Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between systems — Near Field Communication — Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1)

ISO/IEC 18092:2013 defines communication modes for Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP 1) using inductive coupled devices operating at the centre frequency of 13,56 MHz for interconnection of computer peripherals. It also defines both the Active and the Passive communication modes of Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) to realize a communication network using Near Field Communication devices for networked products and also for consumer equipment. ISO/IEC 18092:2013 specifies, in particular, modulation schemes, codings, transfer speeds, and frame format of the RF interface, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision control during initialization. Furthermore, ISO/IEC 18092:2013 defines a transport protocol including protocol activation and data exchange methods.

Technologies de l'information — Télécommunications et échange d'information entre systèmes — Communication de champ proche — Interface et protocole (NFCIP-1)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Mar-2013
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
11-Nov-2020
Completion Date
11-Nov-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18092
Second edition
2013-03-15
Information technology —
Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems — Near Field
Communication — Interface and Protocol
(NFCIP-1)
Technologies de l'information — Télécommunications et échange
d'information entre systèmes — Communication de champ proche —
Interface et protocole (NFCIP-1)
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
ISO/IEC 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission.

Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.

ISO copyright office
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

4  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

5  Conventions and notations .................................................................................................................. 4

5.1  Representation of numbers .................................................................................................................. 4

5.2  Names ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

6  Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 4

7  General ................................................................................................................................................... 5

8  RF field ................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1  Values ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2  Passive communication Mode ............................................................................................................. 6

8.3  Active communication Mode ................................................................................................................ 6

8.4  External RF field detection ................................................................................................................... 6

9  RF Signal Interface ................................................................................................................................ 6

9.1  Bit duration ............................................................................................................................................ 6

9.2  Active communication mode ............................................................................................................... 7

9.2.1  Requirements for fc/128 ....................................................................................................................... 7

9.2.2  Requirements for fc/64 and fc/32 ......................................................................................................... 7

9.3  Passive communication mode ............................................................................................................. 8

9.3.1  Initiator to Target requirements for fc/128 .......................................................................................... 8

9.3.2  Target to Initiator requirements for fc/128 .......................................................................................... 9

9.3.3  Initiator to Target requirements for fc/64 and fc/32 ........................................................................... 9

9.3.4  Target to Initiator requirements for fc/64 and fc/32 ........................................................................... 9

10  General Protocol flow ......................................................................................................................... 10

11  Initialisation .......................................................................................................................................... 10

11.1  RF Collision Avoidance ...................................................................................................................... 11

11.1.1  Initial RF Collision Avoidance ............................................................................................................ 11

11.1.2  Response RF Collision Avoidance .................................................................................................... 12

11.2  Passive communication mode ........................................................................................................... 13

11.2.1  Initialisation and Single Device Detection at fc/128 ......................................................................... 13

11.2.2  Initialisation and SDD at fc/64 and fc/32 ........................................................................................... 13

11.3  Active communication mode ............................................................................................................. 17

11.3.1  Initialisation at fc/128, fc/64, and fc/32 .............................................................................................. 17

11.3.2  Active communication mode RF Collision Avoidance .................................................................... 17

12  Transport Protocol .............................................................................................................................. 18

12.1  Transport Data ..................................................................................................................................... 18

12.2  Passive communication mode Activation flow ................................................................................ 18

12.3  Active communication mode Activation flow ................................................................................... 19

12.4  Commands ........................................................................................................................................... 22

12.5  Activation of the protocol ................................................................................................................... 22

12.5.1  Attribute Request and Response Commands .................................................................................. 22

12.5.2  Wakeup Request and Response Commands ................................................................................... 28

12.5.3  Parameter Selection Request and Response Commands .............................................................. 30

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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)

12.6  Data Exchange Protocol .....................................................................................................................33

12.6.1  Data Exchange Protocol Request and Response ............................................................................33

12.6.2  Response timeout extension ..............................................................................................................37

12.6.3  Attention – Target present ..................................................................................................................37

