Road vehicles — Ergonomic and performance aspects of Camera Monitor Systems — Requirements and test procedures

This document gives minimum safety, ergonomic, and performance requirements for Camera Monitor Systems to replace mandatory inside and outside rearview mirrors for road vehicles (e.g. classes I to IV as defined in UN Regulation No. 46). It addresses Camera Monitor Systems (CMS) that will be used in road vehicles to present the required outside information of a specific field of view inside the vehicle. These specifications are intended to be independent of different camera and display technologies unless otherwise stated explicitly. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as parking aids, are not part of this document. NOTE 1 Mirror classes V and VI (as defined in UN Regulation No. 46) are not in scope of this document since the requirements are already defined in UN Regulation No. 46. NOTE 2 The definitions and requirements in this document are formulated with regard to a system structure, where one camera captures one legally prescribed field of view and one monitor displays one legally prescribed field of view. Of course, also other system structures (e.g. with one monitor displaying two legally prescribed fields of view) are within the scope of this document. For those systems, either the system supplier or the vehicle manufacturer has to prove that the resulting system fulfils the requirements given in Clause 6. NOTE 3 Whenever the phrases "field of view" or "field of vision" are used, then both have the same meaning and are to be used in parallel.

Véhicules routiers — Aspects ergonomiques et de performance des caméras embarquées — Exigences et procédures d'essai

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Publication Date
29-Jul-2019
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6060 - International Standard published
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30-Jul-2019
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30-Jul-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16505
Second edition
2019-07
Road vehicles — Ergonomic and
performance aspects of Camera
Monitor Systems — Requirements and
test procedures
Véhicules routiers — Aspects ergonomiques et de performance des
caméras embarquées — Exigences et procédures d'essai
Reference number
ISO 16505:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16505:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16505:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Vehicle related terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Mirror related terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Camera related terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................12

3.4 Monitor related terms and definitions ............................................................................................................................15

3.5 Camera Monitor System based terms and definitions .......................................................................................23

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................33

5 General information and use case definitions....................................................................................................................36

6 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................40

6.1 System documentation..................................................................................................................................................................40

6.2 Intended use ...........................................................................................................................................................................................41

6.2.1 Default view ......................................................................................................................................................................41

6.2.2 Adjusted default view ...............................................................................................................................................41

6.2.3 Temporary modified view ....................................................................................................................................41

6.2.4 Luminance and contrast adjustment ...........................................................................................................42

6.2.5 Overlays ................................................................................................................................................................................42

6.3 Operating readiness (system availability)....................................................................................................................42

6.4 Field of view ...........................................................................................................................................................................................43

6.5 Magnification and resolution ...................................................................................................................................................43

6.5.1 Average magnification factor .............................................................................................................................43

6.5.2 Minimum magnification factor .........................................................................................................................43

6.5.3 Resolution (MTF) .........................................................................................................................................................44

6.6 Magnification aspect ratio ..........................................................................................................................................................45

6.7 Monitor integration inside the vehicle ............................................................................................................................45

6.8 Image quality .........................................................................................................................................................................................46

6.8.1 Monitor isotropy ...........................................................................................................................................................46

6.8.2 Luminance and contrast rendering ..............................................................................................................47

6.8.3 Colour rendering ...........................................................................................................................................................47

6.8.4 Artefacts ...............................................................................................................................................................................48

6.8.5 Sharpness and depth of field ..............................................................................................................................49

6.8.6 Geometric distortion .................................................................................................................................................49

6.8.7 Further image quality requirements ...........................................................................................................50

6.9 Time behaviour ...................................................................................................................................................................................50

6.9.1 Frame rate...........................................................................................................................................................................50

6.9.2 Image formation time ...............................................................................................................................................50

6.9.3 System latency ................................................................................................................................................................50

6.10 Failure behaviour ...............................................................................................................................................................................50

6.11 Quality and further ergonomic requirements ......... ..................................................................................................50

6.11.1 Needs of older persons ............................................................................................................................................51

6.12 Influences from weather and environment ................................................................................................................51

7 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................51

7.1 System documentation..................................................................................................................................................................51

7.2 Intended use ...........................................................................................................................................................................................51

7.2.1 Default view ......................................................................................................................................................................51

7.2.2 Adjusted default view ...............................................................................................................................................51

7.2.3 Temporary modified view ....................................................................................................................................52

7.2.4 Luminance and contrast adjustment ...........................................................................................................52

7.2.5 Overlays ................................................................................................................................................................................52

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16505:2019(E)

7.3 Operating readiness (system availability)....................................................................................................................52

7.4 Field of view ...........................................................................................................................................................................................54

7.5 Magnification and resolution ...................................................................................................................................................54

7.5.1 Average magnification factor .............................................................................................................................54

7.5.2 Minimum magnification factor .........................................................................................................................55

7.5.3 Resolution (MTF) .........................................................................................................................................................57

7.6 Magnification aspect ratio ..........................................................................................................................................................60

