Hydraulic machines, radial and axial - Methodology for performance transposition from model to prototype (IEC 62097:2019)

This International Standard establishes the prototype hydraulic machine efficiency from model
test results, with consideration of scale effect including the effect of surface roughness.
This document is intended to be used for the assessment of the results of contractual model
tests of hydraulic machines.

Hydraulische Maschinen, radial und axial - Leistungsumrechnung vom Modell zum Prototyp (IEC 62097:2019)

Machines hydrauliques, radiales et axiales - Méthode de conversion des performances du modèle au prototype (IEC 62097:2019)

IEC 62097:2019 s'applique à la vérification du rendement et des performances de machines hydrauliques prototypes à partir des résultats d'essais sur modèle réduit en tenant compte des effets d'échelle y compris de l'effet de rugosité de surface. Le présent document est prévue pour être employée lors de l'évaluation des résultats des essais contractuels sur modèle réduit de machines hydrauliques. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2009. Cette édition constitue une révision éditoriale et technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) En introduction, des clarifications ont été apportées comme l'ajout d'une phrase qui déclare la primauté de la CEI 62097 sur la CEI 60193 en cas de discordance entre les 2 normes a) Aux Articles 3 et 4, les corrections des erreurs typographiques b) A l'Article 3 : des modifications rendant conformes la présentation des termes et la structure de ce document avec la CEI 60193 (à l'exception de la température de l'eau) c) A l'Article 4 : – La suppression de l’article décrivant la procédure de transposition directe pour la machine hydraulique complète – L’introduction d'une vision globale en utilisant la notion de turbine A et de turbine B au lieu de turbine modèle, de turbine modèle de référence et de turbine prototype – Déplacement de la section traitant de "rugosité de surface du modèle et du prototype" dans un nouvel Article 5 d) A l'Article 5 : – L’introduction de chapitres supplémentaires pour répondre aux commentaires soulevés au stade du CDV et pour clarifier le sujet de la rugosité de surface du modèle et du prototype – L’introduction de nouveaux tableaux pour la rugosité minimale recommandée du prototype pour les nouvelles machines radiales ou diagonales et pour les nouvelles turbines axiales – L’ajout d’une explication sur la mesure de la rugosité des surfaces fortement rouillées e) A l'Article 7 (anciennement Article 6) : – L’introduction d'un nouveau paragraphe pour clarification à propos du rendement hydraulique maximal supposé, hhAmax – La suppression de l’agrément mutuel pour l’application de la formule de transposition pour les machines dont le rendement très élevé excède hhAmax – Des clarifications des équations 22 à 33 en doublant les équations pour correspondre à la "méthode en deux étapes" f) Aux Articles 6 et 7, les corrections des erreurs typographiques g) A l'Article 8 (anciennement Article 7), l’introduction de nouveaux indices pour clarifier la méthode "en deux étapes" et la méthode alternative h) Dans l'Annexe A, la modification du diagramme de flux pour être conforme à l'IEC 60193 i) A l'Annexe B : – La correction de l'équation pour obtenir ΔECO – La suppression de l’article décrivant la procédure de transposition directe pour la machine hydraulique complète pour les machines à flux radial j) A l'Annexe C, la suppression de l’article décrivant la procédure de transposition directe pour la machine hydraulique complète pour les machines à flux axial k) Dans l'Annexe D : – Les notes deviennent du texte principal – Le changement du nom des va

Vodni stroji, radialni in aksialni - Metodologija prenosa uspešnosti z modela na prototip (IEC 62097:2019)

Ta mednarodni standard določa učinkovitost prototipnega vodnega stroja iz rezultatov preskušanja modela ob upoštevanju učinka obsega, vključno z učinkom površinske hrapavosti.
Ta dokument je namenjen za uporabo pri ocenjevanju rezultatov preskušanja pogodbenih modelov vodnih strojev.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-May-2019
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-May-2019
Due Date
15-Jul-2019
Completion Date
22-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
01-julij-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 62097:2010
Vodni stroji, radialni in aksialni - Metodologija prenosa uspešnosti z modela na
prototip (IEC 62097:2019)

Hydraulic machines, radial and axial - Methodology for performance transposition from

model to prototype (IEC 62097:2019)
Hydraulische Maschinen, radial und axial - Leistungsumrechnung vom Modell zum
Prototyp (IEC 62097:2019)

Machines hydrauliques, radiales et axiales - Méthode de conversion des performances

du modèle au prototype (IEC 62097:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62097:2019
ICS:
27.140 Vodna energija Hydraulic energy engineering
SIST EN IEC 62097:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62097
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2019
ICS 27.140 Supersedes EN 62097:2009
English Version
Hydraulic machines, radial and axial - Methodology for
performance transposition from model to prototype
(IEC 62097:2019)

