Fuel cell road vehicles -- Energy consumption measurement -- Vehicles fuelled with compressed hydrogen

ISO 23828:2013 specifies the procedures for measuring the energy consumption of fuel cell passenger cars and light-duty trucks that use compressed hydrogen and which are not externally chargeable.

Véhicules routiers avec pile à combustible -- Mesurage de la consommation d'énergie -- Véhicules alimentés par hydrogène comprimé

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Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Nov-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
23-Oct-2013
Completion Date
15-Nov-2013
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23828
Second edition
2013-11-15
Fuel cell road vehicles — Energy
consumption measurement — Vehicles
fuelled with compressed hydrogen
Véhicules routiers avec pile à combustible — Mesurage de la
consommation d’énergie — Véhicules alimentés par hydrogène
comprimé
Reference number
ISO 23828:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23828:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Measurement accuracy .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Hydrogen measurement accuracy .......................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Hydrogen consumption measurement .......................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Pressure method ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Gravimetric method ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.4 Flow method ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Test conditions and instrumentation ............................................................................................................................................. 3

6.1 Test conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2 Test instrumentation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Fuel consumption tests .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Measurement and calculation over applicable driving test (ADT) ............................................................ 5

6.5 Correction of the test results for FCHEV ........................................................................................................................... 6

7 Presentation of results ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Test procedure in Japan........................................................................................................................................ 8

Annex B (informative) Test procedure in Europe ................................................................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Test procedure in the U.S.A. ...........................................................................................................................16

Annex D (normative) Pressure method ..........................................................................................................................................................22

Annex E (normative) Gravimetric method ..................................................................................................................................................24

Annex F (normative) Flow method ......................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex G (informative) Current method ..........................................................................................................................................................28

Annex H (informative) Determination of tank surface temperature measuring points .............................30

Annex I (informative) Test results of hydrogen consumption of test vehicle ..........................................................34

Annex J (normative) Calculation of allowable range of RESS energy change ..........................................................36

Annex K (normative) Linear correction method using a correction coefficient ..................................................38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 21,

Electrically propelled road vehicles.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 23828:2008), which has been

technically revised.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23828:2013(E)
Fuel cell road vehicles — Energy consumption measurement
— Vehicles fuelled with compressed hydrogen
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the procedures for measuring the energy consumption of fuel cell

passenger cars and light-duty trucks that use compressed hydrogen and which are not externally chargeable.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10521 (all parts), Road vehicles — Road load

ISO 14687-2, Hydrogen fuel — Product specification — Part 2: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

applications for road vehicles
ISO/TR 8713, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 8713 and the following apply.

3.1
applicable driving test
ADT
single driving test schedule which is specified for each region

EXAMPLE Chassis dynamometer test cycle for light-duty vehicles in Japan (JC08), New European Driving

Cycle (NEDC), Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS).
3.2
charge balance of battery
change of charge in battery during fuel consumption measurement
Note 1 to entry: Normally expressed in Ah.
3.3
energy balance of battery
RESS
change of energy in battery during fuel consumption measurement
Note 1 to entry: Normally expressed in Wh.

Note 2 to entry: For practical use, the energy balance of a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) is

approximated by multiplying the charge balance of battery in Ah by the nominal voltage in V. “Nominal voltage”

is defined in ISO 12405-1 or ISO 12405-2.
3.4
fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle
FCHEV

electrically propelled vehicle with a RESS and a fuel cell system as power sources for vehicle propulsion

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
3.5
fuel cell vehicle
FCV

electrically propelled vehicle with a fuel cell system as power source for vehicle propulsion

3.6
pure fuel cell vehicle
pure FCV
FCV with only a fuel cell system as power source for vehicle propulsion
3.7
rated capacity

supplier’s specification of the total number of ampere-hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged

battery pack or system for a specified set of test conditions such as discharge rate, temperature,

discharge cut-off voltage, etc.
3.8
rechargeable energy storage system
RESS

system that stores energy for delivery of electric power and which is rechargeable

EXAMPLE Batteries, capacitors.
3.9
regenerative braking

braking with conversion of kinetic energy into electric energy for charging the RESS

3.10
state of charge
SOC

available capacity in a battery pack or system expressed as a percentage of rated capacity

4 Measurement accuracy
4.1 General
Measurement accuracy shall be in accordance with national standards.
4.2 Hydrogen measurement accuracy

Test apparatus shall ensure the accuracy of measurement of ±1 % for the total mass of hydrogen

consumption during the applicable driving test (ADT), unless otherwise specified in the relevant annexes.

