Building hardware - Hardware for windows and door height windows - Requirements and test methods - Part 16: Hardware for Lift and Slide windows

This part of EN 13126 specifies requirements and test methods for durability, strength, security and function of hardware for Lift and Slide windows and door height windows in accordance with common application as shown in informative Annex C, regardless of whether the hardware enables an additional tilt position.

Baubeschläge - Beschläge für Fenster und Fenstertüren - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren - Teil 16: Beschläge für Hebeschiebe-Fenster und -Fenstertüren

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für die Dauerfunktionstüchtigkeit, Festigkeit, Schutzwirkung und Funktionsweise von Beschlägen für Hebeschiebe-Fenster und -Fenstertüren in Übereinstimmung mit den üblichen Anwendungen entsprechend dem informativen Anhang C fest, unabhängig davon, ob die Beschläge eine zusätzliche Kippstellung ermöglichen.
ANMERKUNG 1 Diese Norm gilt auch für Beschlagsysteme, bei denen der Fensterflügel selbst nicht gehoben, sondern ein Dichtungsmechanismus bewegt wird.
ANMERKUNG 2 Diese Norm gilt auch für Beschlagsysteme, bei denen der Fensterflügel selbst nicht gehoben, sondern parallel zur Rahmenebene bewegt wird.

Quincaillerie pour le bâtiment - Ferrures de fenêtres et portes-fenêtres - Exigences et méthodes d'essai - Partie 16 : Ferrures pour fenêtres coulissantes à levage

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences et les méthodes d’essai relatives à l'endurance, la résistance, la sécurité et le fonctionnement des ferrures pour portes‐fenêtres et fenêtres coulissantes à levage, en conformité avec l’application courante représentée à l’Annexe C, indépendamment du fait que ces ferrures permettent une inclinaison supplémentaire.
NOTE 1 La présente Norme est également applicable aux systèmes de ferrures pour lesquels le vantail n’est pas
levé, un profilé d’étanchéité étant manoeuvré.
NOTE 2 La présente Norme est également applicable aux systèmes de ferrures pour lesquels le vantail n’est pas
levé, un profilé d’étanchéité étant manoeuvré.

Stavbno okovje - Okovje za okna in zastekljena vrata - Zahteve in preskusne metode - 16. del: Okovje za dvižno-drsna okna in vrata

Ta standard EN 13126 določa zahteve in preskusne postopke za trajnost, trdnost, varnost in delovanje okovja za dvižno-drsna okna in zastekljena vrata v skladu z običajno uporabo, kot je opisana v informativnem dodatku C, ne glede na to, ali okovje omogoča dodatni položaj nagibanja ali ne.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Mar-2018
Publication Date
22-May-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Apr-2019
Due Date
30-Jun-2019
Completion Date
23-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13126-16:2019
01-julij-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 13126-16:2008
Stavbno okovje - Okovje za okna in zastekljena vrata - Zahteve in preskusne
metode - 16. del: Okovje za dvižno-drsna okna in vrata

Building hardware - Hardware for windows and door height windows - Requirements and

test methods - Part 16: Hardware for Lift and Slide windows
Baubeschläge - Beschläge für Fenster und Fenstertüren - Anforderungen und
Prüfverfahren - Teil 16: Beschläge für Hebeschiebe-Fenster und -Fenstertüren

Quincaillerie pour le bâtiment - Ferrures de fenêtres et portes-fenêtres - Exigences et

méthodes d'essai - Partie 16 : Ferrures pour fenêtres coulissantes à levage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13126-16:2019
ICS:
91.190 Stavbna oprema Building accessories
SIST EN 13126-16:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.190 Supersedes EN 13126-16:2008
English Version
Building hardware - Hardware for windows and door
height windows - Requirements and test methods - Part
16: Hardware for Lift and Slide windows

Quincaillerie pour le bâtiment - Ferrures de fenêtres et Baubeschläge - Beschläge für Fenster und Fenstertüren

portes-fenêtres - Exigences et méthodes d'essai - Partie - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren - Teil 16:

16 : Ferrures pour fenêtres coulissantes à levage Beschläge für Hebeschiebe-Fenster und -Fenstertüren

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 March 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13126-16:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Classification ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Durability (1 – first box) ............................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Mass (2 – second box) .................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4 Corrosion resistance (3 – third box) ..................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Test sizes (4 – fourth box) ......................................................................................................................... 10

4.6 Example of classification ........................................................................................................................... 10

5 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5.1 Dangerous substances ................................................................................................................................ 11

5.2 Additional requirements ........................................................................................................................... 11

5.2.1 Handle operation tolerance ..................................................................................................................... 11

5.2.2 Sliding operation crash-tests ................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.3 Minimum closing device resistance ...................................................................................................... 12

5.2.4 Resistance to additional loading ............................................................................................................ 13

5.2.5 Static endurance test at ambient temperature ................................................................................. 13

5.3 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 13

5.4 Corrosion resistance ................................................................................................................................... 13

6 Test equipment and preparation for the test .................................................................................... 14

6.1 Test rig ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

6.2 Specimen ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3 Mounting of specimen ................................................................................................................................ 15

7 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 15

7.1 Samples ............................................................................................................................................................ 15

7.2 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 15

7.2.1 Genreal ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.2.2 Adjusting the test mass .............................................................................................................................. 16

7.2.3 Lubrication and adjustment of hardware ........................................................................................... 16

7.3 Durability test................................................................................................................................................ 16

7.3.1 Description of the cycles ............................................................................................................................ 16

7.3.2 Acceptance criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 19

7.4 Sliding operation crash-tests ................................................................................................................... 19

7.4.1 Procedure – into the closed position ..................................................................................................... 19

7.4.2 Procedure – into the opening position ................................................................................................. 19

7.4.3 Acceptance criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 20

7.5 Minimum closing device resistance test .............................................................................................. 20

7.5.1 Hardware with tilt function ...................................................................................................................... 20

7.5.2 Hardware with tilt-function with positive control ........................................................................... 20

7.6 Additional loading test ............................................................................................................................... 21

7.6.1 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 21

7.6.2 Acceptance criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 21

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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)

7.7 Static endurance test at ambient temperature .................................................................................. 21

7.8 Corrosion resistance.................................................................................................................................... 21

8 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 21

Annex A (informative) Test assembly .................................................................................................................. 23

Annex B (informative) Flow chart of test procedures .................................................................................... 28

Annex C (informative) Window types ................................................................................................................... 29

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 30

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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 13126-16:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 33 “Doors,

windows, shutters, building hardware and curtain walling”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2019, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 13126-16:2008.
With regard to EN 13126-16:2008, the following significant changes were made:

— EN 13126-16 now is independent from EN 13126-1; all necessary information is included without

the need of any further information from EN 13126-1;
— several editorial changes in the wording for a better understanding;
— new terms and definitions added under 3.13 - 3.18;

— under 4.1 classification system changed completely; former digits 1 (Category of use), 4 (Fire

resistance), 5 (Safety in use), 7 (Security) and 8 (Applicable part) deleted; former digit 2 changed

into box 1 (Durability), former digit 3 changed into box 2 (Mass), former digit 6 changed into box 3

(Corrosion resistance) and former digit 9 changed into box 4 (Test sizes);

— under 4.2 new grades for the number of cycles defined; H1 (5 000), H2 (10 000) and H3 (20 000);

— under 4.5 test size changed from SW (sash width) 1 200 mm and SH (=sash height) 2 000 mm into

new sizes SW (sash width) 1 440 mm and SH (=sash height) 2 400 mm;

— under 4.6 new example of classification added in accordance with the new classification system; 2

alternative ways (table or alphanumerical) to show the classification defined;

