Measurement Method of a Half-Wavelength Voltage and a Chirp Parameter for Mach-Zehnder Optical Modulator in High-Frequency Radio on Fibre (RoF) Systems (IEC 62802:2017)

This document specifies measurement methods of a half-wavelength voltage and a chirp
parameter applicable to MZMs in microwave and millimeter-wave RoF systems. In addition,
these methods are also effective for the estimation of the intermodulation distortions and
transmission performances. The methods apply for the following:
– frequency range: 5 GHz to 110 GHz;
– wavelength band: 0,8 μm to 2,0 μm;
– electro-optic material based MZMs and their modules.

Messverfahren von Halbwellenlängenspannungen und Chirp-Parameter für optische Mach-Zehnder Modulatoren in HF-Rundfunk-über-Glasfaser-Übertragungssystemen (RoF)

Méthodes de mesure d'une tension d'une demi-longueur d'onde et d'un paramètre de fluctuation de la longueur d'onde pour les modulateurs optiques du type Mach-Zehnder dans des systèmes radioélectriques sur fibre (RoF, Radio on Fibre), à haute fréquence

IEC 62802: 2017 spécifie les méthodes de mesure d'une tension à demi-longueur d'onde et d'un paramètre de fluctuation de la longueur d'onde applicables aux MZM dans des systèmes RoF à micro-ondes et ondes millimétriques. De plus, ces méthodes sont également efficaces pour estimer les distorsions d'intermodulation et les performances de transmission. Ces méthodes s'appliquent à ce qui suit: – plage de fréquences: 5 GHz à 110 GHz; – bande de longueurs d'onde: 0,8 µm à 2,0 µm; – MZM composés de matériau électro-optique et leurs modules.

Metode za merjenje polvalovne napetosti in Chirpov parameter za Mach-Zehnderjev optični modulator v visokofrekvenčnih optičnih radijskih sistemih (RoF) (IEC 62802:2017)

Ta dokument določa metode za merjenje polvalovne napetosti in Chirpov parameter, ki se uporablja za Mach-Zehnderjeve optične modulatorje (MZM) v mikrovalovnih in milimetrsko valovnih sistemih RoF. Poleg tega so te metode učinkovite tudi za ocenjevanje motenj pri intermodulaciji in zmogljivosti prenosov. Ta metoda se uporablja za:
– frekvenčni razpon: 5 GHz do 110 GHz,
– pas valovne dolžine: od 0,8 μm do 2,0 μm,
– Mach-Zehnderjeve optične modulatorje na osnovi elektrooptičnega materiala in njihove module.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Dec-2017
Due Date
10-Feb-2018
Completion Date
12-Dec-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62802:2018
01-februar-2018
0HWRGH]DPHUMHQMHSROYDORYQHQDSHWRVWLLQ&KLUSRYSDUDPHWHU]D0DFK
=HKQGHUMHYRSWLþQLPRGXODWRUYYLVRNRIUHNYHQþQLKRSWLþQLKUDGLMVNLKVLVWHPLK
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Measurement Method of a Half-Wavelength Voltage and a Chirp Parameter for Mach-
Zehnder Optical Modulator in High-Frequency Radio on Fibre (RoF) Systems (IEC
62802:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62802:2017
ICS:
33.060.01 Radijske komunikacije na Radiocommunications in
splošno general
33.180.99 'UXJDRSUHPD]DRSWLþQD Other fibre optic equipment
YODNQD
SIST EN 62802:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
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SIST EN 62802:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62802
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2017
ICS 33.060.20; 33.180.99
English Version
Measurement methods of a half-wavelength voltage and a chirp
parameter for Mach-Zehnder optical modulators in high-
frequency radio on fibre (RoF) Systems
(IEC 62802:2017)

Méthodes de mesure d'une tension d'une demi-longueur Messverfahren von Halbwellenlängenspannungen und

d'onde et d'un paramètre de fluctuation de la longueur Chirp-Parameter für Optische Mach-Zehnder Modulatoren

d'onde pour les modulateurs optiques du type Mach- in HF-Rundfunk-über-Glasfaser-Übertragungssystemen

Zehnder dans des systèmes radioélectriques sur fibre (RoF, (RoF)
Radio on Fibre), à haute fréquence (IEC 62802:2017)
(IEC 62802:2017)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-08-31. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62802:2017 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
EN 62802:2017
European foreword
The text of document 103/131/CDV, future edition 1 of IEC 62802, prepared by