5 Hydrogen consumption measurement
5.1 General
Hydrogen consumption shall be measured using one of the following:
— pressure method;
— gravimetric method;
— flow method.
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
5.2 Pressure method

Hydrogen consumption is determined by measuring the pressure and temperature of gas in the hydrogen

tank before and after the test. A tank with known internal volume that allows measurement of gas

pressure and temperature shall be used for the test. Pressure method shall be performed in accordance

with Annex D.
5.3 Gravimetric method

Hydrogen consumption is calculated by measuring the mass of the hydrogen tank before and after the

test. Gravimetric method shall be performed in accordance with Annex E.
5.4 Flow method

The amount of hydrogen supplied to a vehicle is measured by a flowmeter. Flow method shall be

performed in accordance with Annex F.
6 Test conditions and instrumentation
6.1 Test conditions
6.1.1 General

For test conditions, the following applies unless otherwise specified in the regional standards or

regulations (see Annex A, B, or C, for example).
6.1.2 Ambient temperature
Tests shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of (25 ± 5) °C.
6.1.3 Vehicle conditions
6.1.3.1 Vehicle conditioning

Prior to testing, the test vehicle shall be stabilized; this includes vehicle mileage accumulation in

accordance with a manufacturer-determined distance, unless otherwise specified in Annex A, B, or C.

6.1.3.2 Vehicle appendages

Vehicles shall be tested with normal appendages (mirrors, bumpers, etc.). When the vehicle is on the

dynamometer, certain items (e.g. hub caps) should be removed for reasons of safety, where necessary.

6.1.3.3 Vehicle test mass

The vehicle test mass shall be selected according to the regional standards and/or regulations (see

Annex A, B, or C, for example).
6.1.3.4 Tyres
6.1.3.4.1 General

The correctly rated tyres as recommended by the vehicle manufacturer shall be used.

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ISO 23828:2013(E)
6.1.3.4.2 Tyre pressure

The vehicle tyres shall be inflated to the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer according to the

test chosen (track or chassis dynamometer).
6.1.3.4.3 Tyre conditioning
The tyres shall be conditioned as recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.
6.1.3.5 Lubricants
The vehicle lubricants normally specified by the manufacturer shall be used.
6.1.3.6 Gear shifting

If the vehicle is fitted with a manually shifted gear box, gear shifting positions shall correspond to

the regional test procedure (see Annex A, B, or C, for example). However, the shift positions should be

selected and determined in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer’s specification.

6.1.3.7 Regenerative braking

If the vehicle has regenerative braking, the regenerative braking system shall be enabled for all

dynamometer testing except where specified in 6.1.4.4 chassis dynamometer conditions.

If the vehicle is tested on a single axle dynamometer and is equipped with systems such as an antilock

braking system (ABS) or a traction control system (TCS), those systems can inadvertently interpret

the non-movement of the set of wheels that are off the dynamometer as a malfunctioning system. If so,

these systems shall be temporally disabled for adjustment to achieve normal operation of the remaining

vehicle systems, including the regenerative braking system.
6.1.3.8 RESS conditioning

The RESS shall be conditioned with the vehicle as specified in 6.1.3.1 or by equivalent conditioning.

6.1.3.9 Test fuel
ISO 14687-2 and the equivalent regional standards shall apply to test fuel.
6.1.4 Chassis dynamometer conditions
6.1.4.1 General

The vehicle should generally be tested on a single-axle chassis dynamometer. A vehicle with four-wheel

drive shall be tested by modifying the drive train of the vehicle. When the vehicle is modified, the details

shall be explained in the test report.

