Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions

This document specifies the properties and performance requirements of a bicyclist target (BT) that represents a human bicyclist in terms of shape, movement, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The BT is used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety systems. This document establishes the detection requirements for a BT in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also establishes methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as some performance requirements for the target carrier. The BT according to this document is also representative for electrically assisted pedal bicycles (pedal electric cycle, pedelec). This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system being tested are also not addressed.

Véhicules routiers -- Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions de sécurité active

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Nov-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
20-Oct-2020
Completion Date
20-Oct-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19206-4
First edition
2020-11
Road vehicles — Test devices for
target vehicles, vulnerable road users
and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 4:
Requirements for bicyclist targets
Véhicules routiers — Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers
de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions
de sécurité active —
Partie 4: Exigences pour cibles de cyclistes
Reference number
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Bicyclist target specifications ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Bicyclist target size .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Dimensions of the BT rider .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Safety considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.4 Repairability and robustness ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Postures and articulation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6.2 Static posture ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Bicyclist target response to sensing technologies ............................................................................................................. 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Optical requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Colours and clothing ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Radar requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Radar cross section measurement of BT ..................................................................................................... 5

6.3.4 Micro-Doppler effect for rotating wheels and pedalling of the BT ....................................... 6

6.4 Thermal requirements for far IR vision systems ....................................................................................................... 7

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.3 Thermal characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 7

6.5 Calibration and verification ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Motion and positioning during test for BT including target carrier system ..........................................8

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Longitudinal positioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Speed range for operation ....................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Accelerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Lateral positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Heading angle ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.3 Lateral position ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4 Vertical positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.2 Pitch angle ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.3 Vertical motions ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex A (normative) Adult and child bicyclist target dimensions and postures ...............................................10

Annex B (normative) Sensor-specific recognition properties ................................................................................................18

Annex C (normative) Bicyclist target measurements and measurement equipment ....................................25

Annex D (normative) Bicyclist target articulation properties ................................................................................................30

Annex E (informative) Verification of bicyclist target properties .......................................................................................31

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)

Annex F (informative) Field verification of target properties ................................................................................................41

Annex G (informative) Example interface between target carrier and BT bicycle ............................................43

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22 Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19206 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Introduction

ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) and active safety systems are designed to support

decision-making for the driver, extend the driver’s awareness of the traffic situation with advanced

warnings, improve the behaviour of the vehicle, and even take over vehicle control in an emergency

situation. The goal is to completely avoid an accident or at least reduce the severity of an accident.

The surrogate target is an essential component in the evaluation of ADAS/active safety functions and

different levels of automated driving systems, in all situations where a collision with the target may occur.

The characteristics of targets need to be trustworthy and a vehicle target needs to be recognized as a

real vehicle by the various sensing technologies.

This document addresses the specification of bicyclist test targets. The bicyclist targets specified are

representative of adult and child sizes.

A bicyclist test target needs to represent the characteristics of the rider and bicycle yet provide safety

for the subject vehicle and test operators in the event that contact is made between the tested vehicle

and the bicyclist target. Crashworthiness and durability requirements for the bicyclist target require

that the material and construction of the bicyclist target are adapted to fit the purposes.

Test cases usually address both stationary and moving targets and, as such, the physical construction

of the target may accommodate a target carrier system capable of mimicking realistic motions. This

document includes requirements on the target carrier system as applicable.

Targets described in the ISO 19206 series can be used for system development or applied in conjunction

with existing standards, or standards under development, for assessment of ADAS and active safety

functions of vehicles.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles,
vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 4:
Requirements for bicyclist targets
1 Scope

This document specifies the properties and performance requirements of a bicyclist target (BT)

that represents a human bicyclist in terms of shape, movement, reflection properties, etc. for testing

purposes. The BT is used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety

systems.

This document establishes the detection requirements for a BT in terms of sensing technologies

commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future

sensing technologies. It also establishes methodologies to verify the target response properties to these

sensors, as well as some performance requirements for the target carrier.

The BT according to this document is also representative for electrically assisted pedal bicycles (pedal

electric cycle, pedelec).

This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events.