12.6.4  Protocol operation ...............................................................................................................................37

12.6.5  Multi Activation ....................................................................................................................................37

12.6.6  More information (Chaining) ...............................................................................................................38

12.7  Deactivation of the protocol ...............................................................................................................38

12.7.1  Deselect Request and Response command .....................................................................................39

12.7.2  Release Request and Response commands ....................................................................................40

Annex A (normative) CRC calculation ............................................................................................................42

A.1  CRC for Active and Passive communication mode at fc/128 ..........................................................42

A.2  Example of CRC calculation at fc/128 ...............................................................................................42

A.3  CRC for Active and Passive communication mode at fc/64 and fc/32 ...........................................43

A.4  Example of CRC calculation at fc/64 and fc/32 .................................................................................43

Annex B (informative) SAK ...............................................................................................................................44

iv © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 18092 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Telecommunications and information exchange between systems.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18092:2004), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
Introduction

This International Standard specifies the interface and protocol for simple wireless communication between

close coupled devices. These Near Field Communication (NFC) devices communicate with bit rates of 106,

212, and 424 kbit/s.

This NFC Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) standard allows, but does not specify, applications in network

products and consumer equipment.

The first edition of ISO/IEC 18092:2004 was prepared by Ecma International (as ECMA-340) and was

adopted, under a special “fast-track procedure”, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information

technology, in parallel with its approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC. This second edition of

ISO/IEC 18092 was maintained by JTC 1/SC 6 and Ecma International; it cancels and replaces the first

edition (ISO/IEC 18092:2004), which has been technically revised with fully backward compatibility.

vi © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
Information technology — Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems — Near Field Communication —
Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1)
1 Scope

This International Standard defines communication modes for Near Field Communication Interface and

Protocol (NFCIP-1) using inductive coupled devices operating at the centre frequency of 13,56 MHz for

interconnection of computer peripherals. It also defines both the Active and the Passive communication

modes of Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) to realize a communication network

using Near Field Communication devices for networked products and also for consumer equipment. This

International Standard specifies, in particular, modulation schemes, codings, transfer speeds, and frame

format of the RF interface, as well as initialisation schemes and conditions required for data collision control

during initialisation. Furthermore, this International Standard defines a transport protocol including protocol

activation and data exchange methods.

Information interchange between systems also requires, at a minimum, agreement between the interchange

parties upon the interchange codes and the data structure.
2 Conformance

A system implementing the Active and the Passive communication mode shall be in conformance with this

International Standard if it meets all the mandatory requirements specified herein.

It may also implement the NFC-SEC Option as specified in ISO/IEC 13157-1.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ITU-T V.41:1988, Code-independent error-control system

ISO/IEC 13157-1:2010, Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between

systems — NFC Security — Part 1: NFC-SEC NFCIP-1 security services and protocol

ISO/IEC 14443-2:2010, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 2:

Radio frequency power and signal interface

ISO/IEC 14443-3:2011, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 3:

Initialization and anticollision

ISO/IEC 14443-4:2008, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 4:

Transmission protocol
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
active communication mode

mode in which both the Initiator and the Target use their own RF field to enable the communication

4.2
ASK modulation

Amplitude Shift Keying, in which the amplitude of the carrier frequency is modulated according to the logic of

the data to be transmitted
4.3
Binary Coded Decimal
BCD

system for representing each of the decimal numbers 0 to 9 by a four-bit binary code

NOTE The bits, from left to right, are worth 8, 4, 2 and 1 respectively in decimal, so for example the number 6 in BCD

is 0110.
4.4
collision

transmission by two or more Targets or Initiators during the same time period, such that the Initiator or the

Target is unable to distinguish from which Target the data originated
4.5
frame

sequence of data bits and optional error detection bits, with frame delimiters at start and end