Double-axle chassis dynamometer testing should be performed if a modification for single-axle chassis

dynamometer testing is not possible for a specific four-wheel drive vehicle.
6.1.4.2 Dynamometer calibration

The dynamometer shall be calibrated in accordance with the specifications indicated in the service

manual provided by the dynamometer manufacturers.
6.1.4.3 Dynamometer warm-up
The dynamometer shall be warmed up sufficiently prior to testing.
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
6.1.4.4 Determining the dynamometer load coefficient

The determination of vehicle road load and the reproduction on a chassis dynamometer shall conform

to ISO 10521. Vehicles equipped with regenerative braking systems that are activated at least in part

when the brake pedal is not depressed shall have regenerative braking disabled during the deceleration

portion of coast-down testing on both the test track and dynamometer.
6.2 Test instrumentation

Test instrumentation shall have accuracy levels as shown in Table 1, unless specified differently in

Annex A, B, or C.
Table 1 — Accuracy of measured values
Item Unit Accuracy
Time s ±0,1 s
Distance m ±0,1 %
Temperature °C ±1 °C
Speed km/h ±1 %
Mass kg ±0,5 %
Current A ±0,5 %
Capacitor voltage V ±0,5 % of nominal voltage
6.3 Fuel consumption tests
6.3.1 General

Depending on the region concerned, the appropriate procedure shall be followed from Annex A, B, or C.

Details and common procedures for each test mode are described below.
6.3.2 Vehicle preconditioning

Vehicle preconditioning shall be carried out in accordance with the annex appropriate for the region. In

the case of FCHEV, the RESS state of charge can be pre-adjusted by charging or discharging, to obtain a

suitable energy difference in RESS between the start and the end of test.
6.3.3 Vehicle soak

The vehicle shall be soaked in accordance with the appropriate regional procedure prescribed in

Annex A, B, or C.
6.3.4 Vehicle movement to the test room

When the vehicle is brought into the test room, and moved during the test if necessary, it shall be

pushed or towed (neither driven nor regenerative recharged). The test vehicle shall be set on the chassis

dynamometer after the chassis dynamometer has warmed up just before the test. The vehicle shall not

be activated during soak until right before starting the test.
6.4 Measurement and calculation over applicable driving test (ADT)

For the measurement of hydrogen consumption, the test vehicle shall be driven on the chassis

dynamometer in accordance with the ADT prescribed for the region (see Annex A, B, or C). The hydrogen

consumption shall be measured by one of the methods described in Annex D, E, or F or by an alternative

method that provides equivalent accuracy.
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ISO 23828:2013(E)

The hydrogen consumption per unit distance is determined by means of one of the following formulae:

22,414
−3 w××10
b × 10
t0 m
C == (1)
L L
b ××10
w×10
22,414
C = = (2)
L L
22,414
−3 w××10 ×Q
bQ××10
tH0 m
C = = (3)
L L
where

is the hydrogen consumption per unit distance, in m /km, referred to volume at normal

conditions (273 K; 101,3 kPa);
C is the hydrogen consumption per unit distance, in kg/km, referred to mass;

C is the hydrogen consumption per unit distance, in MJ/km, referred to caloric value;

is the distance, in km;
b is the hydrogen consumption at normal conditions in l (273 K, 101,3 kPa);
is the hydrogen consumption, in g;
is the molecular mass of hydrogen (2,016);
Q is the lower calorific value of hydrogen (10,8 MJ/Nm ).
6.5 Correction of the test results for FCHEV
6.5.1 General

Measured hydrogen consumption shall be corrected if these test results are influenced by RESS energy

balance during the test. However, the correction is not necessary if the RESS energy balance satisfies

the conditions in 6.5.2.
6.5.2 Allowable range of RESS energy balance

The correction of the test results is not necessary for the following range of the RESS energy balance:

||ΔEE≤×00, 1 (4)
RESS CF
where
ΔE is the energy change in RESS over the ADT;
RESS
E is the energy of consumed fuel over the ADT.
ΔE shall be calculated in accordance with Annex J.
RESS
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
6.5.3 Correction procedure by correction coefficient

The vehicle manufacturer shall deliver the correction coefficient to calculate the fuel consumption at

ΔE = 0. The correction coefficient can be obtained in accordance with Annex K. When the measured

RESS
value is independent of ΔE , a correction is not required.
RESS
7 Presentation of results

Test results should be recorded in accordance with the regional regulations. See Annex I for example.

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ISO 23828:2013(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Test procedure in Japan
A.1 General

Annex A describes the procedures and related conditions in Japan (JC08-mode) to measure the fuel

consumption of the passenger cars and light-duty trucks defined in Japan regulations.