— under Clause 6 “Test equipment and preparation for the test” additional information added for the

test rig (6.1), the specimen (6.2) and the mounting of the specimen (6.3);
— under 6.2 “Specimen” the use of gaskets added in the description;

— under 7.2 “Procedure” new subclause 7.2.1 “General”, 7.2.2 ”Adjusting the test mass” and 7.2.3

”Lubrication and adjustment of hardware” added with additional information, mainly from the

current version of part 1;

— under 7.3 “Durability test” procedure modified to ensure better correlation with the test procedure

described in EN 1191:2012;

— under 8 new clause added regarding marking with information from the current version of

EN 13126-1.
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)

This European standard is one of a series of European standards for building hardware products for

windows and door height windows. This European standard is independent of EN 13126-1.

EN 13126 consists of the following parts:

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and door height windows — Requirements and test

methods — Part 1: Requirements common to all types of hardware;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and doors height windows — Part

2: Window fastener handles;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and door-height windows — Requirements and test

methods — Part 3: Handles, primarily for Tilt&Turn, Tilt-First and Turn-Only hardware;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and doors height windows — Part

4: Espagnolettes;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and door height windows — Requirements and test

methods — Part 5: Devices that restrict the opening of windows and door height windows;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and doors height windows — Part

6: Variable geometry stay hinges (with or without a friction stay);

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and door height windows — Part

7: Finger catches;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and door height windows — Part 8: Requirements and

test methods for Tilt and Turn, Tilt-First and Turn-Only hardware;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and door height windows — Part

9: Hardware for horizontal and vertical pivot windows;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and doors height windows — Part

10: Arm-balancing systems;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and doors height windows — Part

11: Top hung projecting reversible hardware;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and doors height windows — Part

12: Side hung projecting reversible hardware;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and balcony doors — Requirements and test methods —

Part 13: Sash balances;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and balcony doors — Requirements and test methods —

Part 14: Sash fasteners;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and doors height windows — Requirements and test

methods — Part 15: Rollers for horizontal sliding and hardware for sliding folding windows;

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and doors height windows — Requirements and test

methods — Part 16: Hardware for Lift and Slide windows;
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)

— Building hardware — Hardware for windows and doors height windows — Requirements and test

methods — Part 17: Hardware for Tilt and Slide windows;

— Building hardware — Requirements and test methods for windows and door height windows — Part

19: Sliding Closing Devices.

The performance tests incorporated in this European standard are considered to be reproducible and

as such will provide a consistent and objective assessment of the performance of these products

throughout CEN Member States.

A full contribution to the preparation of this European standard has been made by the European

manufacturer’s organization ‘ARGE’ and National Standards institutions.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements and test methods for durability, strength, security and function

of hardware for Lift and Slide windows and door height windows in accordance with common

application as shown in Figures C.1 and C.2 in informative Annex C, regardless of whether the hardware

enables an additional tilt position.

NOTE 1 This document is also applicable to hardware systems, whereby the sash itself is not lifted but a gasket

mechanism is moved.

NOTE 2 This document is also applicable to hardware systems, whereby the sash itself is not lifted but the sash

is being moved parallel to the plane of the frame.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1670, Building hardware — Corrosion resistance — Requirements and test methods

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

The following terms and definitions apply to hardware for Lift and Slide windows and door height

windows made of timber, PVC-U, aluminium or steel and their appropriate material combinations.

3.1
roller

assembly of one or more rolls in a single or multiple casing which supports Lift and Slide windows and

door height windows; these may be aligned in a straight line or rotate about an axis for Lift and Slide

windows and door height windows (otherwise known as a bogey)
3.2
roll
singular wheel in a roller
3.3
lateral guide

hardware component which guides the lateral movement of the Lift and Slide windows and door height

windows
3.4
guide track

track fixed on the top (top guide track) or bottom (bottom guide track) which enables a lateral guide to

run
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
3.5
rail

rail fixed on the top (top rail) or bottom (bottom rail) which enables the rollers to run

3.6
positive control

sash operation via the hardware which enables the sash to be moved from the closed position into the

tilted or parallel projected position and back into the closed position

Note 1 to entry: The sliding position can also be reached by means of operating the hardware.