Machines hydrauliques, radiales et axiales - Méthodologie Hydraulische Maschinen, radial und axial -

de transposition des performances du modèle au prototype Leistungsumrechnung vom Modell zum Prototyp

(IEC 62097:2019) (IEC 62097:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2019-02-12. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62097:2019 E
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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
EN IEC 62097:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 4/359/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 62097, prepared by IEC/TC 4 "Hydraulic

turbines" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN IEC 62097:2019.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2019-11-12

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2022-02-12

document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 62097:2009.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62097:2019 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
ISO 4287 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 4287
ISO 4288 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 4288
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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
EN IEC 62097:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60193 - Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and EN 60193 -
pump-turbines - Model acceptance tests
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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
IEC 62097
Edition 2.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Hydraulic machines, radial and axial – Methodology for performance
transposition from model to prototype
Machines hydrauliques, radiales et axiales – Méthodologie de transposition des
performances du modèle au prototype
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-6277-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
– 2 – IEC 62097:2019  IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

0.1 General remarks ................................................................................................... 10

0.2 Basic features ....................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions, units, subscripts and symbols .......................................................... 12

3.1 Terms and definitions............................................................................................ 12

3.2 List of definitions by topic ..................................................................................... 13

3.3 Subscripts and symbols ........................................................................................ 14

3.4 Geometric terms ................................................................................................... 15

3.5 Physical quantities and properties ......................................................................... 15

3.6 Discharge, velocity and speed terms ..................................................................... 16

3.7 Pressure terms ..................................................................................................... 16

3.8 Specific energy terms ........................................................................................... 16

3.9 Head terms ........................................................................................................... 17

3.10 Power and torque terms ........................................................................................ 18

3.11 Efficiency terms .................................................................................................... 19

3.12 Fluid dynamics and scaling terms ......................................................................... 20

3.13 Dimensionless terms ............................................................................................. 20

4 Scale-effect formula ...................................................................................................... 22

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

4.1.1 Scalable losses ............................................................................................. 22

4.1.2 Basic formulae of the scale effect on hydrodynamic friction losses ................ 23

4.2 Specific hydraulic energy efficiency ...................................................................... 25

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

4.2.2 Radial flow machines ..................................................................................... 26

4.2.3 Axial flow machines ....................................................................................... 26

4.3 Volumetric efficiency ............................................................................................. 26

4.4 Power efficiency (disk friction) .............................................................................. 27

4.4.1 Radial flow machines ..................................................................................... 27

4.4.2 Axial flow machines ....................................................................................... 27

5 Surface roughness of model and prototype .................................................................... 28

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

5.2 Measurement of surface roughness ...................................................................... 28

5.2.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 28

5.2.2 Roughness of model and prototype ................................................................ 29

5.2.3 Measurement of very rough surfaces ............................................................. 30

5.3 Surface roughness ranges .................................................................................... 30

6 Standardized values of scalable losses and pertinent parameters ................................. 32

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

6.2 Specific speed ...................................................................................................... 33

6.3 Parameters for specific hydraulic energy efficiency transposition .......................... 33

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

6.3.2 Francis turbines ............................................................................................. 33

6.3.3 Pump-turbines ............................................................................................... 34

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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
IEC 62097:2019  IEC 2019 – 3 –

6.3.4 Axial flow machines ....................................................................................... 34

6.4 Parameters for power efficiency (disk friction) transposition .................................. 35

6.4.1 Francis turbines ............................................................................................. 35

6.4.2 Pump-turbines ............................................................................................... 35

6.4.3 Axial flow machines ....................................................................................... 35

7 Transposition to prototype ............................................................................................. 36

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

7.2 Assumed maximum hydraulic efficiency ................................................................ 37

7.3 Hydraulic efficiency ............................................................................................... 38

7.4 Specific hydraulic energy ...................................................................................... 39

7.4.1 Turbine operation .......................................................................................... 39

7.4.2 Pump operation ............................................................................................. 39

7.5 Discharge ............................................................................................................. 40

7.5.1 Turbine operation .......................................................................................... 40

7.5.2 Pump operation ............................................................................................. 40

7.6 Torque .................................................................................................................. 40

7.6.1 Turbine operation .......................................................................................... 40

7.6.2 Pump operation ............................................................................................. 40

7.7 Power ................................................................................................................... 41

7.7.1 Turbine operation .......................................................................................... 41

7.7.2 Pump operation ............................................................................................. 41

8 Calculation procedure .................................................................................................... 41

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

8.2 Reference model................................................................................................... 42