Japan Regulations are written as “Announcement that Prescribes Details of Safety Regulations for Road

Vehicles (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism [MLIT] Announcement No. 619,

2002;) Attachment 42”, “TRIAS 99-006”, and “TRIAS 31-J042(3)”.
A.2 Test
A.2.1 Chassis dynamometer

The equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer shall be set to the standard value of equivalent

inertia mass specified in the right column of Table A.1 according to the relative test vehicle mass (vehicle

curb mass plus 110 kg) specified in the left column of the table. Furthermore, if the standard value of the

equivalent inertia mass in the right column of the table cannot be set, it is permissible to set the equivalent

inertia mass within a range between the said standard value and the said standard value plus 10 %.

A.2.2 Applicable driving test (ADT)

The test vehicle shall run the applicable driving test (ADT). In Japan, JC08-mode driving schedule [0s to

1204s] specified in Japan Regulations is applicable (see Figure A.1).
A.2.3 Test vehicle mass

Test vehicle mass at measuring running resistance and at measuring fuel consumption on the chassis

dynamometer shall be vehicle curb mass plus 110 kg.
A.3 Test procedure
A.3.1 General

Preconditioning shall be performed on the chassis dynamometer after given road load setting. Then, the

test procedure shall be carried out according to the test flow in Figure A.2 or A.3.

A.3.2 Cold start JC08 mode (JC08CM)

In the case of cold start, the test starts immediately after the specified soak procedure (see A.1). Test

flow in Figure A.2 is applicable.
A.3.3 Hot start JC08 mode (JC08HM)

In the case of hot start, the vehicle is under warmed-up condition. Test flow in Figure A.3 is applicable.

8 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
A.4 Calculation of fuel consumption test procedure

The measured hydrogen consumption shall be calculated to the required unit value. See 6.4.

Table A.1 — Test vehicle mass and standard value of equivalent inertia mass
Test vehicle mass (kg) Standard value of equivalent inertia mass (kg)
~ 480 455
481 ~ 540 510
541 ~ 595 570
596 ~ 650 625
651 ~ 710 680
711 ~ 765 740
766 ~ 850 800
851 ~ 965 910
966 ~ 1 080 1 020
1 081 ~ 1 190 1 130
1 191 ~ 1 305 1 250
1 306 ~ 1 420 1 360
1 421 ~ 1 530 1 470
1 531 ~ 1 640 1 590
1 641 ~ 1 760 1 700
1 761 ~ 1 870 1 810
1 871 ~ 1 980 1 930
1 981 ~ 2 100 2 040
2 101 ~ 2 210 2 150
2 211 ~ 2 380 2 270
2 381 ~ 2 625 2 500
2 626 ~ 2 875 2 750
2 876 ~ 3 250 3 000
3 251 ~ 3 750 3 500
Continued in increments of 500 kg Continued in increments of 500 kg
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
Annex B
(informative)
Test procedure in Europe
B.1 General

Based on the legal requirements in Europe, Annex B specifies the specific preconditioning procedures

and relevant test equipment for the determination of hydrogen consumption of pure FCV and FCHEV non-

externally chargeable and with FCHEV mode only of categories M1 and N1 with a maximum permissible

total mass (in accordance with ISO 1176) of 3 500 kg.

NOTE 1 The outline given in Annex B contains only those elements essential to understanding the procedure.

For further details, reference is made to the relevant clauses and subclauses in the regulations UNECE R 101

and UNECE R 83.
NOTE 2 Annex B is based on the following editions of the two regulations:
- UNECE R 101: Trans/WP.29/GRPE/2004/2, 30 October 2003;
- UNECE R 83: E/ECE/324 Rev.1/Add.82/Rev.2 E/ECE/Trans/505, 30 October 2001.

It does not necessarily reflect subsequent amendments to UNECE R 101 and UNECE R 83.

B.2 Test equipment
B.2.1 Chassis dynamometer

Features, accuracy, load and inertia setting, calibration, and other steps to prepare the chassis

dynamometer to be used are prescribed in UNECE R 83, Annex 4, 4.1, 5.1, and 5.2 and in Appendices 2

and 3 of Annex 4. The adjustment of the inertia simulators to the vehicle’s translatory inertias shall be

in accordance with Table B.1 (as given in UNECE R 83, Annex 4, 5.1).