4.6
Threshold
the threshold value to detect an external RF field
4.7
Initiator
generator of the RF field and starter of the NFCIP-1 communication
4.8
load modulation

process of amplitude modulating a radio frequency field by varying the properties of a resonant circuit placed

within the radio frequency field
4.9
lsb first

least significant bit first, indicating a serial data transmission system that sends lsb before all other bits

4.10
LSB first

Least Significant Byte first, indicating a serial data transmission system that sends LSB before all other bytes

4.11
Manchester coding

method of bit coding whereby a logic level during a bit duration is represented by a sequence of two defined

physical states of a communication medium
4.12
modulation index
signal amplitude ratio of [peak – minimum] / [peak + minimum]
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
4.13
msb first

most significant bit indicating a serial data transmission system that sends the msb before all other bits

4.14
MSB first

Most Significant Byte indicating a serial data transmission system that sends the MSB before all other bytes

4.15
NFCIP-1 device
entity [ISO/IEC 18092]
4.16
NFC Identifier
NFCIDn

a randomly generated number used by the RF Collision Avoidance and Single Device Detection sequence for

both the Active and the Passive communication modes
4.17
NFC-SEC
NFCIP-1 Security Services and Protocol as specified in ISO/IEC 13157-1
4.18
passive communication mode

when the Initiator is generating the RF field and the Target responds to an Initiator command in a load

modulation scheme
4.19
RF Collision Avoidance
RFCA

method to detect the presence of a RF field based on the carrier frequency and method to detect and resolve

collisions on protocol level
4.20
SAK
Select acknowledge [ISO/IEC 14443-3]
NOTE SAK replaces the SEL_RES [ISO/IEC 18092:2004].
4.21
sensing

NFCIP-1 device in the Active communication mode expecting a Response to a Request it has sent on the RF

field to detect the start of communication to receive the Request
4.22
Single Device Detection
SDD

algorithm used by the Initiator to detect one out of several Targets in its RF field (anti-collision

[ISO/IEC 14443-3])
4.23
Target

responds to Initiator command either using load modulation scheme (RF field generated by Initiator) or using

modulation of self generated RF field
4.24
Time Period
defines the number of slots used for RF Collision Avoidance
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
4.25
Time Slot

method of preparing a time window when a Target answers, and assigning and identifying two or more logic

channels
4.26
transaction
initialisation, data exchange and device de-selection
5 Conventions and notations
5.1 Representation of numbers

The following conventions and notations apply in this document unless otherwise stated.

 Letters and digits in single quotation mark represent numbers in hexadecimal notation.

 The setting of bits is denoted by ZERO or ONE.

 Numbers in binary notation and bit patterns are represented by strings of digits 0 and 1 shown with the

most significant bit to the left. Within such strings, X may be used to indicate that the setting of a bit is not

specified within the string. For example (XXXX)b.
5.2 Names

The names of basic elements, e.g. specific fields, are written with a capital initial letter.

6 Abbreviated terms
ALL_REQ Wake up ALL Request
ATR Attribute Request and Attribute Response
ATR_REQ Attribute Request
ATR_RES Attribute Response
BCD Binary Code Decimal
BRi Receiving bit duration supported by Initiator
BRt Receiving bit duration supported by Target
BSi Sending bit duration supported by Initiator
BSt Sending bit duration supported by Target
CMD Command
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
D Divisor
DEP Data Exchange Protocol Request and Data Exchange Protocol Response
DEP_REQ Data Exchange Protocol Request
DEP_RES Data Exchange Protocol Response
DIDi Initiator Device ID
DIDt Target Device ID
DRi Data rate Received by Initiator
DRt Data rate Received by Initiator
DSi Data rate Send by Initiator
DSL Deselect Request and Deselect Response
DSL_REQ Deselect Request
DSL_RES Deselect Response
DSt Data rate Send by Target
etu elementary time unit
fc Frequency of operating field (carrier frequency)
fd Baseband frequency of Manchester coding
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
fs [ISO/IEC 14443-2] Subcarrier
FRT Frame Response Time
Gi Optional information field for Initiator
Gt Optional information field for Target
HLTA [ISO/IEC 14443-3] HaLT command, Type A
ID Identification number
lsb least significant bit
LSB Least Significant Byte
MI Multiple Information link for Data Exchange Protocol
msb most significant bit
MSB Most Significant Byte
NAD Node Address
NFCID1 fc/128 UID
nfcid1n Byte number n of NFCID1