7.7 Monitor integration inside the vehicle ............................................................................................................................60

7.8 Image quality .........................................................................................................................................................................................61

7.8.1 Monitor isotropy ...........................................................................................................................................................61

7.8.2 Luminance and contrast rendering ..............................................................................................................63

7.8.3 Colour rendering ...........................................................................................................................................................71

7.8.4 Artefacts ...............................................................................................................................................................................74

7.8.5 Sharpness, resolution, and depth of field ................................................................................................75

7.8.6 Geometric distortion .................................................................................................................................................77

7.8.7 Further Image quality requirements ...........................................................................................................77

7.9 Time behaviour ...................................................................................................................................................................................77

7.9.1 Frame rate...........................................................................................................................................................................77

7.9.2 Image formation time ...............................................................................................................................................77

7.9.3 System latency ................................................................................................................................................................77

7.10 Failure behaviour ...............................................................................................................................................................................78

7.11 Quality and further ergonomic requirements ......... ..................................................................................................79

7.11.1 Needs of older persons ............................................................................................................................................79

7.12 Influences from weather and environment ................................................................................................................79

8 Functional safety ...............................................................................................................................................................................................79

Annex A (normative) Standard application on UN Regulation No. 46 class II and IV mirrors

in commercial vehicles ................................................................................................................................................................................80

Annex B (informative) Formula applications, explanations, and guidelines ..........................................................85

Annex C (informative) Calculation of the dimensional magnification and of a correction

factor to obtain the angular magnification ........................................................................................................................120

Annex D (informative) Complementary information for resolution measurement ....................................125

Annex E (informative) Correlation between Resolution (MTF) and spatial frequency

measured using SFR method for depth of field evaluation or sharpness evaluation ............134

Annex F (informative) Complementary charts and method for long distance measurements ........139

Annex G (informative) Distortion measurement ..............................................................................................................................142

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................149

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16505:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 35,

Lighting and visibility.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16505:2015), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— 6.1 has been added, and all subsequent subclauses in Clause 6 have been renumbered, in order to

align with the subclause structure in Clause 7.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16505:2019(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this document is to give minimum safety, ergonomic, and performance requirements

and test methods for Camera Monitor Systems (CMS) to replace mandatory inside and outside rearview

mirrors for road vehicles (e.g. classes I to IV as defined in UN Regulation No. 46). This document can

follow updates of referred national regulations that influence the included contents.

Where possible, the requirements established for a CMS providing a specific legally prescribed field of

view are based on the properties of conventional state of the art mirror systems providing that field

of view.

The CMS is treated as a functional system in regard to requirement definitions and performance tests.

This document outlines general requirements and test methods regarding the basic aspects of CMS;

e.g. intended use, operating readiness, field of view, magnification, etc.

Furthermore, this document outlines requirements and test methods regarding the necessary object

size and resolution provided by the CMS. Besides the properties of the mirror system to be replaced,

those requirements are also based on physical aspects of the human operator (e.g. visual acuity).

The given requirements follow the assumption, that the CMS provides an ideal mapping of the real-

world scene. To correspond to reality, this document also provides requirements and test methods for

all relevant parameters that worsen the ideal mapping (e.g. isotropy or artefacts).

Finally, this document gives requirements and test methods regarding the aspects of time behaviour

and failure behaviour.

All requirements are established to be as generic as possible, i.e. that these are possible to apply to any

of the covered rearview mirrors. If additional or specific information is required for certain mirrors,

these are provided in separate annexes.

This document declares that CMS replacing legally prescribed mirrors have to be considered as safety-

relevant systems and therefore, relevant safety standards (e.g. ISO 26262) have to be considered.

vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16505:2019(E)
Road vehicles — Ergonomic and performance aspects
of Camera Monitor Systems — Requirements and test
procedures
1 Scope

This document gives minimum safety, ergonomic, and performance requirements for Camera Monitor

Systems to replace mandatory inside and outside rearview mirrors for road vehicles (e.g. classes I to IV

as defined in UN Regulation No. 46). It addresses Camera Monitor Systems (CMS) that will be used in

road vehicles to present the required outside information of a specific field of view inside the vehicle.

These specifications are intended to be independent of different camera and display technologies unless

otherwise stated explicitly. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as parking aids, are not

part of this document.

NOTE 1 Mirror classes V and VI (as defined in UN Regulation No. 46) are not in scope of this document since

the requirements are already defined in UN Regulation No. 46.

NOTE 2 The definitions and requirements in this document are formulated with regard to a system structure,

where one camera captures one legally prescribed field of view and one monitor displays one legally prescribed

field of view. Of course, also other system structures (e.g. with one monitor displaying two legally prescribed

fields of view) are within the scope of this document. For those systems, either the system supplier or the vehicle

manufacturer has to prove that the resulting system fulfils the requirements given in Clause 6.

