Protective clothing for firefighters - Physiological impact - Part 2: Determination of physiological heat load caused by protective clothing worn by firefighters (ISO 18640-2:2018)

This European standard describes a thermophysiological model (thermal
human simulator) that uses the output data of the first part to obtain
physiological heat load criteria that predicts the (maximal) duration of
work in the protective clothing in fire fighters’ relevant conditions.
NOTE The human simulator method using the Sweating Torso (i.e.
coupling of the instrumented manikin with a thermo-physiological
feedback model) is validated for different scenarios by comparison to
human subject trials(1, 2). The scenarios also included warm and hot
environments as can be expected for firefighter applications. Core
temperature, being one of the most important physiological variables,
and mean skin temperature, which is a useful indicator of thermal comfort
sensation and of the overall condition of the body, are chosen as relevant
physiological parameters for the thermophysiological human simulator.

Schutzkleidung für die Feuerwehr - Physiologische Wärmebelastung - Teil 2: Bestimmung der physiologischen Wärmebelastung ausgelöst durch von Feuerwehrleuten getragene Schutzkleidung (ISO 18640-2:2018)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur Bewertung der thermophysio¬logischen Auswirkungen von Schutzkleidungs-Stoff-Aufbauten und möglichen Schutzkleidungsensembles im Rahmen einer simulierten Aktivität von Feuerwehrleuten unter festgelegten Bedingungen fest.
Dieses Dokument dient der Bewertung der thermophysiologischen Auswirkungen von Schutzkleidungs-Stoff-Aufbauten und potenzieller Schutzkleidungsensembles, aber nicht des Risikos des Wärmestaus aufgrund von tatsächlichen Brandbedingungen. Die Ergebnisse dieses Prüfverfahrens können als Elemente der Charakterisierung und zum Vergleich der thermophysiologischen Auswirkungen verschiedener Arten von Schutzkleidungs-Stoff-Aufbauten und potenzieller Schutzkleidungsensembles dienen.
Standard-Messungen werden auf Stoffproben durchgeführt, die die Kleidungsstücke oder Schutzkleidungs-kombinationen repräsentieren. Optional kann zusätzlich zum Standardprüfverfahren das gleiche Prüfproto¬koll angewandt werden, um Schutzkleidungsensembles mit Unterwäsche, Luftschichten und bestimmten Designmerkmalen zu charakterisieren. ) Darüber hinaus sind Messungen an fertigen Kleidungsstücken möglich.
ANMERKUNG   Die momentan verwendeten Bewertungsmethoden sind nur für Kleidungsstücke zur Brandbekämpfung in Gebäuden validiert.

Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers - Impact physiologique - Partie 2: Détermination de la déperdition de chaleur provoquée par les vêtements de protection portés par les sapeurs-pompiers (ISO 18640-2:2018)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode d'évaluation de l'effet thermo-physiologique d'ensembles d'étoffes de protection et potentiellement d'ensembles de vêtements de protection au cours d'une activité simulée dans des conditions définies pertinentes pour les sapeurs-pompiers.
Le présent document est destiné à être utilisé pour évaluer l'effet thermo-physiologique d'ensembles d'étoffes de protection et potentiellement d'ensembles de vêtements de protection, mais pas le risque de contrainte thermique dû à des conditions réelles d'incendie. Les résultats obtenus grâce à cette méthode d'essai peuvent être utilisés comme des éléments de caractérisation et de comparaison de l'effet thermo-physiologique de divers types d'ensembles d'étoffes de protection et potentiellement d'ensembles de vêtements de protection.
Des mesurages par défaut sont effectués sur des échantillons d'étoffe représentant le vêtement ou la combinaison de vêtements de protection. En option et en plus de la méthode d'essai normalisée, il est possible d'appliquer le même protocole d'essai pour caractériser des ensembles de vêtements de protection incluant des sous-vêtements, des couches d'air et certaines caractéristiques de conception[1]. De plus, des mesurages sur des vêtements prêt-à-porter sont possibles en option.
NOTE Les méthodes d'évaluation actuellement utilisées sont validées uniquement pour les vêtements de protection pour la lutte contre les feux de structure.
[1] Une étude menée à l'Empa (Laboratoire fédéral d'essai des matériaux et de recherche, Suisse) a révélé une bonne corrélation entre les résultats des essais normalisés sur torse (sans sous-vêtements ni couches d'air sur les étoffes) et ceux des essais effectués sur des étoffes avec sous-vêtements, des essais effectués sur des étoffes avec sous-vêtements et couches d'air et de l'essai effectué sur des vêtements prêt-à-porter (avec sous-vêtements et avec ou sans couches d'air) composés des mêmes matériaux. Du fait de la différence d'isolation thermique des systèmes, une comparaison directe des résultats n'est pas possible.