NFCID2 Random ID for SDD in Passive communication mode at fc/64 and fc/32 bit rates

nfcid2n Byte number n of the Random Identifier NFCID2
NFCID3 Random ID for transport protocol activation
nfcid3n Byte number n of the Random Identifier NFCID3
P Odd parity bit
PA Preamble
PCD Proximity Coupling Device [ISO/IEC 14443-2]
pdu protocol data unit
PFB Control information for transaction
PICC Proximity Card or object [ISO/IEC 14443-2]
PNI Packet Number Information
PPi Protocol Parameters used by Initiator
PPt Protocol Parameters used by Target
PSL Parameter Selection Request and Parameter Selection Response
PSL_REQ Parameter Selection Request
PSL_RES Parameter Selection Response
RF Radio Frequency
RFCA RF Collision Avoidance
RFU Reserved for Future Use
RLS Release Request and Release Response
RLS_REQ Release Request
RLS_RES Release Response
RWT Response Waiting Time
SB Start byte for data exchange protocol at fc/128
SDD Single Device Detection (anti-collision)
SEL_CMD Select Command byte
SYNC Synchronisation pattern
TO Timeout value
UID Unique Identifier [ISO/IEC 14443-3]
WT Waiting Time
WUP Wakeup Request and Wakeup Response
WUP_REQ Wakeup Request
WUP_RES Wakeup Response
7 General

NFCIP-1 Targets and Initiators shall implement both the Active and the Passive communication modes.

In the Active communication mode, both the Initiator and the Target use their own RF field to communicate.

The Initiator starts the NFCIP-1 transaction. The Target responds to an Initiator command in the Active

communication mode by modulating its own RF field.
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)

In the Passive communication mode, the Initiator generates the RF field and starts the transaction. The Target

responds to an Initiator command in the Passive communication mode by modulating the Initiators’ RF field

which is referred to as load modulation.

This International Standard specifies requirements for modulation, bit rates and bit coding. In addition it

specifies requirements for the start of communication, the end of communication, the bit and byte

representation, the framing and error detection, the single device detection, the protocol and parameter

selection and the data exchange and de-selection of Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol

(NFCIP-1) devices.

Transactions start with device initialisation and end with device de-selection. Initiators and Targets exchange

commands, responses and data in alternating or half duplex communication.

NFCIP-1 devices are capable to start transactions at bit rates of fc/128, fc/64 and fc/32. Initiators select one of

those bit rates to start a transaction and they may change the bit rate using PSL_REQ/PSL_RES commands

during a transaction.
The mode (Active or Passive) shall not be changed during one transaction.
8 RF field
8.1 Values
fc is 13,56 MHz.
H is 1,5 A/m (rms).
min
H is 7,5 A/m (rms).
max
H is 0,1875 A/m (rms).
Threshold
8.2 Passive communication Mode

The Initiator shall generate field strength of at least H and not exceeding H at manufacturer specified

min max
positions (i.e. operating volume) under un-modulated conditions.
The Target shall operate continuously between H and H .
min max
8.3 Active communication Mode

An Initiator and a Target shall alternately generate a RF field of at least H and not exceeding H at

min max

manufacturer specified positions (i.e. operating volume) under un-modulated conditions.

8.4 External RF field detection

NFCIP-1 devices shall detect external RF fields at fc with field strength higher than H .

