Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Plate-type heat exchangers — Part 2: Brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchangers

ISO 15547-2:2005 gives requirements and recommendations for the mechanical design, materials selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and preparation for shipment of brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchangers for use in petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries.

Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel — Échangeurs thermiques à plaques — Partie 2: Échangeurs thermiques à plaques en aluminium brasé

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Nov-2005
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
19-May-2009
Completion Date
04-May-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15547-2
First edition
2005-11-01
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas
industries — Plate-type heat
exchangers —
Part 2:
Brazed aluminium plate-fin heat
exchangers
Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel — Échangeurs
thermiques à plaques —
Partie 2: Échangeurs thermiques à plaques en aluminium brasé
Reference number
ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
ISO 2005
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
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© ISO 2005

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

3 General....................................................................................................................................................3

4 Proposal information required .............................................................................................................3

5 Drawings and other data requirements...............................................................................................4

6 Design .....................................................................................................................................................5

7 Materials .................................................................................................................................................7

8 Fabrication..............................................................................................................................................8

9 Inspection and testing.........................................................................................................................12

10 Preparation for shipment ....................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Recommended practice .............................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Plate-fin heat exchanger checklist............................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Plate-fin heat exchanger data sheets........................................................................19

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15547-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 6, Processing equipment and

systems.

This first edition of ISO 15547-2, together with ISO 15547-1, cancels and replaces ISO 15547:2000, of which

it constitutes a technical revision.

ISO 15547 consists of the following parts, under the general title Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas

industries — Plate-type heat exchangers:
⎯ Part 1: Plate-and-frame heat exchangers
⎯ Part 2: Brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchangers
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Introduction

Some of the requirements within this part of ISO 15547 have been extracted from the standards of the brazed

aluminium plate-fin heat exchanger manufacturers' association (ALPEMA).

Users of this part of ISO 15547 should be aware that further or differing requirements may be needed for

individual applications. This part of ISO 15547 is not intended to inhibit a vendor from offering, or the

purchaser from accepting, alternative equipment or engineering solutions for the individual application. This

may be particularly applicable where there is an innovative or developing technology. Where an alternative is

offered, the vendor should identify any variations from this part of ISO 15547 and provide details.

A recommended practice is included within this part of this International Standard (see Annex A).

This part of ISO 15547 requires the purchaser to specify certain details and features.

A bullet (z) at the beginning of a clause or subclause indicates a requirement for the purchaser to make a

decision or provide information (for information, a checklist is provided in Annex B).

In this part of ISO 15547, where practical, US Customary units are included in parentheses for information.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries —
Plate-type heat exchangers —
Part 2:
Brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchangers
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15547 gives requirements and recommendations for the mechanical design, materials

selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and preparation for shipment of brazed aluminium plate-fin heat

exchangers for use in petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
heat transfer area

sum of the primary and secondary heat transfer surface areas of all heat-transfer passages in contact with a

stream
See Figure 1.
Key
1 primary heat transfer surface
2 secondary heat transfer surface

NOTE 1 The primary heat transfer surface within the plate-fin heat exchanger consists of the bare parting sheet and

the fin base directly brazed to the parting sheet.

NOTE 2 The secondary heat transfer surface is provided by the fins. This area includes both sides of the fins where

they are in contact with the fluid.
Figure 1 — Cross-sectional view of fin and parting sheet — Heat transfer area
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
2.2
item number
purchaser’s identification number for a plate-fin heat exchanger
2.3
minimum design metal temperature

lowest metal temperature at which pressure-containing elements can be subjected to design pressure

EXAMPLE Ambient temperature, process fluid temperature.
2.4
plate-fin heat exchanger

heat exchanger consisting of a block (core) of alternating layers (passages) of corrugated fins

See Figure 2.

NOTE 1 The layers are separated from each other by parting sheets and sealed along the edges by means of side

bars, and are provided with inlet and outlet ports for the streams. The block is bounded by cap sheets at the top and

bottom.

NOTE 2 All the layers carrying the same stream are connected together by headers (inlet, outlet, intermediate) directly

attached by welding onto the brazed core.
Key
H height
1 parting sheet 5 cap sheet
L length
2 heat transfer fins 6 headers
W width
3 distributor fins 7 nozzles
4 side bars 8 block (core)
Figure 2 — Typical brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchanger and components
2 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
2.5
pressure design code
recognized pressure vessel standard specified or agreed by the purchaser
EXAMPLE ASME Section VIII, EN 13445.
2.6
structural welding code
recognized structural welding code specified or agreed by the purchaser
3 General

z 3.1 The pressure design code shall be specified or agreed by the purchaser. Pressure components shall

comply with the pressure design code and the supplemental requirements in this part of ISO 15547.

