Ergonomics of human-system interaction

This document provides guidance on the design, selection and optimization of non-contacting hand and arm gestures for human-computer interaction. It addresses the assessment of usability and fatigue associated with different gesture set designs and provides recommendations for approaches to evaluating the design and selection of gestures. This document also provides guidance on the documentation of the process for selecting gesture sets. This document applies to gestures expressed by humans. It does not consider the technology for detecting gestures or the system response when interpreting a gesture. Non-contacting hand gestures can be used for input in a variety of settings, including the workplace or in public settings and when using fixed screens, mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed-mode reality devices. Some limitations of this document are: —   The scope is limited to non-contacting gestures and does not include other forms of inputs. For example, combining gesture with speech, gaze or head position can reduce input error, but these combinations are not considered here. —   The scope is limited to non-contacting arm, hand and finger gestures, either unilateral (one-handed) or bilateral (two-handed). —   The scope assumes that all technological constraints are surmountable. Therefore, there is no consideration of technological limitations with interpreting ultra-rapid gestures, gestures performed by people of different skin tones or wearing different colours or patterns of clothing. —   The scope is limited to UI-based command-and-control human computer interaction (HCI) tasks and does not include gaming scenarios, although the traversal of in-game menus and navigation of UI elements is within scope. —   The scope does not include HCI tasks for which an obviously more optimal input method exists. For example, speech input is superior for inputting text than gesture input. —   The scope includes virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) and the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs). —   The scope does not include the discoverability of gestures but does include the learnability and memorability of gestures. It is assumed that product documentation and tutorials will adequately educate end users about which gestures are possible. Therefore, assessing gesture discoverability is not a primary goal of the recommendations in this document.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Dec-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
29-Oct-2021
Completion Date
05-Nov-2021
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ISO/TS 9241-430:2021 - Ergonomics of human-system interaction
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 9241-430
First edition
2021-12
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 430:
Recommendations for the design
of non-touch gestural input for the
reduction of biomechanical stress
Reference number
ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Selection of non-contacting gestures .............................................................................................................................................3

4.1 Overall approach to the selection of non-contacting gestures .................................................................... 3

4.2 Large shoulder and elbow movements ............................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Optimal hand location relative to body ............................................................................................................................ 3

4.4 Wrist and forearm posture ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Comfort of hand postures and motions ............................................................................................................................ 3

4.5.1 Fist, neutral and extended fingers ...................................................................................................................... 3

4.5.2 Asynchronous adjacent finger postures .................. ...................................................................................... 4

4.5.3 Thumb flexion or extension and abduction or adduction.............................................................. 4

4.5.4 Speed of finger or hand movements and impact .................................................................................... 4

4.5.5 Hand microgestures ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

5 E valuation of non-contacting gestures ........................................................................................................................................ 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Laboratory-based study design ............................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Subjects for studies ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.4 Independent variables ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5 Example technologies for gesture capture .................................................................................................................... 6

5.6 Dependent variables (outcome measures) .................................................................................................................... 6

5.7 Examples of tasks ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................... 7

5.8 Target size ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.9 Data analysis, interpretation and reporting ................................................................................................................ 9

Annex A (informative) Example of questionnaire for assessing subjective usability

measures ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
Introduction

Non-contacting hand and arm gestures (e.g. mid-air gestures) for interacting with computing devices

are emerging as a useful form of input for both consumer and commercial applications.

Non-contacting gestures can be particularly well-suited for certain tasks, equipment and environments,

such as with wearable technology (e.g. head-mounted displays, instrumented gloves), in dirty or sterile

settings (e.g. kitchens or operating rooms) or for tasks where both hands are also used for other

activities (e.g. sorting packages).

This document provides guidance on the design and selection of non-contacting hand and arm gestures

and recommends methods for the usability and ergonomic evaluation of gestures in order to prevent

fatigue and discomfort during prolonged gesturing.

ISO 9241-910 provides a common set of terms, definitions and descriptions of the various concepts

central to designing and using tactile or haptic interactions. It also provides an overview of the range of

tactile or haptic applications, objects, attributes and interactions.

ISO 9241-920 provides basic guidance (including references to related standards) in the design of tactile

or haptic interactions.

ISO 9241-940 provides ways of evaluating tactile or haptic interaction for various aspects of interaction

quality, such as haptic device attributes, logical space design and usability.

ISO 9241-960 provides guidance on gestures for tactile or haptic interaction. It explains how to describe

their features and what factors to consider when defining gestures.

There are many factors to consider in the selection of non-contacting hand and arm gesture sets for

human-computer interaction, including task, workstation, environment, natural language, recall,

common existing contacting hand gesture sets, technology limitations on gesture recognition, usability,

preference, arm and shoulder fatigue and other ergonomic factors. This document provides guidance

primarily on usability, preference, arm and shoulder fatigue and biomechanical or kinesiology factors.

This document recommends methods to assess these factors based on the reliability and validity of the

methods.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 430:
Recommendations for the design of non-touch gestural
input for the reduction of biomechanical stress
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the design, selection and optimization of non-contacting hand

and arm gestures for human-computer interaction. It addresses the assessment of usability and

fatigue associated with different gesture set designs and provides recommendations for approaches

to evaluating the design and selection of gestures. This document also provides guidance on the

documentation of the process for selecting gesture sets.

