Electrically propelled road vehicles —Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems — Part 4: Performance testing

This document specifies test procedures for the basic characteristics of performance, reliability and electrical functionality for the battery packs and systems for either high-power or high-energy application. Unless otherwise stated, the test applies to both applications. NOTE 1 Typical applications for high-power battery packs and systems are hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and some type of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). NOTE 2 Typical applications for high-energy battery packs and systems are battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and some type of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). NOTE 3 Testing on cell level is specified in IEC 62660 series.

Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique — Spécifications d'essai pour packs et systèmes de batterie de traction aux ions lithium — Partie 4: Essais de performance

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
25-Jul-2018
Completion Date
25-Jul-2018
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 12405-4:2018 - Electrically propelled road vehicles —Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems
English language
72 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12405-4
First edition
2018-07
Electrically propelled road vehicles —
Test specification for lithium-ion
traction battery packs and systems —
Part 4:
Performance testing
Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique — Spécifications d'essai
pour packs et systèmes de batterie de traction aux ions lithium —
Partie 4: Essais de performance
Reference number
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.1 Prerequisites ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.2 Accuracy of measurement equipment and measured values.................................................... 6

5.2 Test sequence plan ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Preparation of battery pack and system for bench testing ............................................................................... 7

5.4.1 Preparation of battery pack ................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.2 Preparation of battery system .............................................................................................................................. 8

6 General tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Preconditioning cycles ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2 Test procedures................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 Standard Cycle (SC) ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Test procedures................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7 Performance tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Energy and capacity at RT ..........................................................................................................................................................10

7.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1.2 Test procedures..............................................................................................................................................................11

7.1.3 Determination of rated capacity ......................................................................................................................12

7.2 Energy and capacity at different temperatures and discharge rates ....................................................13

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.3 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Power and internal resistance ................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.2 Pulse power characterization profile ..........................................................................................................20

7.3.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................31

7.4 No load SOC loss .................................................................................................................................................................................31

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................31

7.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................32

7.4.3 Test sequence .................. .................................................... .............................................................................................33

7.4.4 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................35

7.5 SOC loss at storage ............................................................................................................................................................................35

7.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................36

7.5.3 Test sequence .................. .................................................... .............................................................................................36

7.5.4 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................36

7.6 Cranking power at low temperature .................................................................................................................................37

7.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................37

7.6.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................38

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)

7.7 Cranking power at high temperature ...............................................................................................................................38

7.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................38

7.7.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................38

7.7.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................39

7.8 Energy efficiency ................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.8.2 Test description .............................................................................................................................................................40

7.8.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................40

7.8.4 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................42

7.8.5 Calculation example for energy efficiency test ...................................................................................42

7.9 Energy efficiency at fast charging ........................................................................................................................................42

7.9.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................42

7.9.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................42

7.9.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................44

7.10 Cycle life .....................................................................................................................................................................................................44

7.10.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................44

7.10.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................45

7.10.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................60

7.10.4 Calculation example for cycle life test for high-power battery system ..........................61

Annex A (informative) Battery pack and system and overview on tests ......................................................................62

Annex B (informative) Examples of data sheets for battery pack and system testing ...................................67

Annex C (informative) Example of test conditions ..............................................................................................................................71

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................72

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www .iso .org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www .iso .org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary

information

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 37,

Electrically propelled vehicles.

This document cancels and replaces ISO 12405-1:2011 and ISO 12405-2:2012 by summarizing the test

specifications.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
Introduction

Lithium-ion-based battery systems are an efficient alternative energy storage system for electrically

propelled vehicles. The requirements for lithium-ion based battery systems for use as a power source

for the propulsion of electric road vehicles are significantly different from those batteries used for

consumer electronics or stationary usage.

This document provides specific test procedures for lithium-ion battery packs and systems specially

developed for propulsion of road vehicles. This document specifies such tests and related requirements

to ensure that a battery pack or system is able to meet the specific needs of the automobile industry.

It enables vehicle manufactures to choose test procedures to evaluate the characteristics of a battery

pack or system for their specific requirements.

