Road and airfield surface characteristics - Part 6: Procedure for determining the skid resistance of a pavement surface by measurement of the sideway force coefficient (SFCS): SCRIM®

This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the sideway force coefficient SFCS.
The method provides a measure of the wet road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway force coefficient at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airport runways.
This technical specification covers the operation of the Sideway force Coefficient Routine Investigation Machine SCRIM. This is a device developed by the "Transport Research Laboratory in the United Kingdom" that uses the side force principle to make routine measurements of skid resistance continuously on long lengths of road. SCRIM test equipment has been built onto a number of different vehicle chassis and functions independently of vehicle choice.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the SCRIM designed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

Oberflächeneigenschaften von Straßen und Flugplätzen - Teil 6: Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Griffigkeit von Fahrbahndecken durch Messung des Seitenreibungsbeiwerts (SFCS): das SCRIM-Griffigkeitsmessgerät

Diese Technische Spezifikation beschreibt ein Verfahren für die Bestimmung der Nassgriffigkeit von Fahrbahndecken durch Messung des Seitenreibungsbeiwertes SFCS.
Dieses Verfahren liefert ein Maß für die Nassgriffigkeitseigenschaften einer gebundenen Oberfläche durch Messung des Seitenreibungsbeiwertes bei geregelter Geschwindigkeit. Dieses Verfahren wurde für die Anwendung auf Straßen entwickelt, es lässt sich aber auch auf anderen befestigte Flächen, wie z. B. Start- und Landebahnen auf Flugplätzen, anwenden.
Diese Technische Spezifikation behandelt den Betrieb des SCRIM®-Griffigkeitsmessgeräts (en: Sideway-force Coefficient Routine Investigation Machine). Dabei handelt es sich um ein Messgerät, das von der Firma W.D.M. Limited, Bristol, Großbritannien auf der Grundlage von Forschungsarbeiten des "Transport Research Laboratory" im Vereinigten Königreich entwickelt wurde, und bei dem zur Durchführung von kontinuierlichen Rou¬tinemessungen der Griffigkeit auf langen Straßenabschnitten das Seitenkraftprinzip angewendet wird. Das SCRIM-Griffigkeitsmessgerät lässt sich auf eine ganze Reihe unterschiedlicher Fahrzeugchassis montieren und funktioniert unabhängig vom gewählten Fahrzeug.
Für diese Prüfungen darf auch ein Messgerät verwendet werden, dass den allgemeinen Merkmalen des SCRIM-Griffigkeitsmessgeräts und den speziellen Vorgaben dieser Technischen Spezifikation entspricht.
Die Griffigkeit einer Fahrbahn wird mit Hilfe von Reibungsmessungen und Messungen der Fahrbahntextur ermittelt. Das Normverfahren für die Messung der Fahrbahntextur, falls diese erforderlich ist, und das dafür zu verwendende Messgerät sind in EN ISO 13473 1 beschrieben.

Caractéristiques de surface des routes et aéroports - Partie 6: Mode opératoire de détermination de l'adhérence d'un revêtement de chaussée en procédant au mesurage du coefficient de frottement transversal (CFTS): le SCRIM

La présente Spécification technique décrit une méthode permettant de déterminer l’adhérence d’une route chaussée mouillée par la mesure du coefficient de frottement transversal CFTS.
La méthode permet de mesurer les propriétés d’adhérence d’une chaussée mouillée par la mesure du coefficient de frottement transversal à vitesse contrôlée. La méthode a été développée en vue d’une utilisation sur des routes, mais s’applique également aux autres surfaces revêtues (les pistes d’aéroport, par exemple).
La présente Spécification technique porte sur le fonctionnement de l’appareil de mesure du coefficient de frottement transversal SCRIM. Il s’agit d’un appareil développé par le « Transport Research Laboratory » au Royaume-Uni qui utilise le principe de la force transversale pour procéder à des mesures de routine en continu de l’adhérence sur de longues sections routières. L’équipement d’essai SCRIM a été monté sur plusieurs véhicules différents et fonctionne indépendamment du choix du véhicule.
Un appareil conçu par le Transport Research Laboratory conforme aux caractéristiques générales du SCRIM et aux dispositions particulières de la présente Spécification technique, peut également être utilisé.
L’adhérence d’une chaussée est déterminée par des mesures du frottement et de la texture de la chaussée. Si une mesure de la texture de la chaussée est requise, la méthode de mesure et le dispositif sont présentés dans l’EN ISO 13473-1.