Performance criteria for the active safety system being tested are also not addressed.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8855, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8855 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
subject vehicle
vehicle with active safety system to be tested
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
3.2
bicyclist target

test device representing a bicyclist on a bicycle used to test active safety systems

3.2.1
BT bicycle
part of the bicyclist target (3.2) consisting of the bicycle only
3.2.2
BT rider
part of the bicyclist target (3.2) consisting of the rider only
3.3
target carrier

mechanical or electro-mechanical system used to move the target according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: Target carrier can be self-contained within, or supporting the target structure or external

devices connected with cables, beams, or similar structures. It can also be a self-propelled carrier.

Note 2 to entry: Target structure fixation is included in the target carrier. A commonly used fixation interface is

shown in Annex G.
3.4
measurement equipment

equipment used to record the position of the bicyclist target (3.2) relative to the subject vehicle (3.1) to

ensure that the test protocol is followed within prescribed tolerances and record data documenting the

function of the active safety system and allowing its performance to be assessed
4 Abbreviated terms
BT bicyclist target
CCD charge-coupled device
CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor
FIR far infrared
LIDAR light detection and ranging
NIR near infrared
PMD photonic mixer device
RCS radar cross section
SV subject vehicle
5 Bicyclist target specifications
5.1 Bicyclist target size

The bicyclist targets specified in this document are representative for adult and child sizes. References

for subsequent requirements are based on sample measurements of different demographics and

compiled into categories. The following human bicyclist sizes are relevant for this document:

— adult: 50-percentile male;
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
— child: 6-7 year old.
5.2 Dimensions of the BT rider

Annex A, Tables A.1 and A.2 provide the information for a 50-percentile male adult and a 6-7 year old child.

5.3 Safety considerations

Drivers of the subject vehicle shall not be exposed to any substantial risk of personal injury resulting

from impact of the BT by the SV. The BT and its components should not cause more than cosmetic

damage to the subject vehicle when struck at a relative velocity of 60 km/h. The conditions specified by

the test procedure application shall be taken into consideration.

NOTE Test procedures for specific applications typically indicate what measures are taken to reduce the

risk of injury and vehicle damage. These measures can include instructions to disable subject vehicle systems

such as supplementary occupant restraints, seatbelt pre-tensioners, vulnerable user protection systems, etc.

5.4 Repairability and robustness

The BT should be easily reassembled or repaired after contacts up to a relative speed of 60 km/h. Field

repairs should be possible with hand tools. After repair, the target body and/or target carrier system

shall be verified according to 6.5.
NOTE The repairability requirement does not apply to disposable targets.

After a collision, the correctness of the BT posture and dimension shall be verified before start of a

new test.
5.5 Environmental conditions

The BT shall fulfil all requirements in a temperature range of -5 °C to +40 °C. The BT shall not deteriorate

under storage temperatures in the range of -20 °C to +80 °C when properly stored.

NOTE The specified temperature range recognises that there can be substantial technical challenges

achieving a cost-effective target fulfilling the requirements at lower temperatures than -5 °C.

5.6 Postures and articulation
5.6.1 General

The BT described in this document represents an average human bicyclist (adult and child versions) on

an average utility bicycle (Figure 1) in relation to the vulnerable road users (VRU) detection sensors

used in vehicles. The requirements relate, unless not specified otherwise, to the BT including a target

carrier.

The BT shall be a full 3D representation of a human bicyclist with bicycle and shall have rotating wheels

(synchronized to speed) or other means of producing the 3D visual and micro-Doppler effects as

described in 6.3.4 and Annex D.

BT rider postures can be of static (non-pedalling type) or articulated (pedalling type). Both variants

are recognised according to this document.
5.6.2 Static posture

The torso angles shall be implemented according to Table A.1 and Table A.2 (10° and 30°). Optional

torso angles may be implemented using a range of 0° to 50°.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Figure 1 — Bicyclist target with different BT rider torso angles
6 Bicyclist target response to sensing technologies
6.1 General

Requirements related to sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this

document are listed in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. A BT intended for use with a specific set of sensing technologies

needs only to meet the requirements of those technologies.
6.2 Optical requirements
6.2.1 General

Sensors operating on optical principles include charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal

oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera sensors, stereo camera sensors, photonic mixing devices (PMD)

and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). These systems cover visible and near infrared light frequency

spectra. PMD and LIDAR are more reliant on infrared reflectivity of the target surface.