ISO 12405 specifies test procedures for lithium-ion battery packs and systems which are connected to

the electric propulsion system of electrically propelled vehicles.

The objective of ISO 12405 is to specify standard test procedures for the basic characteristics of

performance, reliability and electrical functionality of lithium-ion battery packs and systems and to

assist the user in comparing the test results achieved for different battery packs or systems.

NOTE 1 The general safety relevant tests and requirements are given in ISO 6469-1 .

NOTE 2 Environmental conditions and testing will be given in the future ISO 19453-6 .

For specifications for battery cells, see IEC 62660-1 to 3.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 6469-1.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/CD 19453-6.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification
for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems —
Part 4:
Performance testing
1 Scope

This document specifies test procedures for the basic characteristics of performance, reliability

and electrical functionality for the battery packs and systems for either high-power or high-energy

application. Unless otherwise stated, the test applies to both applications.

NOTE 1 Typical applications for high-power battery packs and systems are hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and

some type of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs).

NOTE 2 Typical applications for high-energy battery packs and systems are battery electric vehicles (BEVs),

plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and some type of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs).

NOTE 3 Testing on cell level is specified in IEC 62660 series.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6469-1 , Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 1: On-board rechargeable

energy storage system (RESS)

ISO 6469-3 , Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 3: Protection of persons

against electric shock
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
battery control unit
BCU

electronic device that controls, manages, detects or calculates electric and thermal functions of the

battery system (3.3) and that provides communication between the battery system and other vehicle

controllers
Note 1 to entry: See A.3.1 for further explanations.
3) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 6469-1.
4) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 6469-3.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
3.2
battery pack

energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies normally connected with cell electronics

(3.5), power supply circuits and overcurrent shut-off device, including electrical interconnections,

interfaces for external systems
Note 1 to entry: See A.2 for further explanations.

Note 2 to entry: Examples of external systems are cooling, voltage class B, auxiliary voltage class A and

communication.
3.3
battery system

energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies or battery pack(s) (3.2) as well as electrical

circuits and electronics

Note 1 to entry: See A.3.2 and A.3.3 for further explanations. Battery system components can also be distributed

in different devices within the vehicle.
Note 2 to entry: Examples of electronics are the BCU and contactors.
3.4
capacity

total number of ampere hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged battery pack (3.2) under

specified conditions
3.5
cell electronics

electronic device that collects and possibly monitors thermal or electric data of cells or cell assemblies

and contains electronics for cell balancing, if necessary

Note 1 to entry: The cell electronics can include a cell controller. The functionality of cell balancing can be

controlled by the cell electronics or by the BCU.
3.6
customer

party that is interested in using the battery pack or system and therefore orders or performs the test

EXAMPLE A vehicle manufacturer.
3.7
device under test
DUT
battery pack or battery system
3.8
electric drive

combination of a traction motor, power electronics and their associated controls for the conversion of

electric to mechanical power and vice versa
3.9
electrically propelled vehicle
vehicle with one or more electric drive(s) (3.8) for vehicle propulsion
3.10
energy density
amount of stored energy related to the battery pack (3.2) or system (3.3) volume

Note 1 to entry: The battery pack or system includes the cooling system, if any, to the point of a reversible

attachment of the coolant lines or air ducts, respectively.
Note 2 to entry: Energy density is expressed in watt hours per litre (Wh/l).
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
3.11
energy round trip efficiency

ratio of the net d.c. energy delivered by a DUT during a discharge test to the total d.c. energy required to

restore the initial SOC by a standard charge

Note 1 to entry: The net d.c. energy is expressed as watt hours (Wh) discharge and the total d.c. energy is

expressed as watt hours (Wh) charge.
3.12
high-energy battery pack and system

battery pack (3.2) and system (3.3) using cells, which have the numerical ratio between maximum

allowed electric power output and electric energy output at a 1C discharge rate at RT lower than 10

Note 1 to entry: Typically high-energy battery packs and systems are designed for applications in BEVs and PHEVs.