IEC/TC 103 "Transmitting equipment for radiocommunication" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC

parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 62802:2017.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2018-06-01
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2020-12-01
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62802:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 61280-2-9 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61280-2-9.
IEC 61280-10 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61280-10.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
EN 62802:2017
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 62007-1 - Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for EN 62007-1
fibre optic system applications -
Part 1: Specification template for essential
ratings and characteristics
IEC 62007-2 - Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for EN 62007-2
fibre optic system applications -
Part 2: Measuring methods
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SIST EN 62802:2018
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SIST EN 62802:2018
IEC 62802
Edition 1.0 2017-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Measurement methods of a half-wavelength voltage and a chirp parameter for
Mach-Zehnder optical modulators in high-frequency radio on fibre (RoF)
systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.060.20; 33.180.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-4609-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
– 2 – IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 8

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 8

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 10

4 Electro-optic material-based Mach-Zehnder optical modulators ..................................... 10

4.1 Mach-Zehnder optical modulators ......................................................................... 10

4.1.1 Component parts ........................................................................................... 10

4.1.2 Structure ....................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Requirements for MZMs ........................................................................................ 11

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

4.2.2 Substrate material ......................................................................................... 11

4.2.3 Optical waveguide design .............................................................................. 11

5 Sampling for quality control ........................................................................................... 11

5.1 Sampling............................................................................................................... 11

5.2 Sampling frequency .............................................................................................. 11

6 Measurement method of a half wavelength voltage ........................................................ 11

6.1 Circuit diagram ..................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Measurement conditions ....................................................................................... 12

6.2.1 Temperature and environment ....................................................................... 12

6.2.2 Warming-up of measurement equipment ........................................................ 12

6.3 Principle of measurement method ......................................................................... 13

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

6.3.2 Mathematical expressions of basic measurement principle ............................ 13

6.3.3 Principle of half-wavelength voltage and chirp parameter with fixed

DC-bias condition (method A) ........................................................................ 14

6.3.4 Principle of half-wavelength voltage and chirp parameter using DC-bias

sweep (method B) .......................................................................................... 14

6.3.5 Principle of half-wavelength voltage and chirp parameter using minimum

transmission bias and maximum transmission bias (method C) ...................... 15

6.4 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 15

6.4.1 Method A ....................................................................................................... 15

6.4.2 Method B ....................................................................................................... 16

6.4.3 Method C ....................................................................................................... 16

Annex A (informative) Measurement methods for parallel integrated Mach-Zehnder

modulators .................................................................................................................... 18

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

A.2 Examples .............................................................................................................. 18

A.2.1 Quad parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators ....................................................... 18

A.2.2 Dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators with four RF electrodes .................... 20

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 1 – Transfer curve of a Mach-Zehnder optical modulator .............................................. 9

Figure 2 – Optical phase retardations ................................................................................... 10

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SIST EN 62802:2018
IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 3 – Circuit diagram ..................................................................................................... 12

Figure A.1 – Optical sideband generation from a sub-MZM element in a parallel MZM ........ 19

Figure A.2 – Halfwave voltages of sub-MZMs of a quad parallel MZM ................................... 19

Figure A.3 – Chirp parameters of sub-MZMs of a quad parallel MZM .................................... 20

Figure A.4 – Structure of dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators with four RF electrodes .... 20

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SIST EN 62802:2018
– 4 – IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MEASUREMENT METHODS OF A HALF-WAVELENGTH VOLTAGE
AND A CHIRP PARAMETER FOR MACH-ZEHNDER OPTICAL MODULATORS
IN HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO ON FIBRE (ROF) SYSTEMS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in

addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses

arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62802 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 103:

Transmitting equipment for radiocommunication.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
103/131/CDV 103/161/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
– 6 – IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

A variety of microwave/millimeter-wave-photonic devices are useful for wireless communication

and broadcasting systems. An optical modulator is an interface which converts an electronic

signal to an optical signal. In the field of optical fibre communication systems, the IEC 62007

series was published in 1999.

Microwave/millimeter-wave RoF systems are comprised mainly of two parts: one is RF to

photonic converter (E/O), and the other is photonic to RF converter (O/E). Radio waves are

converted into an optical signal at E/O. This signal is transferred through the optical fibre and

then the radio waves are regenerated at O/E.