6.2.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided

with the description of the BT. The version of the BT and the target carrier shall be traceable to

manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications. Measurements of the IR reflectivity shall follow

the requirements in C.2.
6.2.3 Colours and clothing

Skin surface parts of BT rider shall be non-reflective and skin-coloured. Hair may be represented by a

securely attached hairpiece or integrated in the head design by other means.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)

It is recommended to use long-sleeved t-shirt and trousers in different non-reflective colours. A black

t-shirt and blue jeans are recommended. Clothing shall be loose fitting, but fluttering shall be avoided.

Specific requirements given in B.2 shall be followed.
6.3 Radar requirements
6.3.1 General

At the time of publication of this document, automotive applications of radar are using 24 GHz and

76 GHz – 81 GHz.
6.3.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the reference subject(s). The version of the BT and the target carrier shall be traceable

to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications. Reference radar measurement setups for human

bicyclist subjects that shall be used for verification are provided in C.3.
6.3.3 Radar cross section measurement of BT

The radar reflective characteristics of the BT should be comparable to a human bicyclist of the same

size. Requirements and recommendations on the radar properties are given in B.3.

For every radar frequency relevant for the BT, a set of radar cross-section measurements shall be made.

The main steps are as follows:

1) measurement of human bicyclist reference subjects and radar cross section (RCS) reference targets,

2) establishment of boundaries, and
3) verification that the BT RCS measurements are within the boundaries.
The following scenario is described in C.3.3:

— static BT approached by moving vehicle or moving fixture, to check for inconsistencies at different

distances and at different BT orientation angles.

An example of the results of this process is illustrated in Figure 2, showing RCS measurements on

human bicyclist reference subjects and two BT versions at 77 GHz (static measurements).

Annex E provides RCS measurement data on real bicyclists and BTs for different viewing angles.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Key
X distance [m]
Y RCS [dBsm]
0 upper boundary RCS
1 lower boundary RCS
2 average RCS real GAZELLE 180°
3 average RCS real KTM 180°
4 average RCS commercially available BT A 180°
5 average RCS commercially available BT B 180°
NOTE Boundary definitions are given in B.3.

Figure 2 — Radar cross-section measurement, example for human adult bicyclists and BTs

6.3.4 Micro-Doppler effect for rotating wheels and pedalling of the BT

To identify a bicyclist, state of the art radar sensor technology can detect and measure the relative

velocities of rotating wheels and pedalling legs on the bicyclist, referred to as the micro-Doppler

effect. Rotating wheels shall thus be realized in a manner that provides a realistic micro-Doppler

representation of the BT. The articulation requirements in Annex D shall be followed to obtain this.

Real bicyclists may or may not be pedalling while moving, this property is optional for articulated BTs.

If implemented, the pedalling shall be realized in a manner that realistically represents that of a real

bicyclist.

Figure 3 shows an example of the distribution of relative velocities for a transversal moving human

bicyclist, measured by radar (77 GHz sensor, 1 GHz bandwidth).
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)

The plot shows a snapshot at a distinct time from the approach. Due to the chosen reference coordinate

system, relative speeds show negative values (approach towards sensor). A typical H-shape of relative

velocities is depicted, with reflections in the centre emerging from non-rotating parts (travel speed

of bicycle), and two horizontal lines representing the two rotating wheels (double the travel speed

of bicycle for upper parts of wheels, zero relative velocity for part of wheels touching ground). The

pedalling motion shows additional relative speed information minor to the rotating wheels.

Key
X relative velocity [m/s]
Y radial distance [m]

Figure 3 — Micro-Doppler effect example for pedalling (left) and non-pedalling (right) human

bicyclist
6.4 Thermal requirements for far IR vision systems
6.4.1 General
Inclusion of passive thermal sensor requirements is optional.

Far infrared (FIR) vision systems can provide information to active safety systems in conditions of low

light or otherwise limited visibility. A thermal camera detects far-infrared electromagnetic radiation

with a wavelength in the range of 8 μm to 14 μm. Imaging is provided by means of an appropriate camera.

6.4.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the reference subject(s). The version of the BT and the target carrier system shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.4.3 Thermal characteristics

BTs commonly in use at the time of publication of this document do not feature human-specific FIR

characteristics. Developers of BT that incorporate such characteristics should ensure that the

characteristics of the BT are comparable to a human bicyclist of the same size.