NOTE 3 Whenever the phrases “field of view” or “field of vision” are used, then both have the same meaning

and are to be used in parallel.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Vehicle related terms and definitions
3.1.1
vehicle

vehicle with a combustion engine and/or electric driving motor, intended for use on the road, with or

without external body components added, having a permissible maximum mass of at least 400 kg and a

maximum design speed equal to or exceeding 50 km/h

Note 1 to entry: Vehicles of categories M1, M2, M3, N1, N2 and N3 (see UN Regulation No. 46).

[SOURCE: ISO 13043:2011, 3.1]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16505:2019(E)
3.1.2
vehicle coordinate system

positive x-axis pointing into the opposite of the forward movement direction of the vehicle, the z-axis

being orthogonal to the ground plane pointing upwards and the y-axis pointing to the right seen in

forward movement direction thus forming a right-handed coordinate system
3.1.3
driver’s ocular points
points that are uniquely defined for each vehicle
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: These points are related to data given by the vehicle manufacturer following definitions of the

responsible national body.

EXAMPLE “The driver’s ocular points” means two points 65 mm apart and 635 mm vertically above point R

of the driver’s seat as defined in Annex B. The straight line joining these points runs perpendicular to the vertical

longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. The centre of the segment joining the two ocular points is in a vertical

longitudinal plane which has to pass through the centre of the driver’s designated seating position, as specified

by the vehicle manufacturer.
3.1.4
driver ocular reference point
ORP
middle point between the two ocular points of the driver
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Ocular points.
Ocular reference point.
Figure 1 — Driver ocular reference point

EXAMPLE The two ocular points of the driver uses 635 mm vertically above point R as shown in the example

given in driver’s ocular points (3.1.3).
3.2 Mirror related terms and definitions
3.2.1
mirror
device with a reflective surface mounted to the bodywork of a vehicle

Note 1 to entry: It is used to see the required outside information of a specific field of view by indirect vision.

Note 2 to entry: The definitions from mirror distance to driver ocular reference point (3.2.2) to mirror angular

resolution (3.2.28) assume an ideal mirror and do not deal with artefacts like low quality surface, dirt, etc.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16505:2019(E)
3.2.2
mirror distance to driver ocular reference point
distance from the driver ocular reference point to the centre of the mirror
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
Note 2 to entry: It is denoted as a and is measured in metres.
mirror

Note 3 to entry: The mirror distance to driver ocular reference point influences the resolution and the

magnification requirements for a CMS replacing a mirror. The designed resolution and magnification of a CMS

should take into account that this distance is usually lower than the maximum values given in the following

subclauses.
3.2.3
maximum mirror distance to driver ocular reference point

maximum value for a as found in existing homologated vehicles for the given mirror

mirror
class on the driver side
Note 1 to entry: It is denoted as a and is measured in metres:
mirror/driver/max
— for UN Regulation No. 46 class I mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,05 m;
mirror/driver/max
— for UN Regulation No. 46 class II mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,7 m;
mirror/driver/max

— for UN Regulation No. 46 class III mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,2 m;

mirror/driver/max
— for UN Regulation No. 46 class IV mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,7 m.
mirror/driver/max

Note 2 to entry: The above values represent the maximum distances for mass produced vehicles of MY 2013

(based upon 2013 survey).

Note 3 to entry: See B.6.2 for more information on the values for class II and class IV mirrors.

3.2.4
maximum mirror distance to driver ocular reference point

maximum value for a as found in existing homologated vehicles for the given

mirror
mirror class on the passenger side
Note 1 to entry: It is denoted as a and is measured in metres:
mirror/passenger/max
— for UN Regulation No. 46 class II mirrors, this value is defined as a = 2,6 m;
mirror/passenger/max

— for UN Regulation No. 46 class III mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,9 m;

mirror/passenger/max
— for UN Regulation No. 46 class IV mirrors, this value is defined as a = 2,6 m;
mirror/passenger/max

— for main mirrors on cab-over-engine type trucks according to Article 44 of Japanese Safety Regulations for

Road Vehicles, this value is defined as a = 2,5 m;
mirror/passenger/max

— for main mirrors on motor vehicles with a passenger capacity of 11 persons or more according to Article 44

of Japanese Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles, this value is defined as a = 2,5 m.

mirror/passenger/max

— for mirrors on the other vehicle category in Japan refer to Article 44 of Japanese Safety Regulations for Road

Vehicles.

Note 2 to entry: The above values represent the maximum distances for mass produced vehicles of MY 2013(based

upon 2013 survey).

Note 3 to entry: See B.6.3 for more information on the values for class II and class IV mirrors.

Note 4 to entry: According to Article 44 of Japanese Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles main mirror means

“Those mirrors used mainly for observing obstacles showing up around the rear portion on the left side of the

vehicle”. See Figures B.5, B.6, and B.7.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16505:2019(E)
3.2.5
mirror viewing angle

total angle between the ray leaving the eye-point and reaching an object after being reflected from

the mirror surface, i.e. two times the angle between the driver’s line of sight and the surface normal

of the mirror
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3.
Note 2 to entry: It is denoted as β and
...

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