissions

from Hardcopy Devices (Appendix S-M), originates from the former RAL-UZ 205 Options. The other method

(CEM) employs the generalised constant emission model in the former editions. The two methods may yield

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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)

slightly different emission rates, so the user is encouraged to select the one that satisfies their technical

application.

Different elements of the two methods are described alongside each other in the main text. The models used

to calculate emission rates in each method are explained in the informative Annexes C and D. Some

requirements in the former RAL-UZ Options which appear too detailed and stringent as an international

standard are now listed in the informative Annex E so that users can fully meet the requirements of DE-

UZ 205 (Appendix S-M).

In this edition, it is deduced in the CEM that emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds during the

operating phase (SER ) originate from the pre-operating phase (SER ) and printing (SER ) operations as

ope pre prp
well as in the QEM and the former RAL-UZ Options.
This part of the Standard is Part 1.

This Ecma Standard was developed by Technical Committee 38 and was adopted by the General

Assembly of December 2020.

The German Blue Angel Environmental Label changed the naming convention of its award criteria from

RAL-UZ 205 to DE-UZ 205 in 2019.
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
"COPYRIGHT NOTICE
© 2020 Ecma International

This document may be copied, published and distributed to others, and certain derivative works of it

may be prepared, copied, published, and distributed, in whole or in part, provided that the above

copyright notice and this Copyright License and Disclaimer are included on all such copies and

derivative works. The only derivative works that are permissible under this Copyright License and

Disclaimer are:

(i) works which incorporate all or portion of this document for the purpose of providing commentary or

explanation (such as an annotated version of the document),

(ii) works which incorporate all or portion of this document for the purpose of incorporating features

that provide accessibility,

(iii) translations of this document into languages other than English and into different formats and

(iv) works by making use of this specification in standard conformant products by implementing (e.g.

by copy and paste wholly or partly) the functionality therein.

However, the content of this document itself may not be modified in any way, including by removing the

copyright notice or references to Ecma International, except as required to translate it into languages

other than English or into a different format.

The official version of an Ecma International document is the English language version on the Ecma

International website. In the event of discrepancies between a translated version and the official

version, the official version shall govern.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by Ecma International or

its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and ECMA

INTERNATIONAL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE
ANY OWNERSHIP RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE."
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
Part 1
Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic
Equipment (using consumables)
1 Scope

This Standard (all parts) specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of analytes from ICT & CE

equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC).

This Standard (all parts) includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and

equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC’s.

Part 1 specifies the methods to determine the emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds, ozone,

particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and ultra-fine particles (UFP) from electronic equipment using

consumables.

The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis,

calculation and reporting of emission rates.

Part 1 has two different methods for the determination of emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds.

The two methods use two different emission models, the quasi-equilibrium model (QEM) and the constant

emission model (CEM) respectively, to determine the emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds during

the pre-operating phase.

The quasi-equilibrium model method has been developed with hard copy devices for office or home use in

mind whose energy-saving modes automatically activate during most intervals between operations. The

calculation of emission rates during the pre-operating phase is based on the quasi-equilibrium assumption as

shown in Annex C.

The emission rates determined with this method can be used to compare equipment in the same class since

test procedures are specified more narrowly than the other method (CEM).

The constant emission model (CEM) has been developed for hard copy devices whose energy-saving modes

have such a negligible effect on the determination of emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds that the

generalised constant emission model shown in Annex D can be used for the determination of their emission

rates during the pre-operating phase. This method presents more flexible test procedures than the QEM. Due

to such features of this method, it may be used for hard copy devices whose idling mode usually lasts

throughout intervals between operations, such as large hard copy devices used professionally. It may also be

used for various equipment having different functions and structure for its intended use and the determination

of carbonyl compounds requiring longer sampling duration due to a lack of sensitivity.

Annex A specifies monochrome and colour print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using

consumables.
The operational readiness of AMS is confirmed according to Annex B.

Predictions of “real indoor” concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this

document.
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
2 Conformance

Determinations of emission rates and total number of emitted particles conform to this Standard (Part 1) when:

1. Executed using a Quality Assurance Project Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control as specified in

ISO 16000-9;
2. Tested in a controlled ETC as specified in Clause 7;
3. Sampled/monitored and calculated as specified in Clause 8 and Annex B;
4. Reported as specified in Clause 9.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 554:1976, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications

ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air – Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds –

Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air – Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air

by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

ISO 16000-9:2006, Indoor air – Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from

building products and furnishing – Emission test chamber method

ISO 16017-1:2000, Indoor ambient and workplace air - Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds

by sorbent tube / thermal desorption / capillary gas chromatography – Part 1: Pumped sampling

CIE 15:2004, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage – Colorimetry, 3 edition
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
averaged concentration time series

simple moving average of total particle number concentration (Cp) over 31 ± 3 seconds

4.2
averaged ozone concentration time series
simple moving average of ozone concentration (Co ) over 80 ± 5 seconds
4.3
aerosol
suspension of solid particles and/or liquid droplets in a gas
4.4
aerosol measuring system
AMS

device category for measuring the total particle number concentration of an aerosol within a size range at a

certain frequency
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2021(E)
NOTE CPC (4.8) and fast AMS (4.14) belong to AMS.
4.5
air exchange rate
3 3

ratio (n) of the volume of clean air brought into the ETC per hour [m /h] to the unloaded ETC volume [m ]

4.6
air velocity
air speed [m/s] measured in the unloaded ETC
4.7
analyte

volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbonyl compounds, ozone, particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and

ultrafine particles (UFP)
4.8
condensation particle counter
CPC
instrument that measures the particle number concentration of an aerosol

NOTE For the purpose of this standard a CPC is used as a standalone instrument which measures the total particle

number concentration within a device dependent size range.
4.9
constant emission model method
CEM

method to determine emission rates of VOC and carbonyl compounds using the constant emission model,

assuming that an emission rate is constant throughout the pre-operating phase

NOTE This method can apply to the pre-operating phase which consists of the warming-up and following idling and

energy saving modes as far as
...

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