Characterization of these properties should follow the same main steps used to characterizing RCS:

1) measurement of human bicyclist reference subjects,
2) establishment of boundaries, and
3) verification that the BT FIR measurements are within the boundaries.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
6.5 Calibration and verification

The BT manufacturer shall provide a certificate detailing which test information has been used to

verify the product performance and which sensor technologies it conforms to.

Calibration shall be based on representative characteristics of the applied detection te

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19206-4
First edition
Road vehicles — Test devices for
target vehicles, vulnerable road users
and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 4:
Requirements for bicyclist targets
Véhicules routiers — Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers
de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions
de sécurité active —
Partie 4: Exigences pour cibles de cyclistes
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Bicyclist target specifications ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Bicyclist target size .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Dimensions of the BT rider .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Safety considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.4 Repairability and robustness ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Postures and articulation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6.2 Static posture ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Bicyclist target response to sensing technologies ............................................................................................................. 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Optical requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Colours and clothing ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Radar requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Radar cross section measurement of BT ..................................................................................................... 5

6.3.4 Micro-Doppler effect for rotating wheels and pedalling of the BT ....................................... 6

6.4 Thermal requirements for far IR vision systems ....................................................................................................... 7

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.3 Thermal characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 7

6.5 Calibration and verification ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Motion and positioning during test for BT including target carrier system ..........................................8

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Longitudinal positioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Speed range for operation ....................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Accelerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Lateral positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Heading angle ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.3 Lateral position ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4 Vertical positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.2 Pitch angle ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.3 Vertical motions ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex A (normative) Adult and child bicyclist target dimensions and postures ...............................................10

Annex B (normative) Sensor-specific recognition properties ................................................................................................18

Annex C (normative) Bicyclist target measurements and measurement equipment ....................................25

Annex D (normative) Bicyclist target articulation properties ................................................................................................30

Annex E (informative) Verification of bicyclist target properties .......................................................................................31

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)

Annex F (informative) Field verification of target properties ................................................................................................41

Annex G (informative) Example interface between target carrier and BT bicycle ............................................43

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22 Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19206 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Introduction

ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) and active safety systems are designed to support

decision-making for the driver, extend the driver’s awareness of the traffic situation with advanced

warnings, improve the behaviour of the vehicle, and even take over vehicle control in an emergency

situation. The goal is to completely avoid an accident or at least reduce the severity of an accident.

The surrogate target is an essential component in the evaluation of ADAS/active safety functions and

different levels of automated driving systems, in all situations where a collision with the target may occur.

The characteristics of targets need to be trustworthy and a vehicle target needs to be recognized as a

real vehicle by the various sensing technologies.

This document addresses the specification of bicyclist test targets. The bicyclist targets specified are

representative of adult and child sizes.

A bicyclist test target needs to represent the characteristics of the rider and bicycle yet provide safety

for the subject vehicle and test operators in the event that contact is made between the tested vehicle

and the bicyclist target. Crashworthiness and durability requirements for the bicyclist target require

that the material and construction of the bicyclist target are adapted to fit the purposes.

Test cases usually address both stationary and moving targets and, as such, the physical construction

of the target may accommodate a target carrier system capable of mimicking realistic motions. This

document includes requirements on the target carrier system as applicable.

Targets described in the ISO 19206 series can be used for system development or applied in conjunction

with existing standards, or standards under development, for assessment of ADAS and active safety

functions of vehicles.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles,
vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 4:
Requirements for bicyclist targets
1 Scope

This document specifies the properties and performance requirements of a bicyclist target (BT)

that represents a human bicyclist in terms of shape, movement, reflection properties, etc. for testing

purposes. The BT is used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety

systems.

This document establishes the detection requirements for a BT in terms of sensing technologies

commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future

sensing technologies. It also establishes methodologies to verify the target response properties to these

sensors, as well as some performance requirements for the target carrier.

The BT according to this document is also representative for electrically assisted pedal bicycles (pedal

electric cycle, pedelec).

This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events.

Performance criteria for the active safety system being tested are also not addressed.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8855, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8855 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
subject vehicle
vehicle with active safety system to be tested
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
3.2
bicyclist target

test device representing a bicyclist on a bicycle used to test active safety systems

3.2.1
BT bicycle
part of the bicyclist target (3.2) consisting of the bicycle only
3.2.2
BT rider
part of the bicyclist target (3.2) consisting of the rider only
3.3
target carrier

mechanical or electro-mechanical system used to move the target according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: Target carrier can be self-contained within, or supporting the target structure or external

devices connected with cables, beams, or similar structures. It can also be a self-propelled carrier.