3.7
locked closed position

situation in which the active sash rests up against the frame and the hardware is locked

3.8
lifting action

operation in which the active sash is raised from the lowered position into the lifted position via the

hardware

Note 1 to entry: During this action the sash can be moved a limited distance away from the frame in the

direction of the opening position.
3.9
closed position

situation in which the active sash is moved into the raised position by the lifting action, and the

hardware is unlocked
3.10
tilted position

situation in which the rollers on the bottom of the active sash rest on the roller track and the top area is

held in the final tilt position by means of the projecting mechanisms
3.11
sliding position

situation in which the active sash is lifted or projected parallel, so that it can be moved linearly

3.12
opening position

situation in which the active sash is at the end of the sliding position (the largest possible opening

width)
3.13
sample
actual hardware components which is due to be tested
3.14
specimen
window with gaskets to accommodate hardware components (samples) for testing
3.15
test rig
testing device onto which the specimen is mounted
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
3.16
test equipment

series of various testing rigs, devices and machinery enabling testing to be carried out

3.17
supporting sub frame

supplementary fixing frame surrounding the specimen enabling it to be mounted on the test rig while

testing
Note 1 to entry: For example wood, steel or aluminium could be used.
3.18
rest time
time in seconds of a stationary period between the different steps
Note 1 to entry: A stationary period is between the following steps:
— between a change of direction of the moving of the sash;

— between the completion of a moving of the sash and the subsequent operating of the hardware;

— between the completion of the operation of the hardware and the subsequent moving of the sash;

— between two cycles.
4 Classification
4.1 General

Hardware for Lift and Slide windows and door height windows shall be classified in accordance with

the four box coding system (see Table 1).
Table 1 — Classification system of hardware
Box 1 2 3 4
Durability Mass Corrosion resistance Test sizes
4.2 Durability (1 – first box)

The first box shall display the grade applied to the durability test in accordance with 5.3:

— grade H1: 5 000;
— grade H2: 10 000;
— grade H3: 20 000.
4.3 Mass (2 – second box)
The second box shall display the maximum tested sash-mass (weight).

The mass range starts from 50 kg and varies in steps of 10 kg. An unlimited number of grades are

identified, whereby 050 is the lowest (see Table 2).
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
Table 2 — Tested sash-mass
Grade 050 060 070 080 090 100 110 120 130 …
Mass (kg) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 …
4.4 Corrosion resistance (3 – third box)

The third box shall display the grade regarding corrosion resistance in accordance with 5.4.

4.5 Test sizes (4 – fourth box)

The fourth box shall display the test sizes (active sash) which were used for testing the hardware for

Lift and Slide windows and door height windows as follows:
SW (= sash width) in mm / SH (=sash height) in mm – tolerance ± 10 mm.
— 1 440 mm SW / 2 400 mm SH

The stated sizes are test sizes only. They do not relate to the maximum or minimum sizes to which a

window may be fabricated.

The manufacturer shall ensure that with the application of the tested hardware in window sizes

deviating from the test sizes (smaller or larger), the forces on the hardware do not exceed those during

the durability test. This shall be reflected in the appropriate product documentation.

In the case of not being capable of manufacturing the specified test size due to the fact that the

hardware field of application is smaller than these specified test sizes, smaller test sizes shall be used. In

this case the window shall be tested in accordance with the largest possible SW (or SH) as specified by

the hardware manufacturers appropriate documentation and a SH (or SW) in a ratio of 2 400/1 440

(factor approximately 1,67).

This means that if the specified test sizes are larger than those which can be manufactured, the test

specimens shall be tested using the largest possible SW or SH in accordance with the manufacturer's

documentation and using a SH to SW ratio of 2 400/1 440 (factor approximately 1,67).

