Method for the determination of ink cartridge yield for colour inkjet printers and multi-function devices that contain printer components

The scope of ISO/IEC 24711:2015 is limited to evaluation of ink cartridge page yield for ink-containing cartridges (i.e. integrated ink cartridges and ink cartridges without integrated printheads) for colour inkjet print systems. ISO/IEC 24711:2015 can also be applied to the printer component of any multifunctional device that has a digital input printing path, including multi-function devices that contain inkjet printer components. Both liquid and solid ink products can be tested using ISO/IEC 24711:2015. ISO/IEC 24711:2015 is only intended for the measurement of ink cartridge page yield when printing on plain paper. No other claims can be made from this testing regarding quality, reliability, etc. It can be used to measure the yield of any cartridge that is used in a significant amount during the printing of the test suite defined in ISO/IEC 24712. It is not for use with printers whose minimum printable size is equal to or greater than A3 or for printers designed or configured to print photos (for example, maximum printable size less than A4 or a printer configuration intended for photo-only printing). In addition, it only applies to drop-on-demand printing systems.

Méthode pour la détermination du rendement de cartouche d'encre pour les imprimantes couleur à jet d'encre et pour les dispositifs multifonctionnels qui peuvent contenir des composants d'imprimantes

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Status
Replaced
Publication Date
02-Nov-2015
Withdrawal Date
02-Nov-2015
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
03-Nov-2015
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 24711
Third edition
2015-11-01
Method for the determination of
ink cartridge yield for colour inkjet
printers and multi-function devices
that contain printer components
Méthode pour la détermination du rendement de cartouche d’encre
pour les imprimantes couleur à jet d’encre et pour les dispositifs
multifonctionnels qui peuvent contenir des composants d’imprimantes
Reference number
ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test parameters and conditions ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Set up ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Sample size ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Print mode .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4 Print environment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5 Paper ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.6 Maintenance .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.7 Test files ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Test methodology ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 Testing procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.1 Preparation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.2 Installation of test cartridges ................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.3 Testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.4 End of cartridge life procedure ........................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Procedure for handling streaks ................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2.1 Nozzle cleaning ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Procedure for handling a defective cartridge, printhead or printer failure ....................................... 8

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Defective cartridge ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.3 Defective printhead ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.4 Defective printer .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

6 Determination of the declared yield value and declaration ................................................................................... 9

6.1 Yield of primary cartridges .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Yield of supplemental cartridges .........................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Test data reporting ...........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Declaration of the yield .................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Examples of fade .......................................................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Examples of streaks ...............................................................................................................................................18

Annex C (normative) Test reporting form ....................................................................................................................................................19

Annex D (informative) Process flowchart.....................................................................................................................................................23

Annex E (informative) Method for comparison of inkjet performance to ISO/IEC 19752 ........................26

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 28, Office equipment.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 24711:2007), of which it constitutes

a minor revision.
iv © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this International Standard is to provide a process for determining the ink cartridge

yield for a given colour inkjet print system (i.e. integrated ink cartridges and ink cartridges without

integrated printheads) using a standard consumer type test suite. In the case where a cartridge set can

be used in multiple printer models, only one yield test needs to be performed as long as the difference

between printer models does not impact yield.

NOTE A cartridge supplier may choose to use more than one market identifier for a single physical

cartridge. In this case, only one yield test is required as long as there are no differences in the cartridges other

than market identifiers.
This International Standard prescribes the following:

— the test method that manufacturers, test laboratories, etc. use to determine ink cartridge yield;

— the method for determination of declared yield values from the test results; and

— the appropriate method of describing the yield of cartridges in documentation supplied to the

consumer by the manufacturer.

The cartridge yield is determined by an end-of-life judgement, or signalled with either of two

phenomena: fade, caused by depletion of ink in the cartridge, or automatic printing stop, caused by an

ink out detection function. It is envisioned that one of the uses of this International Standard will be

for the calculation of cost per page (CPP). While this International Standard measures a portion of this

cost, it is not used as the sole component of CPP calculation. Additional factors are considered for CPP

calculations.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
Method for the determination of ink cartridge yield for
colour inkjet printers and multi-function devices that
contain printer components
1 Scope

The scope of this International Standard is limited to evaluation of ink cartridge page yield for ink-

containing cartridges (i.e. integrated ink cartridges and ink cartridges without integrated printheads)

for colour inkjet print systems. This International Standard can also be applied to the printer component

of any multifunctional device that has a digital input printing path, including multi-function devices

that contain inkjet printer components. Both liquid and solid ink products can be tested using this

International Standard.