A variety of photonic devices that carry microwave and millimeter-wave signals as subcarrier

frequencies are used for high-frequency RoF systems. In particular, the Mach-Zehnder optical

modulator (MZM) plays an important role to convert electronic (high-frequency above

millimeter-wave) signal to optical signal. In high-frequency RoF systems, specifications of drive

voltages, chirp characteristics, inter-modulation distortion of the modulators have been the

important technical parameters. This document is prepared to provide the measurement method

of MZMs to the industry for evaluating electro-optic material of the modulators to be used in

high-frequency RoF systems. This document defines the measurement methods of a

half-wavelength voltage and a chirp parameter, which have a significant impact on the

performance of RoF systems. Additionally, these methods are also used for the estimation of the

intermodulation distortions and transmission performances.

The half-wavelength voltage and the chirp parameter can be measured at the same time using

the methods defined in this document. The nonlinear distortion characteristics are also

important for the performance of the systems. The intermodulation distortion of the MZM is

calculated from the driving voltage and the half-wavelength voltage. The detailed explanations

and calculation method of intermodulation distortions from the normalized optical modulation

index (NOMI) are described in IEC PAS 62593:2008[1] , Annex B.

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) draws attention to the fact that it is claimed

that compliance with this document may involve the use of patents concerning:

a) a method for characterization of optical modulator, and method for controlling high frequency

oscillator using the same (JP 3538619B),
b) a method and apparatus for measurement of characteristic of optical modulator
(JP 3866082B),

c) a method for evaluating characteristic of optical modulator having Mach-Zehnder

interferometer (WO 2011-027409),

d) a method of measuring half-wave voltage of optical modulator (JP 2009-229926A).

Details pertaining to the patent holders and the locations where the patents are referred to in the

document are given in Table 1.
___________
1 Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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SIST EN 62802:2018
IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
Table 1 – Patents present in this document
Related clause Patent holder Patent number
Clause 6 National Institute of Information and Communications JP 3538619
Technology
Annex A (informative)
6.4.3 National Institute of Information and Communications JP 3866082
Technology
Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd.
A.2.1 National Institute of Information and Communications (WO 2011-027409)
Technology
EP 2477021A
Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd.
US 8867042
CN 102575971
JP 5622154
A.2.2 Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd. (JP2009-229926A)
JP 4991610

IEC takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights.

The holders of these patent rights have assured the IEC that he/she is willing to negotiate

licences under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants

throughout the world. In this respect, the statement of the holders of these patent rights are

registered with IEC. Information may be obtained from:
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan
Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd.
6-28 Rokubancho, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102-8465, Japan.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the

subject of patent rights other than those identified above. IEC shall not be held responsible for

identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO (www.iso.org/patents) and IEC (http://patents.iec.ch) maintain on-line data bases of patents

relevant to their standards. Users are encouraged to consult the databases for the most

up-to-date information concerning patents.
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SIST EN 62802:2018
– 8 – IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017
MEASUREMENT METHODS OF A HALF-WAVELENGTH VOLTAGE
AND A CHIRP PARAMETER FOR MACH-ZEHNDER OPTICAL MODULATORS
IN HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO ON FIBRE (ROF) SYSTEMS
1 Scope

This document specifies measurement methods of a half-wavelength voltage and a chirp

parameter applicable to MZMs in microwave and millimeter-wave RoF systems. In addition,

these methods are also effective for the estimation of the intermodulation distortions and

transmission performances. The methods apply for the following:
– frequency range: 5 GHz to 110 GHz;
– wavelength band: 0,8 µm to 2,0 µm;
– electro-optic material based MZMs and their modules.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62007-1, Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for fibre optic system applications – Part 1:

Specification template for essential ratings and characteristics

IEC 62007-2, Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for fibre optic system applications – Part 2:

Measurement methods
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 62007-1:2015 and

IEC 62007-2:2009 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
half-wavelength voltage

voltage required for a Pockels effect material based Mach-Zehnder optical modulator to induce

a phase shift of half a wavelength between the lightwaves of two arms of the Mach-Zehnder

interferometer
SEE: Figure 1.

Note 1 to entry: It corresponds to an ON/OFF voltage of the Mach-Zehnder optical modulator.

Note 2 to entry: IEC PAS 62593 defines a measurement method for a half-wavelength voltage suitable for lower

frequency applications, especially less than 5 GHz.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 62802:2018
IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –
Quad.
Input voltage
IEC
Figure 1 – Transfer curve of a Mach-Zehnder optical modulator
3.1.2
NOMI
normalized optical modulation index

for the Mach-Zehnder optical modulator, ratio of driving voltage and half-wavelength voltage of

the modulator, defined as:
NOMI = (V / V ) × 100 [%] (1)
pp π
where
V is the driving voltage (peak to peak voltage);
V is the half-wavelength voltage.