Note 2 to entry: Target structure fixation is included in the target carrier. A commonly used fixation interface is

shown in Annex G.
3.4
measurement equipment

equipment used to record the position of the bicyclist target (3.2) relative to the subject vehicle (3.1) to

ensure that the test protocol is followed within prescribed tolerances and record data documenting the

function of the active safety system and allowing its performance to be assessed
4 Abbreviated terms
BT bicyclist target
CCD charge-coupled device
CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor
FIR far infrared
LIDAR light detection and ranging
NIR near infrared
PMD photonic mixer device
RCS radar cross section
SV subject vehicle
5 Bicyclist target specifications
5.1 Bicyclist target size

The bicyclist targets specified in this document are representative for adult and child sizes. References

for subsequent requirements are based on sample measurements of different demographics and

compiled into categories. The following human bicyclist sizes are relevant for this document:

— adult: 50-percentile male;
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
— child: 6-7 year old.
5.2 Dimensions of the BT rider

Annex A, Tables A.1 and A.2 provide the information for a 50-percentile male adult and a 6-7 year old child.

5.3 Safety considerations

Drivers of the subject vehicle shall not be exposed to any substantial risk of personal injury resulting

from impact of the BT by the SV. The BT and its components should not cause more than cosmetic

damage to the subject vehicle when struck at a relative velocity of 60 km/h. The conditions specified by

the test procedure application shall be taken into consideration.

NOTE Test procedures for specific applications typically indicate what measures are taken to reduce the

risk of injury and vehicle damage. These measures can include instructions to disable subject vehicle systems

such as supplementary occupant restraints, seatbelt pre-tensioners, vulnerable user protection systems, etc.

5.4 Repairability and robustness

The BT should be easily reassembled or repaired after contacts up to a relative speed of 60 km/h. Field

repairs should be possible with hand tools. After repair, the target body and/or target carrier system

shall be verified according to 6.5.
NOTE The repairability requirement does not apply to disposable targets.

After a collision, the correctness of the BT posture and dimension shall be verified before start of a

new test.
5.5 Environmental conditions

The BT shall fulfil all requirements in a temperature range of -5 °C to +40 °C. The BT shall not deteriorate

under storage temperatures in the range of -20 °C to +80 °C when properly stored.

NOTE The specified temperature range recognises that there can be substantial technical challenges

achieving a cost-effective target fulfilling the requirements at lower temperatures than -5 °C.

5.6 Postures and articulation
5.6.1 General

The BT described in this document represents an average human bicyclist (adult and child versions) on

an average utility bicycle (Figure 1) in relation to the vulnerable road users (VRU) detection sensors

used in vehicles. The requirements relate, unless not specified otherwise, to the BT including a target

carrier.

The BT shall be a full 3D representation of a human bicyclist with bicycle and shall have rotating wheels

(synchronized to speed) or other means of producing the 3D visual and micro-Doppler effects as

described in 6.3.4 and Annex D.

BT rider postures can be of static (non-pedalling type) or articulated (pedalling type). Both variants

are recognised according to this document.
5.6.2 Static posture

The torso angles shall be implemented according to Table A.1 and Table A.2 (10° and 30°). Optional

torso angles may be implemented using a range of 0° to 50°.
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Figure 1 — Bicyclist target with different BT rider torso angles
6 Bicyclist target response to sensing technologies
6.1 General

Requirements related to sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this

document are listed in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. A BT intended for use with a specific set of sensing technologies

needs only to meet the requirements of those technologies.
6.2 Optical requirements
6.2.1 General

Sensors operating on optical principles include charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal

oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera sensors, stereo camera sensors, photonic mixing devices (PMD)

and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). These systems cover visible and near infrared light frequency

spectra. PMD and LIDAR are more reliant on infrared reflectivity of the target surface.

6.2.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided

with the description of the BT. The version of the BT and the target carrier shall be traceable to

manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications. Measurements of the IR reflectivity shall follow

the requirements in C.2.
6.2.3 Colours and clothing

Skin surface parts of BT rider shall be non-reflective and skin-coloured. Hair may be represented by a

securely attached hairpiece or integrated in the head design by other means.
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)

It is recommended to use long-sleeved t-shirt and trousers in different non-reflective colours. A black

t-shirt and blue jeans are recommended. Clothing shall be loose fitting, but fluttering shall be avoided.