This International Standard is only intended for the measurement of ink cartridge page yield when

printing on plain paper. No other claims can be made from this testing regarding quality, reliability, etc.

This International Standard can be used to measure the yield of any cartridge that is used in a significant

amount during the printing of the test suite defined in ISO/IEC 24712.

This International Standard is not for use with printers whose minimum printable size is equal to or

greater than A3 or for printers designed or configured to print photos (for example, maximum printable

size less than A4 or a printer configuration intended for photo-only printing). In addition, it only applies

to drop-on-demand printing systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 24712, Colour test pages for measurement of office equipment consumable yield

ISO/IEC 29102, Information technology — Office equipment — Method for the determination of ink

cartridge photo yield for colour printing with inkjet printers and multi-function devices that contain inkjet

printer components
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
fade

phenomenon in which a significant reduction in uniformity occurs due to ink depletion

Note 1 to entry: In this test, fade is defined by a significant increase in lightness, L*, or a decrease in density on

the bands surrounding the edge of the last page in the test page suite (Diagnostic Page). This decrease in density

does not have to occur completely across the page. This comparison is made using the second diagnostic test

page generated during testing (the 10th page printed). For examples of fade, please consult Annex A.

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)

Note 2 to entry: In some printer systems, fade can occur prematurely due to the way that ink is provided to

the printing system. If a printer exhibits fade, a five minute pause is allowed to provide for recovery of the ink

delivery system and printing can continue. If fade appears on the next suite, then the cartridge is judged at end

of life and the additional diagnostic page printed is not counted in the yield calculation. If fade does not appear

on the next diagnostic page, then printing can continue until the next fade or ink out is encountered and the

additional diagnostic pages will be counted.
3.2
streaks

very thin lines of colour, other than intended in the bands surrounding the edge of the last page in the

test page suite (Diagnostic Page)

Note 1 to entry: Streaks differ from fade in the width and severity of increase in lightness, L*, or reduction in

density. Streaks can appear for a number of reasons, thermal issues and clogged nozzles being two of the main

causes. If these streaks occur in three consecutive diagnostic pages, then a streak removal operation is required.

Comparisons are made using the phenomena sample provided in Annex B.
3.3
streak removal operation
procedure used to restore the print performance by removing streaks

Note 1 to entry: If streaks are observed on three consecutive diagnostic pages, first the printer can be left

idle for five minutes. Then an additional three test suites are printed. If the streaks are still observed, then a

streak removal operation is conducted according to the latest printer manufacturer documentation. Due to the

significant amount of ink that is used for cleaning, the maximum permissible number of times that the streak

removal operation can be used on a given cartridge is prescribed in 5.2.1.

Note 2 to entry: All test page suites printed during this process will be included in the page count for

determining the yield.
3.4
printhead alignment operation
function that aligns newly installed printheads

Note 1 to entry: If it is mandatory according to the latest printer manufacturer documentation, this operation is

performed during testing. The pages used in the alignment procedure are not counted in the measurement of yield.

3.5
ink low

warning generated by the printing system when it has determined that the amount of ink is such that a

cartridge change may be required soon
Note 1 to entry: It does not indicate that the system is out of ink.
3.6
ink out

signal generated by the printing system when the useable ink in the system is depleted and the printer

stops printing
3.7
end of life
condition determined by one of two mechanisms: fade (3.1) or ink out (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: For cartridges with more than one colour of ink in a single cartridge, end of life is defined when

the first colour within the cartridge exhibits fade or ink out. In the event that the printer can continue printing

after ink out is reported, the cartridge will still be considered at end of life.

3.8
test page suite

series of five pages defined in ISO/IEC 24712 that are printed consecutively as a single job, ending with

a diagnostic page
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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
3.9
individual cartridge yield

value determined by counting the number of diagnostic pages (last page of the ISO/IEC 24712 test page

suite) printed between cartridge installation and end of life (3.7) and multiplying by five

Note 1 to entry: If the printer stops due to ink out in the middle of a test page suite, the number of the diagnostic

pages printed is counted. Then, the first diagnostic page of the remaining print job is included in the subsequent

cartridge yield.