Note 1 to entry For the Mach-Zehnder optical modulator, the intermodulation distortion is dependent on NOMI. The

detailed explanations of OMI including measurement method are described in IEC PAS 62593:2008, Annex A. The

calculation method of intermodulation distortions from the measured NOMI is described in IEC PAS 62593:2008,

Annex B.
3.1.3
extinction ratio
ext

ratio of two optical power levels of the optical signal generated by the optical modulator, defined

as:
R = 10log(P /P ) (2)
ext 1 2
where
P is the optical power level generated when the output power is "on";
P is the power level generated when the output power is "off."

Note 1 to entry: The extinction ratio is sometimes expressed as a fraction not in dB.

3.1.4
chirp parameter

undesired optical phase change with amplitude or intensity modulation, which is defined as the

ratio of amplitude modulation and the phase modulation:
α =
(3)
1 dE
E dt
Output optimal power
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SIST EN 62802:2018
– 10 – IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017
where
E is the optical amplitude at the modulator output,
φ is the optical phase at the modulator output.

Note 1 to entry: In IEC 61280-2-9 [2], chirp measurement methods for laser transmitters were overviewed, and

time-resolved chirp and alpha-parameter measurement methods for of laser transmitters for digital systems is are

given in IEC 61280-2-10 [3]. The chirp parameter alpha of an MZM is explained in detail in [4].

Note 2 to entry: The alpha parameter of an MZM can also be measured together with a half-wave voltage V by the

sideband monitoring methods described in [5] and [6] using an optical spectrum analyzer.

3.2 Abbreviated terms
DC direct current
DUT device under test
MZM Mach-Zehnder modulator
NOMI normalized OMI
OMI optical modulation index
OSA optical spectrum analyzer
RF radio frequency
4 Electro-optic material-based Mach-Zehnder optical modulators
4.1 Mach-Zehnder optical modulators
4.1.1 Component parts
The optical modulators and their modules consist of the basic parts as follows:
– Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical modulator;
– input and output fibre pigtails (where appropriate);
– bias control port (where appropriate);
– photodiode for bias monitoring (where appropriate);
– laser diode for light source (where appropriate);
– thermal sensor (where appropriate);
– Peltier element (where appropriate).
4.1.2 Structure
The structure is as follows:
– electrode: lumped type, traveling-wave type, etc.
– options: optical isolator, photodiode, half-mirror, laser-diode, etc.
E (t)
E (t)
out
IEC
Figure 2 – Optical phase retardations
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SIST EN 62802:2018
IEC 62802:2017 © IEC 2017 – 11 –

Due to the Pockels effect, optical phase retardation at each arm in the Mach-Zehnder

interferometer can be controlled by the voltage applied on the electrode. The optical phase

retardations at the upper arm and the lower arm are proportional to the voltages V and V

1 2
(see Figure 2).
4.2 Requirements for MZMs
4.2.1 General

This method is based on the theoretical transfer curve of electro-optic material based

Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where the phase shift of traveling light on each arm of the

interferometer should be proportional to applied voltage, and the power of traveling lightwaves

in each arm are almost the same. Requirements for the modulator of this measurement method

are as follows.
4.2.2 Substrate material

The main substrate materials of the modulator should be materials such as LiNbO , LiTaO ,

3 3

KH PO , PZT, PLZT, InP, GaAs, InGaAs, InAlAs, InGaAsP, nonlinear optical chromophore

2 4

containing polymer, FTC type chromophore containing polymer, etc., which realise the

electro-optic effect (Pockels effect). If strictly considered, semiconductor materials do not

possess a pure electro optic effect, however, the semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulators can

be adjudged as electro-optic material-based Mach-Zehnder modulators.
4.2.3 Optical waveguide design

The optical waveguide should be designed as a single Mach-Zehnder interferometer type

comprised of two Y-junctions or symmetric directional couplers and parallel waveguides.

Reflection-type Mach-Zehnder optical modulators are modified designs of the modulators.

5 Sampling for quality control
5.1 Sampling

A statistically significant sampling plan shall be agreed upon by user and supplier. Sampled

devices shall be randomly selected and representatives of production population, and shall

satisfy the quality assurance criteria using the proposed test methods.
5.2 Sampling frequency

Appropriate statistical methods shall be applied to determine adequate sample size and

acceptance criteria for the considered lot size. In the absence of more detailed statistical

analysis, the following sampling plan can be employed:
Half-wavelength voltage: two units at least per manufacturing lot.
6 Measurement method of a half wavelength voltage
6.1 Circuit diagram
See Fi
...

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