Specific requirements given in B.2 shall be followed.
6.3 Radar requirements
6.3.1 General

At the time of publication of this document, automotive applications of radar are using 24 GHz and

76 GHz – 81 GHz.
6.3.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the reference subject(s). The version of the BT and the target carrier shall be traceable

to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications. Reference radar measurement setups for human

bicyclist subjects that shall be used for verification are provided in C.3.
6.3.3 Radar cross section measurement of BT

The radar reflective characteristics of the BT should be comparable to a human bicyclist of the same

size. Requirements and recommendations on the radar properties are given in B.3.

For every radar frequency relevant for the BT, a set of radar cross-section measurements shall be made.

The main steps are as follows:

1) measurement of human bicyclist reference subjects and radar cross section (RCS) reference targets,

2) establishment of boundaries, and
3) verification that the BT RCS measurements are within the boundaries.
The following scenario is described in C.3.3:

— static BT approached by moving vehicle or moving fixture, to check for inconsistencies at different

distances and at different BT orientation angles.

An example of the results of this process is illustrated in Figure 2, showing RCS measurements on

human bicyclist reference subjects and two BT versions at 77 GHz (static measurements).

Annex E provides RCS measurement data on real bicyclists and BTs for different viewing angles.

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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
Key
X distance [m]
Y RCS [dBsm]
0 upper boundary RCS
1 lower boundary RCS
2 average RCS real GAZELLE 180°
3 average RCS real KTM 180°
4 average RCS commercially available BT A 180°
5 average RCS commercially available BT B 180°
NOTE Boundary definitions are given in B.3.

Figure 2 — Radar cross-section measurement, example for human adult bicyclists and BTs

6.3.4 Micro-Doppler effect for rotating wheels and pedalling of the BT

To identify a bicyclist, state of the art radar sensor technology can detect and measure the relative

velocities of rotating wheels and pedalling legs on the bicyclist, referred to as the micro-Doppler

effect. Rotating wheels shall thus be realized in a manner that provides a realistic micro-Doppler

representation of the BT. The articulation requirements in Annex D shall be followed to obtain this.

Real bicyclists may or may not be pedalling while moving, this property is optional for articulated BTs.

If implemented, the pedalling shall be realized in a manner that realistically represents that of a real

bicyclist.

Figure 3 shows an example of the distribution of relative velocities for a transversal moving human

bicyclist, measured by radar (77 GHz sensor, 1 GHz bandwidth).
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)

The plot shows a snapshot at a distinct time from the approach. Due to the chosen reference coordinate

system, relative speeds show negative values (approach towards sensor). A typical H-shape of relative

velocities is depicted, with reflections in the centre emerging from non-rotating parts (travel speed

of bicycle), and two horizontal lines representing the two rotating wheels (double the travel speed

of bicycle for upper parts of wheels, zero relative velocity for part of wheels touching ground). The

pedalling motion shows additional relative speed information minor to the rotating wheels.

Key
X relative velocity [m/s]
Y radial distance [m]

Figure 3 — Micro-Doppler effect example for pedalling (left) and non-pedalling (right) human

bicyclist
6.4 Thermal requirements for far IR vision systems
6.4.1 General
Inclusion of passive thermal sensor requirements is optional.

Far infrared (FIR) vision systems can provide information to active safety systems in conditions of low

light or otherwise limited visibility. A thermal camera detects far-infrared electromagnetic radiation

with a wavelength in the range of 8 μm to 14 μm. Imaging is provided by means of an appropriate camera.

6.4.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the reference subject(s). The version of the BT and the target carrier system shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.4.3 Thermal characteristics

BTs commonly in use at the time of publication of this document do not feature human-specific FIR

characteristics. Developers of BT that incorporate such characteristics should ensure that the

characteristics of the BT are comparable to a human bicyclist of the same size.

Characterization of these properties should follow the same main steps used to characterizing RCS:

1) measurement of human bicyclist reference subjects,
2) establishment of boundaries, and
3) verification that the BT FIR measurements are within the boundaries.
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ISO 19206-4:2020(E)
6.5 Calibration and verification

The BT manufacturer shall provide a certificate detailing which test information has been used to

ver
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