Značilnosti cestnih in vzletnih površin - 6. del: Postopek določanja torne sposobnosti vozne površine z meritvijo količnika trenja poševno vodenega kolesa (SFCS): SCRIM®

Ta tehnična specifikacija opisuje metodo določanja torne sposobnosti površine mokre ceste z meritvijo količnika trenja poševno vodenega kolesa SFCF. Ta metoda določa merilo lastnosti torne sposobnosti omejene površine mokre ceste z meritvijo količnika trenja poševno vodenega kolesa pri nadzorovani hitrosti. Ta metoda je bila razvita za uporabo na cestah, vendar se uporablja tudi za druge vozne površine, kot so letališke vzletne steze. Ta tehnična specifikacija zajema delovanje opreme Sideway-force Coefficient Routine Investigation Machine SCRIM®. To je oprema, ki jo je razvilo podjetje W.D.M. Limited iz Bristola v Angliji na podlagi prvotne raziskave centra Transport Research Laboratory iz Združenega kraljestva. Uporablja načelo stranske sile, da potekajo rutinske meritve torne sposobnosti na dolgih dolžinah ceste nepretrgoma. SCRIM preskusna oprema je bila vgrajena v številne različne avtomobilske šasije in deluje neodvisno od izbire vozila. Za preskuse se lahko uporablja tudi stroj, ki ustreza splošnim značilnostim naprave SCRIM in posebnim določbam te tehnične specifikacije. Torno sposobnost površine določajo meritve trenja in meritve teksture površine. Kjer se zahteva merjenje teksture površine, je standard tega merjenja in naprave opisan v EN ISO 13473-1.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jan-2010
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
23-Nov-2009
Due Date
28-Jan-2010
Completion Date
04-Jan-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15901-6:2010
01-februar-2010
=QDþLOQRVWLFHVWQLKLQY]OHWQLKSRYUãLQGHO3RVWRSHNGRORþDQMDWRUQH
VSRVREQRVWLYR]QHSRYUãLQH]PHULWYLMRNROLþQLNDWUHQMDSRãHYQRYRGHQHJDNROHVD
6)&6 6&5,0Š

Road and airfield surface characteristics - Part 6: Procedure for determining the skid

resistance of a pavement surface by measurement of the sideway force coefficient
(SFCS): SCRIM®
Oberflächeneigenschaften von Straßen und Flugplätzen - Teil 6: Verfahren zur
Bestimmung der Griffigkeit von Fahrbahndecken durch Messung des
Seitenreibungsbeiwerts (SFCS): das SCRIM-Griffigkeitsmessgerät

Caractéristiques de surface des routes et aéroports - Partie 6: Mode opératoire de

détermination de l'adhérence d'un revêtement de chaussée en procédant au mesurage

du coefficient de frottement transversal (CFTS): le SCRIM
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 15901-6:2009
ICS:
17.040.20 Lastnosti površin Properties of surfaces
93.080.10 Gradnja cest Road construction
93.120 *UDGQMDOHWDOLãþ Construction of airports
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15901-6:2010 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15901-6:2010
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15901-6:2010
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 15901-6
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
November 2009
ICS 93.080.20
English Version
Road and airfield surface characteristics - Part 6: Procedure for
determining the skid resistance of a pavement surface by
measurement of the sideway force coefficient (SFCS): SCRIM(r)

Caractéristiques de surface des routes et aéroports - Partie Oberflächeneigenschaften von Straßen und Flugplätzen -

6: Mode opératoire de détermination de l'adhérence d'un Teil 6: Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Griffigkeit von

revêtement de chaussée en procédant au mesurage du Fahrbahndecken durch Messung des

coefficient de frottement transversal (CFTS): le SCRIM Seitenreibungsbeiwerts (SFCS): das SCRIM-

Griffigkeitsmessgerät

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 27 June 2009 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 15901-6:2009: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................4

3 Recommended uses ..............................................................................................................................4

4 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................4

5 Safety ......................................................................................................................................................7