Varovalna obleka za gasilce - Fiziološki vpliv - 2. del: Določanje fiziološke toplotne obremenitve, ki jo povzroča varovalna obleka, ki jo nosijo gasilci (ISO 18640-2:2018)

Ta evropski standard opisuje termofiziološki model (toplotni simulator človeka), ki uporablja izhodne podatke prvega dela za oblikovanje meril fiziološke toplotne obremenitve in napoveduje (najdaljše) trajanje dela v varovalnih oblačilih v pogojih dela gasilcev. OPOMBA: metoda s simulatorjem človeka, ki uporablja torzo za potenje (tj. lutko, opremljeno z instrumenti in modelom za toplotno-fiziološke povratne informacije) je bil potrjen v različnih scenarijih, pri čemer je bila izvedena primerjava s preskušanji na ljudeh (1, 2). V te scenarije so bila vključena tudi topla in hladna okolja, ki jih je mogoče pričakovati pri delu gasilcev. Za termofiziološki simulator človeka sta bili kot upoštevana fiziološka parametra izbrani bazalna temperatura, ki je ena od najpomembnejših fizioloških spremenljivk, in povprečna temperatura kože, ki je koristen kazalnik občutka toplotnega udobja in splošnega stanja telesa.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Sep-2016
Publication Date
11-Jun-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-May-2018
Due Date
22-Jul-2018
Completion Date
12-Jun-2018

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Protective clothing for firefighters - Physiological impact - Part 2: Determination of

physiological heat load caused by protective clothing worn by firefighters (ISO 18640-

2:2018)
Schutzkleidung für die Feuerwehr - Physiologische Wärmebelastung - Teil 2:
Bestimmung der physiologischen Wärmebelastung ausgelöst durch von
Feuerwehrleuten getragene Schutzkleidung (ISO 18640-2:2018)
Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers - Impact physiologique - Partie 2:

Détermination de la déperdition de chaleur provoquée par les vêtements de protection

portés par les sapeurs-pompiers (ISO 18640-2:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ICS:
13.220.10 Gašenje požara Fire-fighting
13.340.10 Varovalna obleka Protective clothing
SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
EN ISO 18640-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.340.10
English Version
Protective clothing for firefighters - Physiological impact -
Part 2: Determination of physiological heat load caused by
protective clothing worn by firefighters (ISO 18640-
2:2018)

Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers - Schutzkleidung für die Feuerwehr - Physiologische

Impact physiologique - Partie 2: Détermination de la Wärmebelastung - Teil 2: Bestimmung der

déperdition de chaleur provoquée par les vêtements de physiologischen Wärmebelastung ausgelöst durch von

protection portés par les sapeurs-pompiers (ISO Feuerwehrleuten getragene Schutzkleidung (ISO

18640-2:2018) 18640-2:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 January 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18640-2:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
EN ISO 18640-2:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
EN ISO 18640-2:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 18640-2:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94

"Personal safety - Personal protective equipment" in collaboration with Technical Committee

CEN/TC 162 “Protective clothing including hand and arm protection and lifejackets” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2018, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18640-2:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18640-2:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18640-2
First edition
2018-05
Protective clothing for firefighters —
Physiological impact —
Part 2:
Determination of physiological heat
load caused by protective clothing
worn by firefighters
Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers — Impact
physiologique —
Partie 2: Détermination de la déperdition de chaleur provoquée par
les vêtements de protection portés par les sapeurs-pompiers
Reference number
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Evaluation method ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Firefighting scenarios ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Standard scenario for THS measurements ................................................................................................ 3

5.3 THS measurement ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3.2 Apparatus and software ............................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.3 Heat flux .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3.4 Wicking layer correction ........................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.5 Skin diffusion (E ) ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3.6 Data exchange with physiological model .................................................................................................... 6

5.3.7 Measurement control .................. ......................................................................................................................... ........ 6

6 Measurement ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 THS measurement ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.1 Test preparation ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Software settings ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.3 Sampling and test specimen .................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.4 Measurement procedure ........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.5 Data evaluation ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1.1 Specimen identification ............................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1.2 Measurement conditions .......................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1.3 Results of THS measurement ................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Predicted physiological parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Contents of test report ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (normative) Single-sector Thermo-physiological Human Simulator (THS) .....................................10

Annex B (informative) Example measurement protocol according to ISO 18640-2 ........................................14

Annex C (informative) Scenarios for testing and limitation of system...........................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety — Protective clothing

and equipment, Subcommittee SC 14, Firefighters' personal equipment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18640 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
Introduction
1) 2)

Protective clothing for (structural) firefighting may have a serious physiological impact on the

wearer and a serious effect on the acute physical condition of the wearer during activities with increased

[3][4]

metabolic heat production . Protective clothing impedes heat exchange by sweat evaporation and

therefore maintenance of a constant core body temperature and thermal homeostasis is disturbed.

