Execution of special geotechnical work - Grouting

This document is applicable to the execution, testing and monitoring of geotechnical grouting work.
Grouting for geotechnical purposes (geotechnical grouting) is a process in which the remote placement of a pumpable material in the ground is indirectly controlled by adjusting its rheological characteristics and by the manipulation of the placement parameters (pressure, volume and the flow rate).
The following principles and methods of geotechnical grouting are covered by this document:
-   displacement grouting (compaction and compensation grouting);
-   grouting without displacement of the host material (permeation, fissure/rock grouting, bulk filling).
The principal objectives of geotechnical grouting are:
-   the modification of the hydraulic/hydrogeological characteristics the ground;
-   the modification of the mechanical properties of the ground;
-   the filling of natural cavities, mine workings, voids adjacent to structures;
-   inducing displacement to compensate for ground loss or to stabilize and lift footings, slabs and pavements.
Specialized grouting activities, generally associated with structural and/or emergency works, are not covered by this document.
The execution, testing and monitoring of jet grouting work is not covered by this document and is covered by EN 12716.

Ausführung von Arbeiten im Spezialtiefbau - Injektionen

Dieses Dokument gilt für die Ausführung, Prüfung und Überwachung von geotechnischen Injektionsarbeiten.
Die Injektion mit geotechnischer Zielsetzung (geotechnische Injektion) ist ein Vorgang, bei dem die Einbringung eines pumpbaren Materials in den Baugrund indirekt kontrolliert wird, indem die rheologischen Kennwerte des Materials entsprechend angepasst und die Dieses Dokument gilt für die Ausführung, Prüfung und Überwachung von geotechnischen Injektionsarbeiten.
Die Injektion mit geotechnischer Zielsetzung (geotechnische Injektion) ist ein Vorgang, bei dem die Einbringung eines pumpbaren Materials in den Baugrund indirekt kontrolliert wird, indem die rheologischen Kennwerte des Materials entsprechend angepasst und die Einbringparameter (Druck, Volumen und Durchflussrate) gesteuert werden.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die folgenden Grundsätze und Verfahren für geotechnische Injektionen:
-   Injektion mit Baugrundverdrängung (Verdichtungs  und Kompensationsinjektion);
-   Injektion ohne Baugrundverdrängung (Poreninjektion, Kluft /Felsinjektion, Hohlraumverfüllung).
Die Hauptziele der geotechnischen Injektion sind
-   die Änderung der hydraulischen/hydrogeologischen Eigenschaften des Baugrunds,
-   die Änderung der mechanischen Eigenschaften des Baugrunds,
-   das Verfüllen von natürlichen Hohlräumen, Grubenbauten, Hohlräumen im Übergang von Bauwerken zum Untergrund,
-   einschl. Verdrängung zum Ausgleich von fehlendem Baugrund oder zum Stabilisieren und Anheben von Fundamenten, Platten und Oberflächenbefestigungen.
Spezielle Injektionsarbeiten, die im Allgemeinen mit Bau  und/oder Arbeiten nach Katastrophenfällen verbunden sind, werden in diesem Dokument nicht behandelt.
Die Ausführung, Prüfung und Überwachung von Hochdruckinjektionen wird nicht in diesem Dokument, sondern in EN 12716 behandelt.

Exécution des travaux géotechniques spéciaux - Injection

Le présent document s’applique à l’exécution, aux essais et au contrôle des travaux d’injection géotechnique.
L’injection à des fins géotechniques (injection géotechnique) est un procédé qui consiste à introduire à distance dans le terrain un matériau pouvant être pompé, cette introduction étant contrôlée indirectement en ajustant les caractéristiques rhéologiques du matériau pompé et en intervenant sur les paramètres de mise en place (pression, volume et débit).
Le présent document s’applique aux principes et méthodes d’injection géotechnique suivants :
-   injection avec déplacement (injection solide et de compensation) ;
-   injection sans déplacement des terrains (imprégnation, injection de fissure/roche, comblement en masse).
La Figure 1 illustre les différentes méthodes d’injection selon ces deux principes.
NOTE   L’expression « injection de consolidation » est parfois employée pour mettre en avant une amélioration des caractéristiques de résistance ou de déformation d’un sol ou d’une masse rocheuse dans le but que ce sol ou cette masse ne subissent pas de déformations inacceptables. L’expression « injection de compensation » est utilisée lorsque l’objectif de l’injection est de compenser simultanément la perte de sol.
Les principaux objectifs de l’injection géotechnique sont :
-   la modification des propriétés hydrauliques/hydrogéologiques des terrains ;
-   la modification des propriétés mécaniques des terrains ;
-   le comblement des cavités naturelles, des exploitations minières, des vides au contact des structures ;
-   la création de mouvements pour compenser des tassements, stabiliser et redresser des semelles, radiers ou dallages.
Le présent document ne s’applique pas aux activités d’injection spécialisées, qui sont en général associées aux travaux effectués sur les structures, ou en urgence.
Le présent document ne couvre pas l’exécution, les essais et le contrôle des travaux de jet-grouting qui sont traités dans l’EN 12716.

