Soil quality - Digital exchange of soil-related data (ISO 28258:2013)

This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit georeferencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Digitaler Austausch bodenbezogener Daten (ISO 28258:2013)

Qualité du sol - Échange numérique de données relatives au sol (ISO 28258:2013)

L'ISO 28258:2013 décrit les moyens d'échange numérique des données relatives au sol. Elle vise à faciliter l'échange de données relatives au sol qui sont valides, clairement décrites et spécifiées, entre les individus et les organismes, par l'intermédiaire de systèmes numériques. Elle permet aussi à n'importe quel opérateur, détenteur ou utilisateur de données relatives au sol de trouver et de transférer des données de manière univoque.
L'ISO 28258:2013 contient des définitions de caractéristiques, de plusieurs spécifications de paramètres et de règles d'encodage qui permettent d'échanger les données de manière cohérente et accessible. Elle permet également de géo-référencer de façon explicite les données relatives au sol en se fondant sur des normes ISO existantes, ce qui facilite l'utilisation de données relatives au sol dans des systèmes d'informations géographiques (SIG). Les données relatives au sol ayant des origines diverses et étant obtenues conformément à une multitude de systèmes de description et de classification, la présente Norme internationale ne fournit pas un catalogue d'attributs mais propose une approche souple concernant l'encodage unifié des données relatives au sol, par l'application des règles d'observations et de mesures (O & M) de l'ISO 19156 utilisables en science du sol.

Kakovost tal - Digitalna izmenjava podatkov o tleh (ISO 28258:2013)

Ta mednarodni standard opisuje, kako digitalno izmenjati podatke, povezane s tlemi. Njegov namen je olajšati izmenjavo veljavnih, jasno opisanih in natančno določenih podatkov, povezanih s tlemi, med posamezniki in organizacijami prek digitalnih sistemov, ter vsem proizvajalcem, upraviteljem ali uporabnikom tal omogočiti nedvoumno iskanje in prenos podatkov. Ta mednarodni standard vsebuje definicije funkcij, več specifikacij parametrov in pravila kodiranja, ki omogočajo dosledno in dostopno izmenjavo podatkov. Omogoča tudi eksplicitno georeferenciranje podatkov o tleh z opiranjem na druge mednarodne standarde in s tem olajša uporabo podatkov o tleh v geografskih informacijskih sistemih (GIS). Podatki o tleh so različnega izvora in so pridobljeni po številnih sistemih opisovanja ter klasificiranja, zato ta mednarodni standard ne ponuja kataloga atributov, temveč prilagodljiv pristop k enotnemu kodiranju podatkov o tleh z izvajanjem določb standarda ISO 19156 glede opazovanj in meritev (OM) za uporabo v znanosti o tleh.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2012
Publication Date
13-Feb-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Feb-2014
Due Date
12-Apr-2014
Completion Date
14-Feb-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
01-marec-2014
Kakovost tal - Digitalna izmenjava podatkov o tleh (ISO 28258:2013)
Soil quality - Digital exchange of soil-related data (ISO 28258:2013)
Bodenbeschaffenheit - Digitaler Austausch bodenbezogener Daten (ISO 28258:2013)
Qualité du sol - Échange numérique de données relatives au sol (ISO 28258:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 28258:2013
ICS:
13.080.01 Kakovost tal in pedologija na Soil quality and pedology in
splošno general
35.240.99 8SRUDEQLãNHUHãLWYH,7QD IT applications in other fields
GUXJLKSRGURþMLK
SIST EN ISO 28258:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 28258
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2013
ICS 13.080.01
English Version
Soil quality - Digital exchange of soil-related data (ISO
28258:2013)