EXAMPLE 1 largest possible SW = 800 mm = SW of the test specimen
SH = 800 mm × 2 400/1 440 = 1 333 mm = SH of the test specimen
EXAMPLE 2 largest possible SH = 1 600 mm = SH of the test specimen
SW = 1 600 mm × 1 440/2 400 = 960 mm = SW of the test specimen

The missing dimensions in each case (SH or SW) should be calculated in accordance with example 1 or

example 2 with the objective of establishing the maximum test-format, which lies within the hardware

manufacturers application range.
4.6 Example of classification
a) Alternative 1: Table with boxes
1 2 3 4
EN 13126-16:YYYY H2 250 3 1 440/2 400
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)

In accordance with Clause 8 the information regarding the classification by using a table with boxes

shall always be shown together with the number of this standard EN 13126-16.
b) Alternative 2: Alphanumerical
EN 13126-16:YYYY H2-250-3-1 440/2 400

This denotes hardware for Lift and Slide windows and door height windows, which have:

box 1 durability grade H2 (10 000 cycles)
box 2 mass 250 kg
box 3 corrosion resistance grade 3
box 4 test sizes SW = 1 440 mm / SH = 2 400 mm
5 Requirements
5.1 Dangerous substances

Materials in products should not release any dangerous substances in excess of the maximum levels

specified in the European material standards and any National regulations.
5.2 Additional requirements
5.2.1 Handle operation tolerance

The maximum torque T which is the result of a force of 100 N applied at a distance of 20 mm from the

end point of the handle, shall not be exceeded during the normal operation of the hardware.

The length of the handle used during the test or the length of the handle intended for the hardware set

shown in the hardware manufacturer’s documentation shall be recorded in the test report.

The torque T resulting from the operative length of the used handle (key l in Figure 1) and the force

h 2
of 100 N shall be calculated and recorded in the test report.
EXAMPLE
length of the handle = 250 mm
operative length (key l in Figure 1) = 250 mm – 20 mm = 230 mm
torque T = operative length × force F = 230 mm × 100 N = 23 Nm
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 location for the force
l length of the handle
l operative length
2 force F = 100 N
Figure 1 — Handle length
5.2.2 Sliding operation crash-tests
After the sliding operation crash test in accordance with 7.4.1 and 7.4.2:
— active sash shall not drop and shall still be constrained by its fixings;
— active sash shall function correctly.

After the sliding operation crash-test all adjustment possibilities may be used to operate the sash.

5.2.3 Minimum closing device resistance
5.2.3.1 Hardware without tilt function

The closing device shall withstand a torque T , which is the threefold torque T as calculated and

hr h
recorded in accordance with 5.2.1.
EXAMPLE length of the handle (key l in Figure 1) = 220 mm
operative length (key l in Figure 1) = 220 mm – 20 mm = 200 mm
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SIST EN 13126-16:2019
EN 13126-16:2019 (E)
torque T = operative length × force F = 200 mm × 100 N = 20 Nm
torque T = 3 × T = 3 × 20 Nm = 60 Nm
hr h

Hardware with tilt function without positive control should also conform to this requirement.

Upon completion of the test in accordance with 7.5.1, the closing device shall operate.

5.2.3.2 Hardware with tilt function and with positive control

The hardware shall withstand a torque T , which is the threefold torque T as calculated and recorded

hr h
in accordance with 5.2.1.
EXAMPLE length of the handle (key l in Figure 1) = 220 mm
operative length (key l in Figure 1) = 220 mm – 20 mm = 200 mm
torque T = operative length × force F = 200 mm × 100 N = 20 Nm
torque T = 3 × T = 3 × 20 Nm = 60 Nm
hr h

Upon completion of the test in accordance with 7.5.2.1 and 7.5.2.2, the closing device shall operate.

5.2.4 Resistance to additional loading

After the additional loading test in accordance with 7.6 the active sash shall not drop and shall still be

constrained by its fixings.
NOTE It is not necessary for the sash to operate during and after
...

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