Note 2 to entry: The number of test page suites counted may contain some pages that show visible fade.

To simplify the testing, determination of end of life is only made on the diagnostic page (last page of the

ISO/IEC 24712 test page suite).
3.10
declared cartridge yield

at or below the lower 90 % confidence bound of the mean as prescribed in 6.1 and 6.2

3.11
primary cartridge

cartridge containing full density black, cyan, magenta or yellow ink or a combination of full density

cyan, magenta and yellow

Note 1 to entry: These colours represent the primary inks used in a traditional four-colour printing process.

3.12
proxy cartridge

primary cartridge to be utilized for estimating yield of supplemental cartridges (3.13)

3.13
supplemental cartridge
cartridge other than the full density cyan, magenta, yellow and black cartridges

Note 1 to entry: The determination of yield for a supplemental cartridge is made according to 6.2.

4 Test parameters and conditions
4.1 Set up

Place the printer on a horizontal surface and set up the printer according to the installation guide

provided in the printer user’s manual. Use the most recent printer driver available from the

manufacturer’s website or the supplied driver with the printer. The driver version will be specified

on the test report. Cartridge installation shall be completed following the instructions in the cartridge

installation guide. If there is a contradiction between the printer and cartridge manuals for the

cartridge installation, the cartridge manual will take precedence except if changes are recommended

for printer or driver settings.

At the start of the test, all printers shall be set up using a set of priming cartridges to ensure that the

ink used in testing is primarily for printing, not for initial priming/cleaning. After the printer is set up

according to the manufacturers’ instructions, the priming cartridges shall be used to print a minimum

of 25 pages, five cycles of the standard test page suite. The priming cartridges shall be removed and

replaced with new cartridges that will be used for testing yield. The pages printed during this step

are not counted towards yield. Even if required by the printer, printhead alignment does not have to

be performed on the priming cartridges. The number of pages used in the priming operation will be

included in the test report. The replacement of the priming cartridges with the first test cartridges may

be done all at once or staggered individually. If done all at once, all test cartridges begin with test suite

number 1 and continue until end of life. If the staggered start method is used, the test suite number

must be tracked separately for each cartridge. The test start method will be included in the test report.

All image and print quality modifiers shall be at their factory preset configuration for the printer and

default-installed condition for the driver. If auto media detection is available on the printer, it shall be

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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)

disabled and media-type set to plain paper. This is to avoid inaccurate sensing of the media. If the printer

and driver settings differ, then the driver defaults shall be used. Any user selectable ink conservation

modes, (e.g. draft) shall be disabled during testing.

To ensure that the test page suite is printed correctly, any page size modifiers such as Fit to Page and

font substitution shall be turned off. The files shall be printed using the fonts embedded in the file

and shall be printed on the page in a size corresponding to the dimensions in the test suite standard

(ISO/IEC 24712). Page placement modifiers such as page centering can be used to place the image

properly on the page.

To facilitate automated testing, the test suite may be pre-generated using the printer driver. This is

often accomplished using a print to file command. This method is only valid if it does not affect the

measured yield. If a pre-generated file is used, it shall be noted on the test report.

If the printer under test uses an internal PDF interpreter, it is ok to use it as long as the printer defaults

are set to not substitute fonts. If the internal interpreter is used, this shall be noted on the report.

NOTE The application software (for example, Adobe Acrobat Reader ), printer driver and printer may have

page size modifier functions, such as Fit to Page. Make sure that all of these functions are disabled.

4.2 Sample size

Inkjet cartridges are designed in two common styles, single colour and multi-colour. The sample size

shall be determined such that for each calculated yield value, a minimum of three physical cartridges

are tested in each of three printers. In the case of a typical four colour printer with four single primary

colour cartridges this would result in 36 cartridges being tested, nine black (K), nine cyan (C), nine

magenta (M) and nine yellow (Y). For a typical multicolour cartridge system where one cartridge

contains C, M and Y, and another cartridge contains K, the testing would use 18 total cartridges, nine

black and nine CMY.