Qualité du sol - Échange numérique de données relatives Bodenbeschaffenheit - Digitaler Austausch

au sol (ISO 28258:2013) bodenbezogener Daten (ISO 28258:2013)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 August 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 28258:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
EN ISO 28258:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
EN ISO 28258:2013 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 28258:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 “Soil quality” in

collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 345 “Characterization of soils” the secretariat of which is held

by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by April 2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 28258:2013 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 28258:2013 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28258
First edition
2013-10-01
Soil quality — Digital exchange of
soil-related data
Qualité du sol — Échange numérique de données relatives au sol
Reference number
ISO 28258:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Rationale ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Requirements worked out ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Introduction main soil quality data set .............................................................................................................................. 7

5 Soil features information model .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Principles from observations and measurements.................................................................................................... 7

5.2 General model for soil quality data exchange .............................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Packages ....................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Model ............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6 Description of submodels ........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.1 Project ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Spatial relation .....................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Site ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Plot..................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Soil mapping ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.6 Soil observation ...................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.7 Soil sampling ..........................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.8 Profile description ............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.9 GML implementation ......................................................................................................................................................................20

7 Software keys ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

8 Validating software (control tools) ................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Soil attribute examples from ISO 25177 ..........................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Code list examples from ISO 25177 .......................................................................................................24

Annex C (informative) Construction of XML files ..................................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................62

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality,

Subcommittee SC 1, Evaluation of criteria, terminology and codification.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
Introduction

Concerns about the future of soils are increasing. The quality of soils and the needs for soil protection are

an issue of ever-increasing importance, in all countries. Whether it be for matters of land development,

recycling of waste, for assessing the consequences of the way of use of soils on the quality of water

or, more generally, the maintaining of their ability to guarantee the functions expected of them by

society, it is becoming more and more necessary to know soils, to describe them and to analyse them.

A large number of standards indicate how to carry out these descriptions and analyses. However, soil-

related studies are usually conducted by specialized departments and their results have then to be

forwarded to the requesting parties or to the administration. Furthermore, as regards the availability

of environmental data for the public, the official services are solicited to put them online, including

information related to soils.

Soil data are produced during projects which involve the description of soil and — often, but not

necessarily — sampling and analysis. Soil properties are estimated for parts of a soil, which can be

genetic horizons or depth classes. This vertical sequence composes a soil profile. The intensity of soil

description, sampling and analysis varies greatly among projects. In addition, available metadata,

sampling and analytical designs and nomenclatures vary as well.

Due to this wide diversity of data and uses, the hardcopy (paper) form is nowadays rarely suitable,

particularly when we consider that soil studies do not generally constitute an end in themselves but are

only a part of the data required for the taking of land developmental or environmental-related decisions.

Thus, soil data need to be crossed with other environmental, land-use or statistical data sources; the

use of geographical information systems (GIS) is therefore essential. The purpose of this International

Standard is to provide a general procedure to record all kinds of soil-related data in order to exchange

them, while being consistent with relevant International Standards, but without any prerequisite for a

given information system.

This International Standard proposes an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based format. XML consists

of a set of rules for encoding information which is platform- and software-independent. A major advantage

of using XML is that it is the standard for data transfer over the Internet. Most existing software tools and

programming interfaces are designed to process and query XML files, to transform XML

into other data formats for further processing or display, and to transform XML to/from relational

databases, whatever the purpose and the needs of the users. Moreover, a specific form of XML called

GML is used for geographic information, promoting its exchange and use in combination with other

environmental data.

Consequently, this International Standard contains information on how to encode soil data (metadata, soil

description as well as geographic and temporal ones), including specifications and XML codes. In addition,

and to make this International Standard “future-proof” between revisions, guidelines are provided for

encoding of additional information not yet considered. These basic principles allow also the recipient

system/user to read and/or decode information provided in a clear, safe and retrievable manner.

Figure 1 shows the fluxes of soil data, generic to many kinds of applications that can be organized using

this International Standard.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
Figure 1 — Common data exchanges in soil quality
vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28258:2013(E)
Soil quality — Digital exchange of soil-related data
1 Scope

This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate

the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and

organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer

data in an unambiguous way.