Note 2 to entry: The allowed electric power output is expressed as power in watts (W) and the electric energy

output is expressed as energy in watt hours (Wh).
3.13
high-power battery pack and system

battery pack (3.2) and system (3.3) using cells, for which the numerical ratio between maximum allowed

electric power output and electric energy output at a 1C discharge rate at RT equal to or higher than 10

Note 1 to entry: Typically high-power battery packs and systems are designed for applications in HEVs and FCVs.

Note 2 to entry: The allowed electric power output is expressed as power in watts (W) and the electric energy

output is expressed as energy in watt hours (Wh).
3.14
maximum working voltage

highest value of a.c. voltage (rms) or of d.c. voltage which may occur in an electric system under any

normal operating conditions according to the supplier's specifications, disregarding transients

3.15
overcurrent protection

protection intended to operate when the current is in excess of a predetermined value

3.16
rated capacity

supplier's specification of the total number of ampere hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged

battery pack or system for a specified set of test conditions such as discharge rate, temperature and

discharge cut-off voltage
3.17
room temperature
temperature of (25 ± 2) °C
3.18
sign of battery current
discharge current is specified as positive and the charge current as negative
3.19
specific energy
amount of stored energy related to the battery pack (3.2) or system (3.3) mass

Note 1 to entry: The mass of battery pack or system includes the mass of the temperature conditioning system if

any up to the point of a reversible attachment of the coolant lines or air ducts and the coolant mass.

Note 2 to entry: Specific energy is expressed in watt hours per kilogram (Wh/kg).

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
3.20
state of charge
SOC

available capacity in a battery pack or system expressed as a percentage of rated capacity (3.15)

3.21
top off charge

additional charge which eliminates possible SOC reduction after SCH at RT followed by thermal

equilibration at a different temperature
3.22
supplier
party that provides battery systems and packs
EXAMPLE A battery manufacturer.
3.23
voltage class A

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage (3.14) of ≤30 V a.c.

(rms) or ≤60 V d.c., respectively
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 6469-3.
3.24
voltage class B

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage (3.14) of (>30 and

≤1 000) V a.c. (rms) or (>60 and ≤1 500) V d.c., respectively
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 6469-3.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
C Capacity fade
fade
C Rated 1 C capacity at BOL
rt,t0

I maximum continuous charge current specified by the supplier for energy efficiency at

c,max
fast charging testing

I maximum continuous discharge current specified by the supplier for energy and ca-

d,max
pacity testing

I maximum discharge pulse current specified by the supplier for power, internal resistance

dp,max
and energy efficiency testing
T maximum temperature
max
T minimum temperature
min
T Time
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
4.2 Abbreviated terms
a.c. alternating current
BCU battery control unit
BEV battery electric vehicle
BOL beginning of life
C capacity, expressed in ampere hours (Ah)

nC current rate equal to n times the one hour discharge capacity expressed in ampere (e.g.

3C is equal to three times the 1 h current discharge rate, expressed in ampere)
d.c. direct current
DUT device under test
EODV End-of-discharge-voltage
EUCAR European Council for Automotive Research
FCV fuel cell vehicle
HEV hybrid electric vehicle
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO International Organization for Standardization
Li lithium
Li-ion lithium-ion
OCV Open Circuit Voltage
PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
PSD power spectral density
RESS rechargeable energy storage system
rms root mean square
RT room temperature (25 ± 2) °C
SC standard cycle
SCH standard charge
SDCH standard discharge
SOC state of charge
USABC United States Advanced Battery Consortium
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12405-4:2018(E)
5 General requirements
5.1 General conditions
5.1.1 Prerequisites

A battery pack or system to be tested according to this document shall fulfil the following requirements:

— The electrical safety design and safety requirements shall comply with the requirements given in

5) 6)
ISO 6469-1 and ISO 6469-3 .

— The necessary documentation for operation and needed interface parts for connection to the test

equipment (i.e. connectors, plugs including cooling, communication) shall be delivered together

with the DUT.

A battery system shall enable the specified tests, i.e. via specified test modes implemented in the BCU,

and shall be able to communicate with the test bench via common communication buses.

The battery pack subsystem as a DUT shall com
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.