In some printer configurations, supplemental cartridges may be installed. Please see the procedure

in 6.2 for details on the treatment of supplemental cartridges

When testing additional engines and cartridges above the minimum, an effort shall be made to test an

equal number of cartridges on each engine. For example, if an additional engine were to be tested then

the minimum number of cartridges to be tested would be 48 (3 cartridges × 4 colours × 4 printers) for

a four-cartridge system.

When testing cartridges for a commercially available product, it is recommended that cartridges and

printers be procured from various sources, or sampled from different production lots. The printers and

cartridges must be within their useful life as stated in their user’s manual.

NOTE It is recommended that additional engines and/or cartridges be used in testing.

4.3 Print mode

For reporting cartridge yield, the test will be run in semi-continuous simplex printing and set in the

driver default print mode at or near rated print speed. Each copy of the test suite shall be printed as

a separate five page print job. This allows for some intra-job servicing and calibration to take place.

Additional pauses can take place due to paper refills and idle time due to end of work days.

NOTE 1 This does not mean that the printer must stop between printed jobs.

Colour inkjet printers commonly need to service the printing system after a number of prints, or when

the device has been powered down or not used for a given amount of time. This servicing uses ink that

could have been used to print additional pages. It is realized that customers do not normally print in a

1) Adobe Acrobat Reader© is a product of Adobe Systems Incorporated. The mention of this product in this

International Standard is for example purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement by the ISO.

4 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)

continuous fashion, but these changes are made to decrease testing time and increase the repeatability

of the testing process.

NOTE 2 Depending on use conditions, the yield experienced by a given user may vary significantly from the

yield measured by this test method.
4.4 Print environment

The temperature can have a profound effect on test results. For this reason, the test must be carried out

according to the following test conditions:
Temperature: Testing room average 23,0 °C ±2 °C

Readings to be made with a running average of 1 hr with readings recorded at least every 15 min, all

running average temperatures are to be between 20,0 °C and 26,0 °C.

EXAMPLE An example of the calculation of the temperature is shown in Table 1 for temperature readings

taken on 15-minute intervals for the testing of one cartridge.
Table 1 — Running temperature calculation example
Testing Room
t t t t t t t t t t t t Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Temperature t 24,0 23,4 20,5 24,2 23,6 22,0 25,5 24,7 22,1 20,8 22,0 23,5 23,0
Running Average T N/A N/A N/A 23,0 22,9 22,6 23,8 24,0 23,6 23,3 22,4 22,1
Running Average T = (t +t +t +t )/4
i i-3 i-2 i-1 i
Testing Room Average = (t +t + … +t )/12
1 2 12

From these formulae, the testing room average would be 23,0 °C, the maximum running average reading 24,0 °C and the

minimum running average reading 22,1 °C. These values can be found highlighted in the table of temperature measurements.

It shall be noted that the testing room average for temperature are averages of all measurements, not the running averages.

Environmental conditions shall be included in the test report. The maximum and minimum running

averages for temperature shall be reported for each cartridge tested. Please see Annex C for a sample

reporting form.

All materials shall be temperature acclimated to the test room environment. Prior to testing, the printer,

paper and cartridges shall be acclimated to the above conditions. Before acclimation, packaging and

shipping materials shall be opened with care to prevent damage to the cartridges during acclimation.

Paper may be acclimated in the ream wrapper.

Any water condensation must be avoided when printer, paper and cartridges are carried in the test

environment
4.5 Paper

The paper used in this test shall represent a common medium weight paper and must conform to the

printer’s list of approved papers. The paper manufacturer, weight and size, A4 or equivalent, used in the

test will be noted on the report. If auto media detection is available on the printer, it shall be disabled

and the media type set to plain paper. The auto-detect process can have a significant effect of the yield

performance. .
4.6 Maintenance

Printer maintenance shall be performed per the printer and cartridge user’s manual.

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ISO/IEC 24711:2015(E)
4.7 Test files

The test files are outlined and specified in ISO/IEC 24712. The test must be conducted using the most

recent official electronic test files as the input. The most recent official file can be located at (http://

www.iso.org/jtc1/sc28). Failure to use the exact file specifications will invalidate test results. In

addition to the test files a publicly available PDF reader will be used in conjunction with the printer

driver to generate the printer input and send the files directly to the printer. The method used

for connection between the host computer and the printer shall be recorded
...

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