8.3 Comparison of different models ............................................................................ 42

8.4 Normalization procedure of the test data: Step 1 ................................................... 42

8.5 Prototype transposition procedure: Step 2 ............................................................ 44

8.6 Alternative one step method for the optimum point ................................................ 46

8.7 equired input data ................................................................................................. 48

Annex A (informative) Basic formulae and their approximation ............................................. 50

A.1 Basic concept of loss structure and scale effect .................................................... 50

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 50

A.1.2 Loss structure and efficiency components ..................................................... 50

A.1.3 Homologous operating condition .................................................................... 52

A.1.4 Shifting of performance [6] ............................................................................. 53

A.1.5 Scalable losses ............................................................................................. 54

A.2 Derivation of the scale effect formulae and the approximation introduced for

simplifications ....................................................................................................... 55

A.2.1 Scalable loss ratio in specific hydraulic energy δ and specific

hydraulic energy efficiency ...................................................................... 55

A.2.2 Transposition of specific hydraulic energy efficiency η ................................ 56

A.2.3 Transposition of volumetric efficiency ..................................................... 58

A.2.4 Transposition of power efficiency (disk friction) ....................................... 59

Annex B (informative) Scale effect on specific hydraulic energy losses of radial flow

machines .............................................................................................................................. 61

B.1 Scale effect on friction loss ................................................................................... 61

B.1.1 Scale effect on friction loss coefficient ........................................................... 61

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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
– 4 – IEC 62097:2019  IEC 2019
B.1.2 Relationship between sand roughness k and arithmetical mean

roughness Ra ................................................................................................ 63

B.2 Componentwise transposition of specific hydraulic energy efficiency .................... 63

B.2.1 Friction loss coefficient of each component [9] ............................................... 63

B.2.2 Derivation of the scale effect formula for component wise transposition ......... 66

B.3 Standardized relative scalable hydraulic energy loss of radial flow machines ........ 67

B.3.1 Definition ....................................................................................................... 67

B.3.2 Standardized relative scalable hydraulic energy loss δ of Francis

turbine ........................................................................................................... 68

B.3.3 Standardized relative scalable hydraulic energy loss of reversible

pump-turbine ................................................................................................. 70

κ κ
B.4 Flow velocity factor and dimension factor of radial flow
uCO dCO

machines [9] ......................................................................................................... 71

B.4.1 Definition ....................................................................................................... 71

κ κ

B.4.2 and for Francis turbine ............................................................... 71

uCO dCO

B.4.3 κ and κ for pump-turbine ................................................................. 73

uCO dCO

B.5 Standardized scalable loss index ............................................................. 76

ECOref

B.5.1 Definition ....................................................................................................... 76

B.5.2 Standardized d and d for Francis turbine ....................................... 76

ECOref Eref

B.5.3 Standardized d and d for pump-turbine .......................................... 77

ECOref Eref

Annex C (informative) Scale effect on specific hydraulic energy losses of axial flow

machines [9] ......................................................................................................................... 79

C.1 Scalable losses of axial flow machines ................................................................. 79

C.2 Scale effect formula for runner blades [8] .............................................................. 79

C.3 Scale effect formula for stationary parts ................................................................ 80

C.4 Scale effect for other efficiency components ......................................................... 81

C.4.1 Volumetric efficiency...................................................................................... 81

C.4.2 Power efficiency (disk friction) ....................................................................... 81

C.5 Scale effect of hydraulic efficiency ........................................................................ 81

C.6 Determination of δ of axial flow turbines ...................................................... 81

ECOref

C.7 Determination of of bulb turbines ............................................................ 82

ECOref

C.8 Derivation of scalable hydraulic energy loss index, ...................................... 83

Eref

C.8.1 Scalable loss index for runner blades ............................................................ 83

C.8.2 Scalable loss index for stationary parts .......................................................... 83

C.9 Summary of the scale effect formula for axial flow machines ................................. 84

Annex D (informative) Scale effect on disk friction loss ........................................................ 85

D.1 Loss coefficient formula for disk friction ................................................................ 85

D.2 Transposition formula for power efficiency ............................................................ 86

κ d

D.3 Standardized dimension factor and disk friction loss index ................... 87

T Tref

D.3.1 Disk friction loss ratio δ ........................................................................... 87

Tref

D.3.2 Dimension factor of the disk κ .................................................................... 88

D.3.3 Disk friction loss index d ......................................................................... 89

Tref

Annex E (informative) Comparison of IEC 60193 and IEC 62097 hydraulic efficiency

transposition methods for reaction machines ........................................................................ 91

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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
IEC 62097:2019  IEC 2019 – 5 –

E.1 IEC 60193 transposition method ........................................................................... 91

E.1.1 Applications ................................................................................................... 91