This could increase the risk of heat strain and subsequently impact on the length and time that the

firefighter is able to work safely. If this is identified in a risk assessment, it is important that (thermal)

physiological parameters are obtained to ensure the suitability of the protective clothing chosen under

the expected conditions of use. The assessment of the physiological impact of the protective clothing

provides important information about the effect on individuals undertaking different tasks in various

environmental conditions. In ISO 18640-1, relevant physical parameters of protective clothing are

measured with a Sweating torso. Standard Sweating torso measurements provide physical parameters

about combined and complex heat and moisture transfer (ISO 18640-1). By coupling the sweating

torso to a mathematical model for thermo-physiological responses, the thermo-physiological impact of

protective clothing is estimated and the maximum exposure time for defined environmental conditions

and a defined activity protocol are predicted by Thermal Human Simulator (THS) measurements.

The purpose of this document is to consider aspects of protective clothing performance that cannot be

determined by tests described in other standards. The aim of this document is to quantify the thermo-

physiological impact of protective garments for (structural) firefighting under relevant exposures.

This document provides the background for the specification of a minimum level of performance

requirements during defined firefighting scenarios for the assessed firefighters’ protective clothing by

calculation of the maximum allowable work duration in order to avoid heat stroke.

NOTE The method allows to characterizing the thermo-physiological impact for different levels of

complexity. This includes the characterisation of the single PPE ensembles (standard procedure) as well as the

characterisation of protective clothing ensembles including under wear and protective clothing, including air

layers or including design features of protective clothing ensembles (e.g. pockets, reflective strips) as optional

procedures .

1) Nunneley (1989) reported a significant physiological burden due to the protective clothing upon the wearer,

both in the form of increased metabolic rate and reduced heat dissipation.

2) Taylor (2012) showed that the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of

the breathing apparatus.

3) This listing of standard and optional procedures is a first proposal for prioritization. The expressiveness

of the different levels of complexity for the characterisation of the thermo-physiological impact needs to be further

investigated. Results will be presented at the next ballot.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
Protective clothing for firefighters — Physiological
impact —
Part 2:
Determination of physiological heat load caused by
protective clothing worn by firefighters
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for evaluating the thermo-physiological impact of protective fabric

ensembles and potentially protective clothing ensembles in a simulated activity under defined relevant

conditions for firefighters.

This document is intended to be used to assess the thermo-physiological impact of protective fabric

ensembles and potentially protective clothing ensembles but not the risk for heat stress due to

actual fire conditions. The results of this test method can be used as elements of characterisation

and comparison of thermo-physiological impact of various types of protective fabric ensembles and

potentially protective clothing ensembles.

Default measurements are undertaken on fabric samples representing the garment or protective

clothing combination. Optionally and in addition to the standard test method, the same testing protocol

can be applied to characterise protective clothing ensembles including underwear, air layers and

certain design features . In addition measurements on readymade garments are optionally possible.

NOTE The presently used evaluation methods are only validated for structural firefighting garments.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11092, Textiles — Physiological effects — Measurement of thermal and water-vapour resistance under

steady-state conditions (sweating guarded-hotplate test)

ISO 18640-1, Protective clothing for firefighters-physiological impact — Part 1: Measurement of coupled

heat and mass transfer with the sweating torso
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 18640-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/

4) A study conducted at Empa (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland)

showed good correlation between results of standard torso tests (without both underwear and air layers on fabrics)

to tests on fabrics with underwear, tests on fabrics with underwear and air layers and test on readymade garments

(with underwear and with or without air layers) of the same material composition. Due to the different thermal

insulation of the systems direct comparison of the results is not possible.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
3.1
core body temperature
temperature of deep body tissues of the human body
3.2
firefighting scenario

set of environmental conditions, a defined workload and a defined exposure time relevant for a

firefighters’ task
3.3
heart rate
number of heartbeats per unit of time
Note 1 to entry: The heart rate is usually expressed in per minute.
3.4
heat storage

heat accumulation in the body affected by metabolic heat produced, external heat load and heat

dissipated from the body
3.5
maximum allowable work duration
MAWD

value calculated from thermo-physiological simulation (THS measurement) predicting the time to

reach heat stress based on the definitions of this document
Note 1 to entry: See also Annex A.
Note 2 to entry: This value is given in minutes.
3.6
mean skin temperature
m,sk

mean temperature of the outer surface of the (human) body measured at several locations of the skin

3.7
skin diffusion

evaporative heat loss due to insensible skin perspiration and has to be provided for THS measurements

3.8
sweating torso

upright standing cylindrical test apparatus, simulating the human trunk with thermal guards on the

upper and lower end as defined in ISO 18640-1
3.9
sweat rate
amount of moisture perspired per time on the surface of the torso

Note 1 to entry: The term sweat rate is also used as the physiological response of the human body to elevated

metabolic rate and/or activity wearing protective clothing with high thermal insulation.