The structural welding code shall be specified or agreed by the purchaser.
3.2 Annex A provides some recommended practices for information.

z 3.3 The vendor shall comply with the applicable local regulations specified by the purchaser.

z 3.4 If specified by the purchaser, or if required by regulations, the vendor shall register each plate-fin heat

exchanger.

3.5 Further information on brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchangers can be found in the ALPEMA

standards .
4 Proposal information required

4.1 The vendor shall provide a completed data sheet, including materials of construction. An example of a

suitable format is given in Annex C.
4.2 The vendor shall specify operating limitations, e.g. temperature limits.

4.3 The vendor shall include a detailed description of any exception to the specified requirements.

4.4 The first-time use of a plate-fin heat exchanger design, component or material by the vendor for the

purchaser’s intended service shall be clearly indicated by the vendor.
4.5 The vendor shall provide recommended strainer requirements for each stream.

z 4.6 If a mercury-tolerant design is specified by the purchaser, the vendor shall provide details of special

design, manufacturing techniques and operating procedures.

1) The standards of the Brazed Aluminium Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger Manufacturers' Association, 29 Clevelands,

Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 2EQ, UK.
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
5 Drawings and other data requirements
5.1 Drawings

5.1.1 The vendor shall furnish general arrangement drawings for each plate-fin heat exchanger for review.

The drawings shall include the following information:

a) service, item number, project name and location, vendor’s shop order number and purchaser’s order

number;

b) maximum allowable working pressure, design pressure including vacuum if applicable, test pressure,

maximum design temperature, minimum design metal temperature and any restrictions regarding testing

or operation of the plate-fin heat exchanger;
c) dimensions and location of supports;
d) overall plate-fin heat exchanger dimensions;
e) type and details of fins used;
f) presence and location of any inactive areas;

g) mass of the plate-fin heat exchanger, both empty and full of liquid with a specific gravity of 1,0;

h) centre of gravity of the plate-fin heat exchanger for empty and operating conditions;

i) material specifications for all components;
j) allowable forces and moments on connections;

k) size, flange rating and facing, location, orientation, and flow identification of all connections;

l) applicable design codes.

5.1.2 If controlled torquing of flange bolting is required the vendor shall furnish torquing requirements.

5.1.3 The vendor shall furnish detailed instructions on lifting and handling of the plate-fin exchanger.

5.1.4 The review of general arrangement drawings by the purchaser shall not relieve the vendor of the

responsibility of meeting the requirements of the purchase order.

5.1.5 After receipt of the purchaser’s general arrangement drawing review comments, the vendor shall

furnish the certified general arrangement drawings and the detail drawings.

z 5.1.6 If specified by the purchaser, the vendor shall furnish copies of applicable welding procedure

specifications and weld maps for review or record.

z 5.1.7 If specified by the purchaser, brazing procedures shall be made available for purchaser's review.

z 5.1.8 If specified by the purchaser, the vendor shall furnish copies of applicable calculations for review or

record.

z 5.1.9 If specified by the purchaser, the vendor shall furnish stress analysis calculations in accordance with

the methods prescribed by the applicable pressure design code for review or record.

5.1.10 The vendor shall furnish procedures for pressure and leak testing, and drying for review.

4 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
5.2 Final records

5.2.1 The vendor shall furnish the purchaser with a user's manual which shall contain the following:

a) technical description;
b) operating instructions (including any start-up or shut-down constraints);
c) installation and maintenance instructions (including lifting and handling);
d) data sheets and drawings (as-built).

5.2.2 The vendor shall retain, for at least five years, records which confirm compliance of the material and

fabrication with the requirements of this part of ISO 15547.
6 Design
6.1 General

If the design method is based on proof testing, the vendor shall provide the necessary details to the purchaser

for verification of compliance with the pressure design code.
6.2 Design temperature

z The purchaser shall specify a maximum design temperature and a minimum design metal temperature.

