Information technology -- Radio frequency identification device performance test methods

This document defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID tags for item management and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for tags which are applicable to the selection of devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a unified tag datasheet.

Technologies de l'information -- Méthodes d'essai des performances du dispositif d'identification par radiofréquence

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Oct-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
19-Sep-2020
Completion Date
18-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18046-3
Third edition
2020-10
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification device
performance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for tag performance
Technologies de l'information — Méthodes d'essai des performances
du dispositif d'identification par radiofréquence —
Partie 3: Méthodes d'essai des perfomances du tag
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Number of tags to be tested ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 RF environment ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Total measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5.7 Test result reporting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.8 Test mounting material ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.9 Test communication parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.10 Test equipment limitations .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.11 Human exposure to EMF ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Setup of test equipment for tag test.................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-2 tags .............................................................................. 5

6.2 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-3 tags .............................................................................. 5

6.3 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/

IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 tags ..................................................................................................................... 6

6.3.1 Propagative UHF tags measurement .............................................................................................................. 6

6.3.2 Inductive UHF tags measurement ..................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-7 tags .............................................................................. 8

7 Functional tests for inductive tags as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-2 and ISO/
IEC 18000-3, ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISOIEC 18000-63 and ISO/

IEC 18000-64 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 Identification magnetic field threshold (H ) ................................................................................ 8

THR Identification

7.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Reading magnetic field threshold (H ) ...........................................................................................................10

THR Read

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Writing magnetic field threshold (H ) ...........................................................................................................11

THR Write

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Maximum operating magnetic field (H ) .................................................................................................................13

Max

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5 Survival magnetic field (H ) ........................................................................................................................................13

Survival

7.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................13

7.6 Load modulation (LM) ..................................................................................................................................................................13

7.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................13

7.7 Optional resonant frequency and Q factor measurement for inductive tag ....................................14

7.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)

7.7.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................14

8 Functional tests for propagative tags as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/

IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 .......................................................................................15

8.1 Minimum power operation threshold (P ) for identification, read and write .........................15

Min

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Sensitivity degradation (S ).................................................................................................................................17

Degradation

8.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................18

8.3 Maximum operating power of tag (P ) ......................................................................................................................20

Max

8.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................20

8.3.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

8.4 Survival electromagnetic power of tag (P ) .....................................................................................................21

Survial

8.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................22

8.5 Interference rejection (I ) ...........................................................................................................................................22

Rejection

8.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................23

8.5.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................23

8.6 Maximum fade rate (P ) ................................................................................................................................................24

Min,Fade

8.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................24

8.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................25

8.6.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................26

9 Functional tests for 433,920 MHz propagative tags as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-7 ..................26

9.1 Identification electromagnetic field threshold (E ) and frequency
THR Identification

tolerance ....................................................................................................................................................................................................26

9.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

9.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................26

9.1.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................27

9.2 Reading electromagnetic field threshold (E ) and frequency tolerance ...........................28

THR Read

9.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................28

9.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................28

9.2.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................29

9.3 Writing electromagnetic field threshold (E ) ..........................................................................................30

THR Write

9.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................30

9.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................30

9.3.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................31

9.4 Sensitivity Directivity (S ) ........................................................................................................................................31

Directivity

9.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................31

9.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................32

9.4.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................33

9.5 Interference rejection (I ) ...........................................................................................................................................34

Rejection

9.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................34

9.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................34

9.5.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................37

9.6 Maximum operating electromagnetic field (E ) ................................................................................................37

Max

9.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................37

9.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................37

9.6.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................39

9.7 Survival electromagnetic field (E ) .......................................................................................................................39

Survival

9.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................39

9.7.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................39

9.7.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................40

iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)

Annex A (informative) Resonant frequency and Q factor measurement for inductive tag .......................41

Annex B (normative) Test apparatus modification for ISO/IEC 18000-3 tags for field

strengths >5 A/m ..............................................................................................................................................................................................44

Annex C (normative) Test apparatus modification for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62,

ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 tags ..................................................................................................................45

Annex D (informative) Inventory command for all parts of ISO/IEC 18000 .............................................................48

Annex E (normative) Backscatter power measurement ...............................................................................................................49

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................50

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https:// patents .iec .c).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second (ISO/IEC 18046-3:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Change of the frequency range to 860 MHz to 930 MHz, as no countries, including Japan, support a

frequency in the 930 MHz to 960 MHz range anymore;

— Adaptation of the test method for 860 MHz to 930 MHz band based on 10 years experience of the use

of this document.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 18046 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)
Introduction

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has broad applicability to the automatic identification

and data capture (AIDC) industry in item management. As a wireless communication technique based

on radio frequency technology, the applications cover multiple levels of the industrial, commercial and

retail supply chains. These can include:
— freight containers,
— returnable transport items (RTI),
— transport units,
— product packaging, and
— product tagging.

