Rubber threads -- Methods of test

ISO 2321:2017 specifies methods of test for determining general physical and mechanical properties of rubber threads, as well as specific mechanical properties of such threads in contact with fabrics. Owing to the comparatively small cross-section and the unusual conditions of service of this material, certain special methods have been developed. Some of the tests included in this document are not entirely suitable for threads made from certain synthetic rubbers (e.g. urethane rubber). These tests are intended for natural or synthetic polyisoprene rubbers. Comparisons can only be made on new rubber threads or on those with identical processing histories. In the interpretation of results from threads which have been subjected to spooling, fabrication or any other process, the previous history is important, and what is known of this and of any relaxation treatments used is intended to be reported.

Fils élastiques -- Méthodes d'essai

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Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Aug-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
25-Jun-2017
Completion Date
31-Aug-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2321
Fourth edition
2017-08
Rubber threads — Methods of test
Fils élastiques — Méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO 2321:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO 2321:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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copyright@iso.org
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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2321:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Conditioning of samples or test pieces .......................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Count ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Sectional count ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 Conventional count (size number) ........................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4.1 Cutting out the test pieces ....................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4.2 Weighing the test pieces ............................................................................................................................................ 6

5.5 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Metric yield ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.1 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Properties of rubber threads .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8 Density ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.2 Method ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.1 Method A ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2.2 Method B ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9 Tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break ........................................................................................................ 8

9.1 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2.1 Test piece preparation ................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.2.2 Loop formation and testing .................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................10

10 Schwartz value (SV) ........................................................................................................................................................................................10

10.1 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

10.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

10.3 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................11

11 Elongation under a specified load ...................................................................................................................................................11

11.1 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................12

12 Stress retention ...................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.1 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................14

12.5 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................14

13 Tension set ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

13.1 Test piece preparation ...................................................................................................................................................................14

13.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

13.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

13.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................15

14 Accelerated ageing test on rubber threads in a relaxed state ............................................................................16

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 2321:2017(E)

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

14.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

14.3 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................16

14.4 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................16

14.5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................16

14.6 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................16

15 Dry-heat resistance .........................................................................................................................................................................................17

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

15.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................17

15.4 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................18

15.5 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................18

15.6 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................18

16 Ribbons: Degree of adhesion between threads .................................................................................................................19

16.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

16.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................19

16.3 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................19

16.4 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

16.5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................19

16.6 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................20

16.7 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................20

17 Resistance to copper staining during laundering ...........................................................................................................20

17.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

17.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

17.3 Reagents.....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

17.4 Apparatus and materials .............................................................................................................................................................21

17.5 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................22

17.6 Preparation of test pieces ...........................................................................................................................................................22

17.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

17.6.2 Individual samples of textile fabric ...............................................................................................................22

17.6.3 Individual textile yarns ............................................................................................................................................22

17.6.4 Multifibre fabric swatches ....................................................................................................................................22

17.7 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................22

17.8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................23

18 Effect of washing ................................................................................................................................................................................................23

18.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

18.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................23

18.3 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................23

18.4 Standard washing solution ........................................................................................................................................................24

18.5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................24

18.6 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................25

18.7 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................25

19 Resistance to atmospheric fume staining................................................................................................................................25

19.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................25

19.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................26

19.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

19.2.2 Method A ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

19.2.3 Method B ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

19.3 Reagents.....................................................................................................................................................................................................26

19.4 Apparatus and materials .............................................................................................................................................................26

19.4.1 Method A ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

19.4.2 Method B ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

19.5 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................28

19.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

19.5.2 Method A ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

19.5.3 Method B ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2321:2017(E)

19.6 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................28

19.6.1 Method A ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

19.6.2 Method B ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

19.7 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 2321:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 45, Rubber and rubber products,

Subcommittee SC 4, Products (other than hoses).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 2321:2006), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Clause 3 has been added to list all the terms and definitions;
— the distance between cutting blades in Figure 1 has been added;

— the tensile testing of type A rings in Figure 2 has been added and all the figure numbers have been

updated;
— a new test, namely tension set, has been added in Clause 13;
— the clause numbers in Table 1 and Table 2 have been updated;

— the unit of density has been changed from megagram per cubic metre (Mg/m ) to gram per cubic

centimetre (g/cm ).
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2321:2017(E)
Rubber threads — Methods of test
1 Scope

This document specifies methods of test for determining general physical and mechanical properties of

rubber threads, as well as specific mechanical properties of such threads in contact with fabrics. Owing

to the comparatively small cross-section and the unusual conditions of service of this material, certain

special methods have been developed.

Some of the tests included in this document are not entirely suitable for threads made from certain

synthetic rubbers (e.g. urethane rubber). These tests are intended for natural or synthetic polyisoprene

rubbers.

Comparisons can only be made on new rubber threads or on those with identical processing histories.

In the interpretation of results from threads which have been subjected to spooling, fabrication or

any other process, the previous history is important, and what is known of this and of any relaxation

treatments used is intended to be reported.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 37, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of tensile stress-strain properties

ISO 105-A02, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part A02: Grey scale for assessing change in colour

ISO 105-A03, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part A03: Grey scale for assessing staining

ISO 188, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Accelerated ageing and heat resistance tests

ISO 648, Laboratory glassware — Single-volume pipettes
ISO 1042, Laboratory glassware — One-mark volumetric flasks

ISO 1183-2, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 2: Density

gradient column method

ISO 23529, Rubber — General procedures for preparing and conditioning test pieces for physical test methods

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
metric yield
unstretched length, in metres, of 1 000 g of the thread
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 2321:2017(E)
3.2
density

mass per unit volume of a test piece of thread measured at a standard laboratory

temperature
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in grams per cubic centimetre.
Note 2 to entry: The standard laboratory temperatures are given in ISO 23529.
3.3
tensile strength

stress at which the thread breaks when it is stretched under specified conditions, based on the initial

cross-sectional area
Note 1 to entry: The value is expressed in megapascals (1MPa = 1N/mm ).
3.4
modulus at 300 % and 500 %

stress calculated with respect to the original cross-sectional area, at 300 % and 500 % elongation

Note 1 to entry: It is measured in megapascals (1MPa = 1N/mm ).
3.5
elongation at break

increase in length of the thread at break when it is stretched under the specified conditions, expressed

as the percentage increase of the original length

EXAMPLE A test piece, 30 mm in length which increases in length to 210 mm at break, is said to giv

...

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