6.3 Design pressure
The plate-fin heat exchanger design shall not be based on differential pressure.
6.4 Thermal stress

z 6.4.1 In addition to the design operating condition(s), the purchaser shall specify all operating conditions

which could impose significant thermal stresses on the plate-fin heat exchanger. This shall consider any

alternative operating cases, turn-down operation, upset-operation cases (with particular attention to cases

where a stream’s flowing condition might change or cease abruptly), and the process control philosophy being

applied to the plate-fin heat exchanger. The purchaser shall specify which streams are subject to cyclic or

frequently-repeated temperature fluctuations.

6.4.2 The vendor’s design shall allow for thermally induced stresses, with the following assumptions:

a) a local temperature difference of 50 K (90 °F) between any two adjacent streams;

b) a local temperature difference of 30 K (54 °F) between any two adjacent streams in two-phase flow, or in

transient or cyclic conditions.
6.5 Fouling resistance

A fouling resistance of zero shall be assumed unless otherwise specified by the purchaser.

NOTE Plate-fin heat exchangers are typically only suitable for clean services.
6.6 Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance shall be zero.
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
6.7 Components
6.7.1 The vendor shall provide details of the reaction at the support points.

z 6.7.2 If specified by the purchaser, the units shall have an earthing lug or boss.

6.8 Connections

z 6.8.1 If specified by the purchaser, the plate-fin heat exchanger, assemblies and manifolds shall be

self-draining and self-venting through the connections for all pass arrangements.

z 6.8.2 The projection of flanged connections shall allow through-bolting to be removed from either side of the

flange without removing the insulation. The insulation thickness shall be specified by the purchaser.

6.8.3 All bolt holes for flanged or studded connections shall straddle centrelines.

6.8.4 Connection sizes of DN 32 (NPS 1-1/4), DN 65 (NPS 2-1/2), DN 90 (NPS 3-1/2) or DN 125 (NPS 5)

shall not be used.

6.8.5 The vendor shall prepare the ends of nozzles that are to be welded by others, unless otherwise

approved by the purchaser.

6.8.6 The vendor shall perform calculations proving the adequacy of aluminium alloy pipe flanges,

considering the mating flange, bolting and gasket materials as specified by the purchaser. The differential

thermal expansion of bolting and flanges shall be considered.

6.8.7 Inactive areas in plate-fin heat exchangers, such as dummy layers, shall be ventable and drainable.

6.8.8 Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, each nozzle shall be capable of withstanding the

simultaneous applications of the resultant moments and forces defined in Figure 3 and Table 1.

These resultant forces, F , and moments, M , are as follows:
r r
22 2
MM=+M+M
r x yz
22 2
F=+FF+F
r x yz
6.9 Metal temperature monitoring

Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, the vendor shall provide suitable metal-temperature indicating

devices at locations on the plate-fin heat exchanger to allow the operator to measure and monitor cool-down

and warm-up rates.
6.10 Handling devices

The plate-fin heat exchanger shall be provided with suitable lifting lugs, holes or similar devices. The vendor’s

lifting design shall be based on twice the empty mass of the plate-fin heat exchanger.

6 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Figure 3 — Positions of the three reference axes

Table 1 — Resultant forces and moments allowable at nozzle-to-header intersection

Nominal diameter Resultant moment Resultant force
M F
r r
DN (NPS) N·m (lbf·ft) N (lbf)
50 (2) 60 (44) 405 (91)
(3) 165 (122) 750 (169)
100 (4) 330 (243) 1 330 (299)
150
(6) 765 (564) 1 800 (405)
200 (8) 1 080 (797) 2 770 (623)
250
(10) 1 350 (996) 3 370 (758)
300 (12) 1 650 (1 217) 4 500 (1 012)
350 (14) 1 950 (1 438) 5 400 (1 214)
400 (16) 2 320 (1 711) 6 450 (1 450)
450 (18) 2 700 (1 992) 7 500 (1 686)
500 (20) 3 000 (2 213) 8 250 (1 855)
600 (24) 3 600 (2 655) 10 300 (2 316)
7 Materials

7.1 The vendor shall select materials based upon their brazeability, weldability and suitability for the

process service. For information, suitable materials are included in Annex A.
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)

z 7.2 The purchaser shall specify the quantity of mercury, organo-mercuric compounds and heavy metals

that will be present in the fluids in contact with the plate-fin heat exchanger. If water is present, the purchaser

shall also specify the quantity of H S, NH , CO , SO , NOX, CO, Cl, the presence of halides and the pH value.