Performance tests define test methods which deliver results that allow the comparison of different

RFID systems, interrogators and tags in order to select among them for use in a particular application.

The performance characteristics of devices (tags and interrogation equipment) can vary drastically due

to application factors as well as the particular RFID air interface (frequency, modulation, protocol, etc.)

being supported. Of key concern is the matching of the various performance characteristics to the user

application. Additionally, in an open environment, users of such technology demand multiple sources

for these devices from technology providers. A key challenge is a method of evaluating the differences

between various technology providers' products in a consistent and equitable manner.

This document provides a framework for meeting the above noted concerns and challenges. To this end,

clear definitions of performance as related to user application of RFID technology in the supply chain

are provided. Based on such application-based definitions, test methods are defined with attention to

the test parameters required for a consistent evaluation of RFID devices.

Of particular significance, these tests are defined for RFID devices with one antenna. It is common

practice to have products with both single and multiple antennae to define an RFID transaction zone

sufficient for the application. The defined test methods used are for a single antenna but can equivalently

be extended to equipment with multiple antennae, in order to evaluate performance under conditions

more closely matching those of a particular application. However, it is important to exercise care in

multiple-antenna measurement since multiple antennae can cause antenna-to-antenna interactions,

physical packaging limitations, mutual coupling issues, shadowing issues, directivity issues and other

impacts, even with respect to interrogators since these can be limited in size, shape and mounting

method for many RFID applications.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18046-3:2020(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device performance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for tag performance
1 Scope

This document defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID tags for item management

and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for tags which are applicable to the

selection of devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a unified tag datasheet.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-2, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 2: Parameters for air interface communications below 135 kHz

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 18000-6, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz General

ISO/IEC 18000-61, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 61: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type A

ISO/IEC 18000-62, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 62: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type B

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18000-64, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 64: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type D

ISO/IEC 18000-7, Information
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-11-27 2020-02-19
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device performance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for tag performance

Technologies de l'information — Méthodes d'essai des performances du dispositif d'identification par

radiofréquence —
Partie 3: Méthodes d'essai des perfomances du tag
ICS: 35.040.50
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO/IEC 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Number of tags to be tested ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 RF environment ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Total measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Test result reporting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.8 Test mounting material ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.9 Test communication parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.10 Test equipment limits ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.11 Human exposure to EMF ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Setup of test equipment for tag test.................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-2 tags .............................................................................. 4

6.2 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-3 tags .............................................................................. 4

6.3 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/

IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 tags ..................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.1 Propagative UHF tags measurement .............................................................................................................. 4

6.3.2 Inductive UHF tags measurement ..................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-7 tags .............................................................................. 6

7 Functional tests for inductive tags as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-2 and ISO/
IEC 18000-3, ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISOIEC 18000-63 and ISO/

IEC 18000-64 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 Identification magnetic field threshold (H ) ................................................................................ 6

THR Identification

7.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Reading magnetic field threshold (H ) .............................................................................................................. 8

THR Read

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Writing magnetic field threshold (H ) .............................................................................................................. 9

THR Write

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4 Maximum operating magnetic field (H ) .................................................................................................................11

max

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Survival magnetic field (H ) ........................................................................................................................................11

Survival

7.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................11

7.6 Load modulation (L ) ....................................................................................................................................................................11

7.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Functional tests for propagative tags as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/

IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 .......................................................................................12

8.1 Minimum power threshold (Pmin) for identification, read and write ................................................12

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Sensitivity degradation (S ).................................................................................................................................15

Degradation

8.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Maximum operating power (Pmax) ...................................................................................................................................18

8.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................18

8.3.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................18

8.4 Survival electromagnetic power (Psurvial) ................................................................................................................19

8.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................19

8.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................19

8.4.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

8.5 Interference rejection (I ) ...........................................................................................................................................20

Rejection

8.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................20

8.5.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................21

8.6 Maximum fade rate (Pmin,fade) ...........................................................................................................................................22

8.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................22

8.6.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................23

9 Functional tests for 433,920 MHz propagative tags as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-7 ..................24

9.1 Identification electromagnetic field threshold (E ) and frequency
THR Identification

tolerance ....................................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................24