E.1.2 Limitations ..................................................................................................... 91

E.2 IEC 62097 transposition method ........................................................................... 91

E.2.1 Applications ................................................................................................... 91

E.2.2 Limitations ..................................................................................................... 91

Annex F (informative) Leakage loss evaluation for non homologous seals ........................... 93

F.1 Loss coefficient of runner seal .............................................................................. 93

F.2 General formula to obtain for non-homologous seal ..................................... 97

F.3 Evaluation of scale effect in case of a homologous straight seal ........................... 97

F.4 Straight seal with non-homologous radial clearance .............................................. 98

Annex G (normative) Guide for detailed calculations by means of the attached Excel

workbook ............................................................................................................................ 100

G.1 Normalization of test data: Step 1 of the “2 step method” .................................... 100

G.2 Prototype transposition: Step 2 of the “2 step method” ........................................ 101

G.3 Alternative one step method for the optimum point .............................................. 102

Annex H (informative) Example of a calculation with the attached Excel workbook ............. 104

H.1 Cover page ......................................................................................................... 104

H.2 Example of STEP 1 for a Pump-Turbine in Turbine Mode .................................... 105

H.2.1 « Input Form » data sheet for step 1 ............................................................ 105

H.2.2 Results for Step 1 ........................................................................................ 107

H.3 Example of STEP 2 for a Pump-Turbine in Turbine Mode .................................... 115

H.3.1 « Input Form » data sheet for step 2 ............................................................ 115

H.3.2 Results for Step 2 ........................................................................................ 117

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 125

Figure 1 – Scale effect considering surface roughness ......................................................... 24

Figure 2 – Impact of surface roughness on turbine efficiency and costs ................................ 28

Figure 3 – Surface roughness regions for Francis runner blades ........................................... 31

Figure 4 – Surface roughness region for axial flow runner blade ........................................... 32

Figure 5 – Normalization of test data from Re to Re and Re to Re ......................... 36

M M* M* P

Figure 6 – Reference Assumed maximum hydraulic efficiency .............................................. 38

Figure 7 – Calculation procedure: “Two step method”: First step – From model to

reference model .................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 8 – Calculation procedure: “Two step method”: Second step – From reference

model to prototype ................................................................................................................ 45

Figure 9 – Calculation procedure: Alternative one step method for the optimum point

from model to prototype ........................................................................................................ 47

Figure A.1 – Flux diagram for a turbine ................................................................................. 51

Figure A.2 – Flux diagram for a pump ................................................................................... 52

Figure B.1 – Loss coefficient versus Reynolds number and surface roughness ..................... 62

Figure B.2 – Different characteristics of λ in transition zone ................................................ 62

Figure B.3 – Representative dimensions of component passages ......................................... 65

Figure B.4 – Standardized relative scalable hydraulic energy loss in each component

of Francis turbine .................................................................................................................. 69

Figure B.5 – Standardized relative scalable hydraulic energy loss in each component

of pump-turbine in turbine operation ..................................................................................... 70

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SIST EN IEC 62097:2019
– 6 – IEC 62097:2019  IEC 2019

Figure B.6 – Standardized relative scalable hydraulic energy loss in each component

of pump-turbine in pump operation ........................................................................................ 71

κ κ

Figure B.7 – and in each component of Francis turbine ..................................... 72

uCO dCO
κ κ

Figure B.8 – and in each component of pump-turbine in turbine operation ........ 74

uCO dCO

Figure B.9 – κ and κ in each component of pump-turbine in pump operation ........... 75

uCO dCO
d d

Figure B.10 – Standardized and for Francis turbine ......................................... 76

ECOref Eref
d d

Figure B.11 – Standardized and for pump-turbine in turbine operation ............ 77

ECOref Eref
d d

Figure B.12 – Standardized and for pump-turbine in pump-operation .............. 78

ECOref Eref

Figure C 1 – δ for Kaplan turbines .............................................................................. 82

ECOref

Figure D.1 – Disk friction loss reference ratio ............................................................... 88

Tref

Figure D.2 – Dimension factor ........................................................................................ 89

Figure D.3 – Disk friction loss index d ............................................................................ 90

Tref

Figure F.1 – Examples of typical design of runner seals (crown side) ................................... 95

Figure F.2 – Examples of typical design of runner seals (band side) ..................................... 96

Table 1 – Permissible deviation of the geometry of model seals from the prototype .............. 27

Table 2 – Recommended roughness range for the model ...................................................... 30

Table 3 – Minimum recommended prototype roughness for new radial or diagonal

machines .............................................................................................................................. 31

Table 4 – Maximum recommended prototype roughness for new radial or diagonal

machines ..........................................................................

...

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