6 Essential characteristics .......................................................................................................................7

6.1 Principle of measurements ...................................................................................................................7

6.2 Operating Principle ................................................................................................................................7

7 Key Characteristics ...............................................................................................................................8

7.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................8

7.2 Test equipment ......................................................................................................................................8

7.3 Test wheel assembly .............................................................................................................................9

7.4 Test tyre ..................................................................................................................................................9

7.5 Pavement wetting system, water film thickness ................................................................................9

7.6 Measurement control system and recorder ..................................................................................... 10

7.7 Parameters recorded .......................................................................................................................... 10

8 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1 Standard test conditions .................................................................................................................... 10

8.2 Prior to testing .................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3 Testing ................................................................................................................................................. 11

9 Data recording ..................................................................................................................................... 12

10 Calibration ........................................................................................................................................... 12

10.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

10.2 Static calibration of horizontal load measurement ......................................................................... 12

10.3 Static calibration of vertical load measurement .............................................................................. 13

10.4 Vertical load recording static check ................................................................................................. 13

10.5 Vertical load static check ................................................................................................................... 14

10.6 Dynamic calibration check ................................................................................................................ 14

10.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.6.2 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.6.3 Operational procedures for dynamic comparison checks ............................................................. 15

10.7 Distance calibration ............................................................................................................................ 15

11 Precision .............................................................................................................................................. 15

12 Test Report .......................................................................................................................................... 15

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 17

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 15901-6:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227 “Road

materials”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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1 Scope

This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by

measurement of the sideway force coefficient SFCS.

The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by

measurement of sideway-force coefficient at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on

roads but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airport runways.

This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Sideway-force Coefficient Routine Investigation

Machine SCRIM®. This is a device developed by W.D.M. Limited, Bristol, England from original research by

the Transport Research Laboratory in the United Kingdom. It uses the side force principle to make routine

measurements of skid resistance continuously on long lengths of road. SCRIM test equipment has been built

onto a number of different vehicle chassis and functions independently of vehicle choice.

A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the SCRIM and the specific provisions of this

Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.

The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement

texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the

device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Determination of hardness (hardness between 10 IRHD and

100 IRHD)
ISO 4662, Rubber – Determination of rebound resilience of vulcanizates
3 Recommended uses

This method provides a means for the evaluation of the skid resistance of a road surfacing. It is suitable for

use for the following situations:

 testing new surfacing materials when installed in a road trial for Type Approval purposes;

 testing new surfacing materials for contractual compliance purposes;

 routine determination of the in-service skid resistance of the surface of a road or airport runway;

 research.
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
friction
resistance to relative motion between two bodies in contact

NOTE The frictional force is the force which acts tangentially in the contact area.

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4.2
skid resistance

characterisation of the friction of a road surface when measured in accordance with a standardised method

4.3
wet road skid resistance

property of a trafficked surface that limits relative movement between the surface and the part of a vehicle tyre

in contact with the surface, when lubricated with a film of water

NOTE Factors that contribute to skid resistance include the tyre pressure, contact area, tread pattern, and rubber

composition; the alignment, texture, surface contamination, and characteristics of the road surface; the vehicle speed; and

the weather conditions.

The skid resistance of a road surface in Europe varies seasonally. Generally, wet skid resistance is higher in winter as a

result of the effects of wet detritus and the effects of frost and wear by tyres on microtexture and macrotexture. Wet skid

resistance is lower in summer as a result of dry polishing by tyres in the presence of fine detritus.

The change in skid resistance of a surface in service is affected by the volume of traffic and the composition of the traffic,

i.e. cars, buses, commercial vehicles of different sizes, as the tyres of these vehicles polish and/or wear away the

surfacing material in different ways. The geometry of the road will affect the change in skid resistance. Generally, tyres

polish less on straight roads than on bends.

Where the surface contains aggregate with a coating of binder, e.g. bitumen, resin or Portland cement, the skid resistance

will change as the coating is worn away by tyres.
4.4
bound surface

top layer or surface course of a road with the aggregates secured permanently in place

NOTE Aggregates are commonly secured in place by bitumen or Portland cement.
4.5
operating speed
speed at which the device traverses the test surface
4.6
contact area
overall area of the road surface instantaneously in contact with a tyre

NOTE This term describes the overall area generally covered by the tyre. Due to the effects of surface texture or any

tyre tread pattern, not all of the tyre or road surface in the contact area can be in contact at any instant.