Threshold
9 RF Signal Interface
9.1 Bit duration

One etu equals 128/(D  fc), where the values of the divisor D depend on the bit rate and communication

mode, see Table 1.
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
Table 1 — Divisor D
Communication Mode bit rate Divisor D
active or passive fc/128 (~106 kbit/s) 1
active or passive fc/64 (~212 kbit/s) 2
active or passive fc/32 (~424 kbit/s) 4
Active fc/16 (~848 kbit/s) 8
Active fc/8 (~1695 kbit/s) 16
Active fc/4 (~3390 kbit/s) 32
Active fc/2 (~6780 kbit/s) 64

NOTE 1 The Initiator selects the communication mode (either Active or Passive) and bit rate (fc/128, fc/64 or fc/32

specified by the following clauses).

NOTE 2 This Standard does not specify the modulation and the bit coding beyond the bit rate of fc/32.

9.2 Active communication mode

Targets and Initiators shall comply with the following specifications for both communication directions, i.e.

Initiator to Target and Target to Initiator.
9.2.1 Requirements for fc/128
9.2.1.1 Bit rate

The bit rate for the transmission during initialisation and single device detection shall be fc/128.

9.2.1.2 Modulation

See 8.1.2.1 of ISO/IEC 14443-2. During transmission, both the Initiator and the Target shall conform to PCD

values. During reception, both the Initiator and the Target shall conform to PICC values.

9.2.1.3 Bit representation and coding
See 8.1.3 of the ISO/IEC 14443-2 for a bit rate of fc/128.
9.2.1.4 Byte transmission
Initiators and targets shall transmit bytes with the lsb first.
9.2.2 Requirements for fc/64 and fc/32
9.2.2.1 Bit rates

The bit rates for the transmission during initialisation and single device detection shall respectively be fc/64 or

fc/32.
9.2.2.2 Modulation

See 9.1.2 of ISO/IEC 14443-2 for the bit rate of fc/64 and fc/32. During transmission, both the Initiator and the

Target shall apply the PCD values. During reception, both the Initiator and the Target shall apply the PICC

values.
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
NOTE The modulation index range is stricter than that in ISO/IEC 18092:2004.

The Target should accept a modulation index range from 8 % to 30 % to operate with Initiators compliant to

ISO/IEC 18092:2004 using a modulation index higher than 14 %.
9.2.2.3 Bit representation and coding

Manchester bit encoding shall be employed as illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Bit coding format is Manchester with logic levels defined as:

 Logic “ZERO”: The first half of the bit duration is carrier low field amplitude, and the second half of the bit

duration shall be carrier high field amplitude (no modulation applied).

 Logic “ONE”: The first half of the bit duration is carrier high field amplitude (no modulation applied), and

the second half of the bit duration shall be carrier low field amplitude.

Reverse polarity in amplitude shall be permitted. Polarity shall be detected from the SYNC.

Figure 1 — Manchester bit encoding (obverse amplitude)
Figure 2 — Manchester bit encoding (reverse amplitude)
9.2.2.4 Byte transmission
Initiators and Targets shall transmit bytes with the msb first.
9.3 Passive communication mode
9.3.1 Initiator to Target requirements for fc/128
See 9.2.1.
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ISO/IEC 18092:2013(E)
9.3.2 Target to Initiator requirements for fc/128
9.3.2.1 Bit rate
See 9.2.1.1.
9.3.2.2 Modulation
See 8.2.2 of ISO/IEC 14443-2.
9.3.2.3 Subcarrier Frequency
See 8.2.3 of ISO/IEC 14443-2.
9.3.2.4 Subcarrier modulation
See 8.2.4 of ISO/IEC 14443-2 for a bit rate of fc/128.
9.3.2.5 Bit representation and coding
See 8.2.5.1 of ISO/IEC 14443-2.
9.3.2.6 Byte transmission
Initiators and Targets shall transmit bytes with the lsb first.
9.3.3 Initiator to Target requirements for fc/64 and fc/32
9.3.3.1 Bit rate
See 9.2.2.1.
9.3.3.2 Modulation

See 9.1.2 of ISO/IEC 14443-2 for the bit rate of fc/64 and fc/32. During transmis

...

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