This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and

encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit geo-

referencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil

data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are

obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International

Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by

implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
ISO 15903, Soil quality — Format for recording soil and site information
ISO 19106:2004, Geographic information — Profiles
ISO 19109, Geographic information — Rules for application schema
ISO 19118, Geographic information — Encoding
ISO 19136, Geographic information — Geography Markup Language (GML)
ISO 19156:2011, Geographic information — Observations and measurements
ISO 25177:2008, Soil quality — Field soil description
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and in ISO 19109, and

the following, apply.
3.1
analysis

process by which a sample is tested for composition or state according to a described procedure

Note 1 to entry: Most analyses are carried out on dislocated samples, but analyses can also be carried out on

material in situ.
3.2
analytical result
qualitative or quantitative characteristic of a material obtained by an analysis
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
3.3
application schema
conceptual schema for data required by one or more applications
[SOURCE: ISO 19101.]
3.4
attribute
characteristic of a feature

Note 1 to entry: Objects and entities (see ISO 11179) are features in the context of this International Standard.

3.5
borehole
boring
bore

penetration into the subsurface with removal of soil/rock material by using, e.g. a hollow tube-shaped tool

Note 1 to entry: Generally, it is a vertical penetration.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074.]
3.6
class

description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships,

and semantics
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19501.]
3.7
code
member of a code list
3.8
code list
defined set of valid values of an attribute parameter
3.9
data model

description of the organization of data in a manner that reflects an information structure

3.10
extensible mark-up language
XML

subset of SGML (standard generalized markup language) which uses semantic tags in a structured format

Note 1 to entry: SML offers a flexible way to create information formats and to share both data and metadata with

other applications and users.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO 13374-2.
3.11
feature
abstraction of a real world phenomenon
[SOURCE: ISO 19101.]

Note 1 to entry: A feature has identity and properties (it can be described with attributes).

Note 2 to entry: Any feature is an instantiation of a feature type, e.g. several described real-world soil profiles are

all features of the feature type SoilProfile.
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
3.12
feature catalogue
catalogue(s) containing definitions and descriptions of feature types
3.13
feature type
class of features having common characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 19156.]

Note 1 to entry: For this International Standard, it is considered that both geographic and soil quality related real-

world and abstract objects can be features.
3.14
geography markup language
GML

XML encoding in compliance with ISO 19118 and, more specifically, ISO 19136 for the transport and

storage of geographic information modelled according to the conceptual modelling framework used in

the ISO 19100 family of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties

of geographic features
3.15
horizon

domain of a soil with a certain vertical extension, which is more or less parallel to the surface and is

homogeneous for most morphological and analytical characteristics, developed in a parent material

through pedogenic processes or made up of in situ sedimented organic residues of up-growing plants (peat)

3.16
layer

domain of a soil with a certain vertical extension developed through non-pedogenic processes, displaying

an unconformity to possibly over- or underlying adjacent domains

Note 1 to entry: In the framework of soils deeply modified by human activity, artificial layers may be due to

different kinds of deposits (concrete, bricks, etc.).
Note 2 to entry: Layers may be part of a horizon.
3.17
metadata
data that defines and describes other data
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004]

Note 1 to entry: Metadata are data, and data become metadata when they are used as defined. This happens

under particular circumstances, for particular purposes, and with certain perspectives. The set of circumstances,

purposes or perspectives for which some data are used as metadata is called the context (see ISO/IEC 11179-1).

Note 2 to entry: In turn, some metadata may provide the context for the interpretation of the data they are related

to, e.g. units of measurement give an idea how to interpret the measurement value.

Note 3 to entry: This definition is similar to that of “data about data”, as defined in ISO 19115, among other

International Standards.
3.18
non-destructive investigation

application of a set of procedures or techniques to obtain observations on a material without lastingly

changing its physical structure and chemical characteristics
3.19
observation

act of observing a property, with the goal of producing an estimate of the value of the property

Note 1 to entry: This definition is conformant with the definition of observation in ISO 19156.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
3.20
plot
elementary area where individual observations are made and/or samples are taken

Note 1 to entry: All types of plots only provide locality, but not soil information itself. For example, a borehole is

the location where you gather the information to abstract a profile information from.