Table B.1 — Equivalent inertia of the dynamometer related to the reference mass of the vehicle

Reference mass of the vehicle RW (kg) Equivalent inertia (kg)
RW ≤ 480 455
480 < RW ≤ 540 510
540 < RW ≤ 595 570
595 < RW ≤ 650 625
650 < RW ≤ 710 680
710 < RW ≤ 765 740
765 < RW ≤ 850 800
850 < RW ≤ 965 910
965 < RW ≤ 1 080 1 020
1 080 < RW ≤ 1 190 1 130
1 190 < RW ≤ 1 305 1 250
1 305 < RW ≤ 1 420 1 360
1 420 < RW ≤ 1 530 1 470
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ISO 23828:2013(E)
Table B.1 (continued)
Reference mass of the vehicle RW (kg) Equivalent inertia (kg)
1 530 < RW ≤ 1 640 1 590
1 640 < RW ≤ 1 760 1 700
1 760 < RW ≤ 1 870 1 810
1 870 < RW ≤ 1 980 1 930
1 980 < RW ≤ 2 100 2 040
2 100 < RW ≤ 2 210 2 150
2 210 < RW ≤ 2 380 2 270
2 380 < RW ≤ 2 610 2 270
2 610 < RW 2 270
B.2.2 Test equipment for hydrogen measurement methods

For specific test equipment for the hydrogen measurement methods, see Clause 5 and Annexes D, E, and F.

B.3 Test vehicle
B.3.1 General

The test vehicle shall be in running order, as determined by the manufacturer, with all the equipment

provided as standard.
B.3.2 Test mass

The mass of the vehicle under test (referred to as “reference mass” in UNECE R 83, 2.2) shall be the

“unloaded mass” plus a uniform figure of 100 kg. The “unloaded mass” (see UNECE R 83, 2.2.1) is the

mass of the vehicle in running order, without load and persons, but with the hydrogen tank 90 % full.

B.3.3 Tyres

The tests shall be performed with standard width tyres, as provided by the vehicle manufacturer.

Alternatively, the prescription of UNECE R 83, Annex 4, Appendix 3, 4.1.2, can be applied, i.e. only the

widest of the standard widths or the widest minus one (in case of more than three standard widths)

shall be chosen.

The tyre pressure shall comply with the vehicle manufacturer specification, but can be increased by

up to 50 % when the test is carried out on a two-roller dynamometer (see UNECE R 83, Annex 4, 5.3.2).

B.4 Test cycle

The test cycle to be applied shall be the same as that prescribed for the Type I test. This test, including

allowable tolerances, is described in UNECE R 83, Annex 4, Appendix 1.

The test cycle is made up of one Part 1 (urban) cycle, consisting of four elementary urban cycles, and one

Part 2 (extra-urban) cycle, as illustrated roughly in Figure B.1 and described in Table B.2.

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ISO 23828:2013(E)
Key
X time, s
Y vehicle speed, km/h
1 part 1, urban cycle
2 part 2, extra-urban cycle
3 elementary urban cycle
Figure B.1 — Test cycle
Table B.2 — General information on the test cycle
Urban cycle Extra-urban
cycle
Average speed 19 km/h 62,6 km/h
Max. speed 50 km/h 120 km/h
Effective running 4 × 195 s = 780 s 400 s (6 min,
time (13 min) 40 s)
B.5 Test procedure
B.5.1 Preconditioning of the vehicle

The vehicle shall be stabilized in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer’s specification, followed by

two consecutive full test cycles (see B.4).
B.5.2 Conditioning of the vehicle

After preconditioning in accordance with B.5.1, the vehicle shall be kept in a room with a relative constant

temperature of between 20 °C and 30 °C for at least 6 h, until the lubricant and coolant temperatures are

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ISO 23828:2013(E)

within ±2 °C of the room temperature. If requested by the manufacturer, the test shall be carried out not

later than 30 h after the vehicle has been run at its normal temperature.
B.5.3 Performance of the test
B.5.3.1 General

After preconditioning and conditioning in accordance with B.5.1 and B.5.2, respectively, one complete

test cycle shall be run in accordance with B.4. The test equipment shall comply with B.2 and the test

...

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