This document applies to gestures expressed by humans. It does not consider the technology for

detecting gestures or the system response when interpreting a gesture. Non-contacting hand gestures

can be used for input in a variety of settings, including the workplace or in public settings and when

using fixed screens, mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed-mode reality devices.

Some limitations of this document are:

— The scope is limited to non-contacting gestures and does not include other forms of inputs. For

example, combining gesture with speech, gaze or head position can reduce input error, but these

combinations are not considered here.

— The scope is limited to non-contacting arm, hand and finger gestures, either unilateral (one-handed)

or bilateral (two-handed).

— The scope assumes that all technological constraints are surmountable. Therefore, there is

no consideration of technological limitations with interpreting ultra-rapid gestures, gestures

performed by people of different skin tones or wearing different colours or patterns of clothing.

— The scope is limited to UI-based command-and-control human computer interaction (HCI) tasks

and does not include gaming scenarios, although the traversal of in-game menus and navigation of

UI elements is within scope.

— The scope does not include HCI tasks for which an obviously more optimal input method exists. For

example, speech input is superior for inputting text than gesture input.

— The scope includes virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) and the use

of head-mounted displays (HMDs).

— The scope does not include the discoverability of gestures but does include the learnability and

memorability of gestures. It is assumed that product documentation and tutorials will adequately

educate end users about which gestures are possible. Therefore, assessing gesture discoverability

is not a primary goal of the recommendations in this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
localized fatigue

reduced ability of muscles to generate force that occurs with prolonged repeated or sustained activities

of the hands and arms

Note 1 to entry: This can be measured as reduced strength or perceived as weakness, discomfort, pain, tremors

or altered motor control of the hand or arm. The symptoms can occur at the time the activity is performed or

hours later.

Note 2 to entry: The fatigue considered here is also known as peripheral fatigue. Central fatigue (e.g. central

nervous system) is not considered.
3.2
anatomical structures and landmarks of the hand

commonly agreed terminology for structures, regions or surfaces of the hands, which facilitate

description of the location of the hand in space

Note 1 to entry: Use medical anatomical terms to describe anatomical structures and landmarks, for example

palmar, dorsal, radial, ulnar surfaces; digits (1 to 4 = index, middle, right, small); thumb; finger and thumb

joints [carpometacarpal joint (CMC), interphalangeal joint (IP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and distal

interphalangeal joint (DIP)].
3.3
joint posture
position of the joints of the upper extremities

Note 1 to entry: Some joint postures of interest are fingers and thumb in flexion/extension and abduction/

adduction; wrist in extension/flexion and ulnar/radial deviation; forearm in pronation/supination; elbow in

flexion/extension; and shoulder in flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, internal/external rotation and

elevation.

Note 2 to entry: The terms used to describe joint postures can be applied to both static joint postures and

joint movements. A static posture is described in degrees relative to a reference frame (see ISO 9241-400 and

Reference [11]). Joint movement directions are described using the same terms.
3.4
optimal joint posture
joint posture where muscles are in the least activated state

Note 1 to entry: Typically, optimal joint postures are postures where the muscles that control joint movement

are in their least activated state. This may also be referred to as neutral posture, i.e. a position that parts of the

body assume when relaxed. Optimal joint postures are influenced by the posture of adjacent joints, the mass of

adjacent body segments, the direction of gravity relative to the joint postures and other factors.

EXAMPLE Wrist (for power grip): 20° of extension, 0° to 15° of ulnar deviation and a grip diameter of 3 cm

to 5 cm; forearm: 0° to 60° of pronation; elbow: 0° to 90° of flexion; shoulder: 0° to 20° of flexion, 0° to 20° of

abduction and 0° to 60° of internal rotation.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 9241-430:2021(E)
3.5
hand microgesture

movement or posture of the fingers and hand that does not involve movement of the shoulder or

movement of the elbow in flexion or extension

Note 1 to entry: Hand microgestures may also be called finger gestures. Hand microgestures can include forearm

pronation and supination.
4 Selection of non-contacting gestures
4.1 Overall approach to the selection of non-contacting gestures

Many factors should be considered in the design and selection of non-contacting hand and arm gestures

and their assignment to commands. These factors include natural language, memory, ease of forming

gestures, prior gesturing experience and ergonomics. In this clause, recommendations are made for the

ergonomic factors that can influence localized fatigue, comfort and biomechanics. The recommendations

are for gestures that will be repeated or sustained and, therefore, can lead to localized fatigue. The

recommendations do not apply to gestures that are performed infrequently.
4.2 Large shoulder and elbow movements

Shoulder and elbow movements beyond the optimal posture range are inefficient and fatiguing if

performed repeatedly. These movements involve large muscle groups and the metabolic demands are

often high. Motion of the shoulders and elbows within their optimal range is efficient and comfortable.

It is recommended that gestures avoid large shoulder and elbow movements outside of their optimal

range.
4.3 Optimal hand location relative to body

The location of the hands during gesturing will be determined by shoulder and elbow postures. If the

shoulder and elbow joints are within their optimal range, the hands will be located within a space

between the waist and the chest, between the shoulders and near the torso. Avoiding reaching, by

designing gestures so that the shoulder posture is within the optimal range, will prevent shoulder

fatigue.
4.4 Wrist and forearm posture

Comfortable hand gestures are those where the wrist and forearm postures are within their optimal

range. The range of hand postu
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