4.7
slip speed

relative speed between the test tyre and the travelled surface in the contact area

4.8
slip ratio
slip speed divided by the operating speed

NOTE For devices meeting the requirements of this Technical Specification the slip ratio is fixed by the angle of the

test wheel.
4.9
horizontal force
side force
force acting horizontally perpendicular to a freely rotating, angled test wheel
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4.10
sideway force coefficient
SFC

ratio between the vertical force (load) and horizontal force (sideway force) in controlled conditions, which is

normally a decimal number quoted to two significant figures

NOTE SFC varies depending on the wheel angle of the device and the operational speed.

4.11
SFCS

sideway-force coefficient measured with a device using a narrow wheel in accordance with this Technical

Specification
4.12
SCRIM®

device developed by W.D.M. Limited, Bristol, England from original research by Transport in the United

Kingdom that uses the side force principle to make routine measurements of skid resistance continuously, all

devices being manufactured under license from TRL Ltd UK
4.13
sampling length

distance over which responses of the sensors are sampled to determine a single measurement of the

recorded variables

NOTE 1 The sampling length depends upon the detailed operation of device and its recording system; a number of

samples may be combined to determine a measurement for a subsection.

NOTE 2 This should not be confused with horizontal resolution which is the shortest distance over which a change in

the measured parameter can be detected.
4.14
subsection

defined length of surface for which one set of the measured variables is reported by the device

NOTE Different devices may use different subsections depending on the context of the measurements, such as 5 m,

10 m or 20 m.
4.15
test section

length of road between defined points (e.g. location references, specific features, or measured distances)

comprising a number of subsections over which a continuous sequence of measurements is made

4.16
water delivery system

system for depositing a given amount of water in front of the test tyre so that it then passes between the tyre

and the surface being measured
4.17
water flow rate

rate at which water is deposited on the surface to be measured in front of the test tyre

NOTE Water flow rate is expressed in litres per second (l/s).
4.18
theoretical water film thickness

theoretical thickness of a water film deposited on the surface in front of the measuring tyre, assuming the

surface has zero texture depth
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4.19
wheelpath

part of the pavement surface where the majority of vehicle wheel passes are concentrated

NOTE The wheelpath is not a fixed location on a pavement surface. On a worn pavement, the wheelpath is usually

easily identified visually. On a newly laid surface, the position of the wheelpath needs to be estimated by experienced

operators.

For special circumstances such as acceptance tests, a particular path may be defined, for example (700 ± 150) mm from

the edge of the running lane of a road.
4.20
nearside wheelpath

wheelpath that is closest to the edge of the road in the normal direction of travel

NOTE For countries that normally drive on the right, this is the right-hand side and for countries that normally drive on

the left, this is the left-hand side.
5 Safety

Safety measures shall be in place to maintain safe working practice in accordance with current regulations,

and to ensure the safety of other road users, including measures to control traffic as necessary.

NOTE The wetting of surfaces can have an effect on other users of the site and every effort should be made to

ensure that they do not have to make any sudden changes in speed or direction.

When measuring skid resistance on trafficked roads the device may operate at speeds different to normal road speeds

and as a result can create a hazard to other road users. The test speed specified when calling for tests in accordance with

this standard should take this into account.

Testing should not be carried out if there is a risk of water freezing on the pavement.

Most devices are fitted with a test wheel on one side only, positioned for testing in the nearside wheelpath of their home

country. Such machines cannot normally be used to test in the other wheelpath without straddling the edge of the lane and

should not be used so unless there is sufficient room to do so safely and appropriate safety measures regarding other

traffic are taken. Some machines are fitted with a test wheel on both sides.
6 Essential characteristics
6.1 Principle of measurements

Machines meeting this Technical Specification operate on the sideways-force principle using a special narrow

test wheel, similar to a motorcycle wheel, set an angle to the direction of travel which generates a slipping

condition as it is towed along the wetted pavement surface. The slipping force and load on the wheel are

measured. A typical device is illustrated in Figure 1.
6.2 Operating Principle
A controlled slipping condition is achieved by mounting a
...

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