2 3 2 2

7.3 The vendor shall ensure the selection of materials that shall not induce corrosion.

7.4 Nozzles smaller than DN 300 (NPS 12) shall be manufactured from seamless pipe, unless otherwise

approved by the purchaser.

7.5 The nameplate shall be of corrosion-resistant material, such as an aluminium alloy or austenitic

stainless steel.
8 Fabrication
8.1 Welding and brazing

8.1.1 All pressure-containing welding and brazing shall be in accordance with the pressure design code.

Structural welding shall be in accordance with the structural welding code, unless otherwise specified by the

purchaser.
8.1.2 All pressure-containing welds shall be full penetration.

8.1.3 Buttwelded joints shall achieve complete penetration and full fusion and shall comply with the

pressure design code.

8.1.4 After arc, flame or similar non-mechanical cutting, all fused metal and metal whose mechanical or

chemical properties have been altered by the cutting process shall be removed by mechanical means.

8.1.5 The oxygen arc method shall not be used to cut aluminium materials.

8.1.6 Backing rings may be used only if the back of the weld is inaccessible and if approved by the

purchaser.

8.1.7 The requirements for welding within this part of ISO 15547 shall apply to all welds on pressure parts,

including permanent and temporary attachments.

8.1.8 Temporary attachments or arc strikes on the pressure parts shall be avoided as far as practicable. If

they occur, they shall be removed and the surface shall be properly conditioned to eliminate surface stress

raisers. Such surfaces shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method.

8.1.9 Welding of aluminium shall be performed using gas tungsten arc or gas metal arc welding, using inert

gas shielding.

8.1.10 The vendor shall demonstrate that any proprietary welded transition components between stainless

steel and aluminium are equivalent to the pressure, bending and fatigue strength of the weaker of the

materials to be joined.
8.2 Reinforcing pads and wear plates

8.2.1 All reinforcing pads shall be continuously welded and have one 6 mm (1/4 in) tapped hole in each

segment for venting. Vent holes shall be plugged with a plastic plug or equivalent after testing.

8.2.2 Each segment of each reinforcing pad and wear plate shall be tested with dry air or nitrogen, at a

gauge pressure of 100 kPa (15 psi).
8.2.3 If wear plates are continuously welded they shall have a vent hole.
8 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
8.3 Tolerances

Standard tolerances for the external dimensions of plate-fin heat exchangers are shown in Figures 4 and 5.

The core centreline (Figure 4) and the base line of supports (Figure 5) are used as datum lines to illustrate

these dimensions.

Figure 6 shows the tolerances for a manifolded assembly of two cores and also flange tolerances.

Dimension Tolerance
± 6 mm (1/4 in) for dimensions u 1 000 mm (39 in)
A, B, C, D, E, F, H,
± 8 mm (5/16 in) for dimensions 1 000 mm (39 in) u 2 000 mm (78 in)
I, J, K
± 10 mm (3/8 in) for dimensions > 2 000 mm (78 in)
G ± 3°
N, O, P
± 3 mm (1/8 in)
± 1 mm (1/16 in)
(bolt-hole diameter)
Key
1 core centreline
Figure 4 — External dimensions of one core using the core centreline
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Dimension Tolerance
± 6 mm (1/4 in) for dimensions u 1 000 mm (39 in)
A, B, C, D, E, F, H,
± 8 mm (5/16 in) for dimensions 1 000 mm (39 in) u 2 000 mm (78 in)
I, J, K
± 10 mm (3/8 in) for dimensions > 2 000 mm (78 in)
G ± 3°
O, P
± 3 mm (1/8 in)
± 1 mm (1/16 in)
(bolt-hole diameter)
Key
1 support base line
Figure 5 — External dimensions of one core using the support base line
10 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
Dimension Tolerance
± 6 mm (1/4 in) for dimensions u 1 000 mm (39 in)
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
± 8 mm (5/16 in) for dimensions 1 000 mm (39 in) u 2 000 mm (78 in)
I, J, K
± 10 mm (3/8 in) for dimensions > 2 000 mm (78 in)
H ± 3 mm (1/8 in)
± 1° and maximum 5 mm (3/16 in) at flange periphery
± 1° and maximum 5 mm (3/16 in) at bolt circle