3.10
thermal human simulator measurement
THS

measurement with the sweating torso according to ISO 18640-1 where the device is coupled with a

validated physiological model

Note 1 to entry: Test cases and requirements for the validation of the physiological model are provided in A.3.

2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
3.11
torso surface temperature

average temperature on the surface of the measurement area (0,43 m ) of the torso device

4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document the following symbols and abbreviated terms apply, in addition to

the terms and definitions in ISO 18640-1.
C Wicking layer correction
E Skin diffusion
MAWD Maximum allowable work duration (in minutes)
T Mean skin temperature in °C
m,sk
T Core body temperature in °C
5 Evaluation method
5.1 General

Physical parameters based on thermal properties of protective clothing resulting from standard torso

measurements do not contain direct information about the thermo-physiological impact on the wearer

for various firefighters’ scenarios. Physiological data are deducted by doing measurements coupling

sweating torso system to a physiological model as described in this document.

The results of these measurements are used to predict the maximum allowable work duration (MAWD)

according to thermal characteristics and moisture management properties of the tested protective

clothing system. This procedure was validated based on human subject trials (see Annex A).

5.2 Firefighting scenarios

Firefighters deal with a variety of tasks and challenges. Therefore, many scenarios have to be

considered. In order to ensure a maximum level of comparability a moderate scenario has been defined

which is applicable to a wide range of protective clothing inclusive of firefighting. The background and

reasoning and the relevance for this standard are described in Annex C.
5.2.1 Standard scenario for THS measurements

For the purpose of this standard a scenario was selected which reflects a moderate firefighter activity

without fighting fire (see also Annex C).
The applied scenario is defined as follows:
— Ambient condition is set to 40 °C air temperature and 30 % RH;
— No radiation is present;
— Unidirectional wind speed of 1 m/s is applied;
2 2

— Physical activity is set to 6 Met (350 W/m metabolic rate, which equals 285 W/m metabolic heat

production);

— Initial condition of the human body is assumed to be thermo-neutral (T = 36,8 °C; T = 34,2 °C);

co m,sk

5) MET: Metabolic Equivalent of Task (1 MET = 1 kcal/(kg∙h) = 4,184 kJ/(kg∙h) alternatively 1 MET = 58,2 W/m ).

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
— Exposure time is set to 90 min;
— The onset of heat stress is defined at the core body temperature of 38,5 °C.

NOTE This scenario was selected in order to be compatible with an ethically acceptable work load for human

subject trials used to validate the physiological impact of firefighter clothing (See Annex C).

5.3 THS measurement
5.3.1 General

Thermal Human Simulator (THS) measurements are based on coupling the sweating torso system,

in accordance with ISO 18640-1, with validated physiological model in accordance with Annex A, in a

climatic chamber simulating a defined activity according to the firefighters’ scenario. In order to have a

common starting point for the measurements initial conditions for THS measurements are set such that

the torso mimics thermal neutral state.
5.3.2 Apparatus and software

THS is controlled with the same hardware and software as for standard torso experiments in

accordance with ISO 18640-1, with the addition and cooperation of a physiological model (coupling

with continuous data exchange).
5.3.3 Heat flux

For THS measurements heat flux data off the surface shall be measured, as they are is needed as input

for the physiological model. Accuracy for heat flux measurement shall be better than 5 W/m in the

2 2

range of 0 W/m up to 500 W/m . Measurement can be done by the procedure described in 5.3.3.1 or

equivalent methods matching the requirements of this clause.
5.3.3.1 Heat flux measurement with additional temperature sensors

In this configuration the torso needs to be equipped with additional temperature sensors in the

aluminium interior part of the device (see Figure 1) to allow more accurate assessment of heat flux

from the surface. These temperature sensors are used to calculate the average surface heat flux based

on the thermal resistance of the outer layers of the torso according to Formula (1) below:

qT=−T ⋅ (1)
torsoNFNi
torso
where
T is the average temperature of additional sensors in °C;
T is the average temperature of nickel wire sensors (surface temperature) in °C;

R thermal resistance of the aluminium/HDPE layers between additional sensors and nickel

torso
wires in m ∙K/W;
q average surface heat flux of the cylinder in W/m .
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4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18640-2:2018
ISO 18640-2:2018(E)
Key
Tni1 nickel wire sensor 1
Tni2 nickel wire sensor 2
T1 temperature sensor in upper guard
T2 temperature sensor in measurement section
T3 temperature in lower guard
Tnx optional additional sensors for THS measurements
Figure 1 — Configuration of temperature sensors for heat flux assessment
5.3.4 Wicking layer correction
A wicking layer according to ISO 18640-1:2018, 5.1.6, is used for all THS
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