9.1.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................25

9.2 Reading electromagnetic field threshold (E ) and frequency tolerance ...........................26

THR Read

9.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

9.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................26

9.2.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................27

9.3 Writing electromagnetic field threshold (E ) ..........................................................................................28

THR Write

9.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................28

9.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................28

9.3.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................29

9.4 Sensitivity Directivity (S ) ........................................................................................................................................29

Directivity

9.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................29

9.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................30

9.4.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................31

9.5 Interference rejection (I ) ...........................................................................................................................................32

Rejection

9.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................32

9.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................32

9.5.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................35

9.6 Maximum operating electromagnetic field (E ) ................................................................................................35

max

9.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................35

9.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................35

9.6.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................37

9.7 Survival electromagnetic field (E ) .......................................................................................................................37

Survival

9.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................37

9.7.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................37

9.7.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................38

Annex A (informative) Resonant frequency and Q factor measurement for inductive tag .......................39

Annex B (normative) Test apparatus modification for ISO/IEC 18000-3 compliant tags

for field strengths > 5 A/m ......................................................................................................................................................................42

iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)

Annex C (normative) Test apparatus modification for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62,

ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 compliant tags .....................................................................................43

Annex D (informative) Inventory command for all parts of ISO/IEC 18000 .............................................................45

Annex E (normative) Backscatter power measurement ...............................................................................................................46

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................47

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC ##, [name of subcommittee].

This second/third/… edition cancels and replaces the first/second/… edition (ISO/IEC #####:####),

which has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Change of the frequency range to 860 – 930 MHz, as Japan (and no other country) any longer supports

a frequency in the 930 – 960 MHz range

— Adaptation of test method for 860-930 MHz band based on 10 years experience of the use of this

standard.
A list of all parts in the ISO ##### series can be found on the ISO website.
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ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)
Introduction

RFID technology has broad applicability to the Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC)

industry in item management. As a wireless communication technique based on Radio Frequency

technology the applications cover multiple levels of the industrial, commercial and retail supply chains.

These may include:
— Freight containers
— Returnable Transport Items (RTI)
— Transport units
— Product packaging
— Product tagging

Performance tests define test methods that deliver results that allow the comparison of different RFID

systems, interrogator and tags in order to select among them for use in a particular application.

The performance characteristics of devices (tags and interrogation equipment) may vary drastically

due to application factors as well as the particular RFID air interface (frequency, modulation, protocol,

etc.) being supported. Of key concern is the matching of the various performance characteristics to

the user application. Additionally, in an open environment users of such technology demand multiple

sources for these devices from technology providers. A key challenge is a method of evaluating the

differences between various technology providers' products in a consistent and equitable manner.

This International Standard provides a framework for meeting the above noted concern and challenges.

To this end, clear definitions of performance as relate to user application of RFID technology in the

supply chain are provided. Based on such application-based definitions test methods are defined with

attention to the test parameters required for a consistent evaluation of RFID devices.

Of particular significance, these tests are defined for RFID devices having one antenna. It is common

practice to have products with both single and multiple antennas to define an RFID transaction zone

sufficient for the application. The defined methods can easily be extended from equipment with a

single antenna to apply to equipment with multiple antennas, in order to evaluate performance under

conditions more closely matching those of a particular application.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) draw attention to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this document may

involve the use of patents.

The ISO and IEC take no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights.

The holder of this patent right has assured the ISO and IEC that he is prepared to grant a free license

to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide, non-discriminatory basis and under other

reasonable terms and conditions to make, use, and sell RFID reader antenna design / patterns for

implementations of this ISO/IEC International Standard, which is related to testing. In this respect, the

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)

statements of the holder of this patent right are registered with the ISO and IEC. Information may be

obtained from the following company.
Affected subclause(s)
Contact details Patent number in this part of
ISO/IEC 18046
Impinj inc Patent pending 6.3.2, 7.1.2.3,
701 N. 34 Street, Suite 300 7.3.2.3, 7.4.2.1,
Seattle, WA 98103 7.5.2.1, 7.6.2.3
Tel: 206/517-5300
Fax: 206/517-5262

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those identified above. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying

any or all such patent rights.

The latest information on IP that may be applicable to this part of ISO/IEC 18046 can be found at www

.iso .org/patents.
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC DIS 18046-3:2019(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device performance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for tag performance
1 Scope

This International Standard defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID tags for

item management and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for tags which are

applicable to the selection of the devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a

unified tag datasheet. It does not apply to testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-1, Information technology — Radio-frequency identification for item management — Part1:

Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardiz
...

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