3.21
profile element
general term for both horizons and layers
3.22
project

unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates,

undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of

time, cost and resources

Note 1 to entry: An individual project may form part of a larger project structure.

Note 2 to entry: In some projects, the objective(s) is (are) refined and the product characteristics defined

progressively as the project proceeds (see IEC 62198).
Note 3 to entry: The data can be existing or new.

Note 4 to entry: For the purposes of this International Standard, the objective is the collection or interpretation

of soil data (see also 3.23).

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2000, definition 3.4.3 — modified. Notes 2 to 4 are particular to this International

Standard.]
3.23
project

activity that leads to the collection of soil data

3.24
sample

solid, liquid, gaseous or living material extracted from the soil, soil solution, sewage water, interflow

water or soil air to be described or analysed
3.25
sampling
process by which a sample is obtained
3.26
site
defined area which is subject to a soil quality investigation
Note 1 to entry: A site provides the area around a plot.
3.27
soil feature types
specific set of feature types specified in this International Standard
3.28
soil body
artificial but recognizable tridimensional entity in a soil continuum
3.29
soil map

two- or three-dimensional representation of soil or its properties for a geographic extent

4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
3.30
soil mapping unit

aggregate of all soil delineations which are identified by a unique symbol, colour, name or other

representation on a map
3.31
soil profile

describable representation of the soil that is characterized by a vertical succession of horizons or at least

one or several parent material layers

Note 1 to entry: The soil profile is abstracted from observations in a trial pit or a boring.

3.32
subclass

class that inherits attributes, operations, methods, relationships and semantics from another class, with

some restrictions or extensions

Note 1 to entry: An instance of subclass can be always considered as an instance of the parent class

3.33
trial pit
test pit
trench

excavation prepared to carry out profile descriptions, sampling, and/or field tests

[SOURCE: ISO 11074.]
3.34
URL
Uniform resource locator

mechanism for identifying resources on the Internet (such as Web pages) by specifying the address of

the resource and the access protocol used
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-151:2008.]
3.35
URN
universal resource name
code identifying a service or a resource on the Internet
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2001.]
3.36
UML
unified modelling language
type of modelling element that extends the semantics of the metamodel
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19501.]
3.37
XSD
XML schema definition
extensible schema definition

set of rules to which an XML document shall conform in order to be considered “valid” according to that

schema

Note 1 to entry: Where XML is the language, XSD is a specific definition using the XML language.

Note 2 to entry: XSD is sometimes called: “XML schema”.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 28258:2014
ISO 28258:2013(E)
4 Rationale
4.1 General

This International Standard is specifically made for the exchange of soil quality data. It does not deal

with the nevertheless very common use and exchange data from other disciplines, like geotechnics, geo-

information, or groundwater investigation and management.

Sometimes, soil data exchange is successful or not determined by the interpretation of the incoming

data by the receiving system. Basically, the receiving system can only successfully interpret incoming

data when the feature types described by the data and the parameters themselves are known prior to

the data exchange.

To get a handle on the problem that a huge number of systems exist for the description of soils with

different parameters, parameter names, and parameter value code lists, this International Standard

defines a set of features with which soils are described and that is complete, i.e. cannot be extended

within the framework of this International Standard.

If soil quality data defined according to this International Standard are combined with other kinds of

data, the soil quality part shall be performed, using the XML namespace “ISO 28258”.

Additionally, very few, inherent properties of these features are defined as well. This feature catalogue

enables the data receiving system to allocate any data to a known feature class.

The flexibility needed to consider soil-related data of various origins is maintained by not defining any

other part of the soil description, i.e. the attributes for any of these features and — if needed — the list

of their valid values (code lists). Instead, a str
...

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