Figure 6 — External dimensions of a manifolded assembly of two cores, and general flange details

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)
9 Inspection and testing
9.1 Quality control

z 9.1.1 If specified by the purchaser, the vendor shall supply information about its quality control system and

shall supply a quality control plan.
9.1.2 Weld inspection requirements shall be as follows:
a) All accessible butt welds shall be spot-radiographed as a minimum;

b) 100 % radiographic examination shall be performed on any welded seam in a fabricated header that has

been subjected to severe working (ratio of thickness to local radius greater than 5 %) after welding;

c) On pressure parts, all attachment welds (fillet, structural attachment, lug, etc.) with a throat greater than

6 mm (1/4 in) shall be examined and evaluated by the liquid penetrant method in accordance with the

pressure design code. Any surface irregularities which interfere with the examination shall be removed by

grinding or machining. Indications from an adjacent brazed fusion line may be ignored.

9.1.3 The design and fabrication of bimetal transition pieces, such as stainless steel to aluminium, shall be

qualified by a prototype test prior to its first use, as follows.

a) Prior to pressure testing the transition piece shall be thermally shocked in accordance with the following

procedure:
1) immerse in, and bring to the temperature of, boiling water;
2) immerse in, and bring to the temperature of, liquid nitrogen;
3) re-immerse in, and bring to the temperature of, boiling water.
b) Hydrostatic or pneumatic test at 150 % of design pressure.

c) If a helium test is specified for the completed unit, the transition piece shall be helium-tested prior to

installation.
9.2 Pressure and leak testing

9.2.1 Plate-fin heat exchangers shall be pressure tested in accordance with the pressure design code.

In low-temperature service [below 0 °C (32 °F)] the pressure test shall be pneumatic, except that it shall be

hydrostatic if
⎯ hydrostatic testing is required by the pressure design code, or

⎯ pneumatic testing is prohibited by safety regulations or the manufacturer's safety requirements.

If a hydrostatic test is performed, the manufacturer shall assure that the plate-fin heat exchanger is thoroughly

dried prior to shipment.

The selected pressure test method shall be subject to the agreement of the purchaser.

9.2.2 Each chamber shall be individually tested without pressure in adjacent chambers.

9.2.3 The test pressure for each test shall be held for a sufficient time to allow a thorough inspection and

detection of small seepage leaks.
12 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15547-2:2005(E)

9.2.4 For each pressure test, two indicating gauges (or one indicating gauge and one recording gauge)

shall be attached to the plate-fin heat exchanger.
9.2.5 The water used for hydrotesting shall be potable.

9.2.6 The chloride content of the test water used for equipment with austenitic stainless steel components

that would be exposed to the test fluid, shall not exceed 50 mg/kg (50 parts per million by mass). Upon

completion of the hydrostatic test, the equipment shall be promptly drained and cleared of residual test fluid.

9.2.7 Unless otherwise agreed between the purchaser and the vendor, helium leak tests shall be conducted

in accordance with 9.2.8 and 9.2.9. Helium leak tests shall be performed after pressure testing. The plate-fin

heat exchanger shall be thoroughly dried prior to helium leak testing.
9.2.8 External helium leak test shall be performed as follows:

a) All chambers of the plate-fin heat exchanger shall be evacuated and directly connected to the gas

detector.

b) The plate-fin heat exchanger shall be sealed within a non-metallic cover and the space between the cover

and the plate-fin exchanger shall be filled with helium.

c) Unless otherwise agreed between the purchaser and the vendor, the allowable leakage rate shall be

−4 3
10 kPa⋅m /s [at a pressure difference of 100 kPa (15 psi)].
9.2.9 Interstream helium leak test shall be performed as follows:

a) The chamber that will contain the highest operating pressure shall be tested first for leaks into the other

chambers, followed by the other chambers tested in order of reducing operating pressure.

b) Helium shall be successively admitted into the test chamber.
c) The other chambers shall be evacuated and connected to a gas detector.

d) Unless otherwise agreed between the purchaser and vendor, the maximum allowable leakage rate shall

−6 3 −7 3

be 10 kPa m /s (at a pressure difference equal to the design pressure) or 10 kPa m /s [at a pressure

difference of 100 kPa (15 psi)].
9.3 Rectification
9.3.1 Defects resulting from fa
...

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