Izvedba posebnih geotehničnih del - Injektiranje

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-May-2019
Publication Date
10-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
30-Nov-2020
Due Date
04-Feb-2021
Completion Date
11-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 12715:2021
01-januar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12715:2002
Izvedba posebnih geotehničnih del - Injektiranje
Execution of special geotechnical work - Grouting
Ausführung von Arbeiten im Spezialtiefbau - Injektionen
Exécution des travaux géotechniques spéciaux - Injection
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12715:2020
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN 12715:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 12715:2021
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020 Supersedes EN 12715:2000
English Version
Execution of special geotechnical work - Grouting

Exécution des travaux géotechniques spéciaux - Ausführung von Arbeiten im Spezialtiefbau -

Injection Injektionen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 September 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12715:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 4

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 8

4 Information needed for the execution of work ........................................................................ 10

4.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Specific information ........................................................................................................................... 11

5 Ground investigation ......................................................................................................................... 12

5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.2 Specific requirements ....................................................................................................................... 12

5.3 Field grouting trials and field tests .............................................................................................. 13

6 Materials and products ..................................................................................................................... 13

6.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.2 Grout materials .................................................................................................................................... 13

6.2.1 Cement and hydraulic binders ....................................................................................................... 13

6.2.2 Clay materials ....................................................................................................................................... 13

6.2.3 Sands, gravels and fillers .................................................................................................................. 14

6.2.4 Water ....................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.2.5 Chemical products and admixtures ............................................................................................. 14

6.3 Grouts ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3.2 Suspensions .......................................................................................................................................... 15

6.3.3 Solutions ................................................................................................................................................. 15

6.3.4 Mortars ................................................................................................................................................... 16

7 Execution design ................................................................................................................................. 16

7.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 16

7.2 Execution design basis and objectives ........................................................................................ 16

7.3 Grouting principles and methods ................................................................................................. 17

7.3.1 Grouting without ground displacement (non-displacement grouting) .......................... 17

7.3.2 Grouting with ground displacement (displacement grouting) .......................................... 18

7.4 Grout ........................................................................................................................................................ 20

7.4.1 Type and composition ....................................................................................................................... 20

7.4.2 General considerations ..................................................................................................................... 20

7.4.3 Parameters and criteria ................................................................................................................... 21

7.4.4 Applicability .......................................................................................................................................... 21

7.5 Grout placement .................................................................................................................................. 21

7.5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 21

7.5.2 Drilling layout and borehole design ............................................................................................ 22

7.5.3 Grouting sequence .............................................................................................................................. 23

7.5.4 Grouting pressure ............................................................................................................................... 23

7.6 Monitoring and control criteria ..................................................................................................... 23

8 Execution ............................................................................................................................................... 24

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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 24

8.2 Drilling .................................................................................................................................................... 24

8.3 Grout preparation .............................................................................................................................. 25

8.3.1 Storage .................................................................................................................................................... 25

8.3.2 Batching and mixing .......................................................................................................................... 25

8.3.3 Pumping and delivery ....................................................................................................................... 25

8.4 Grout placement.................................................................................................................................. 26

8.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 26

8.4.2 Packers ................................................................................................................................................... 27

8.4.3 Special conditions ............................................................................................................................... 27

8.5 Grouting sequences............................................................................................................................ 27

9 Supervision, testing and monitoring ........................................................................................... 28

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.2 Testing .................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.3 Monitoring and control .................................................................................................................... 29

9.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 29

9.3.2 Environmental impact ...................................................................................................................... 29

9.3.3 Validation of the grouting works .................................................................................................. 29

9.3.4 Monitoring of displacement ............................................................................................................ 30

9.3.5 Drilling .................................................................................................................................................... 30

9.3.6 Grout ........................................................................................................................................................ 30

10 Records ................................................................................................................................................... 30

10.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 30

10.2 Documents produced on site .......................................................................................................... 31

11 Special requirements (environment, site safety) ................................................................... 32

11.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 32

11.2 Health and safety ................................................................................................................................ 32

11.3 Environmental protection ............................................................................................................... 33

Annex A (informative) Glossary ................................................................................................................. 34

Annex B (informative) Grout types — Processes and their characterizing ................................ 43

Annex C (informative) Measurement of grout parameters .............................................................. 46

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 51

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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 12715:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 288 “Execution of

special geotechnical works”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by month year May 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12715:2000. The main changes compared to the previous edition are

listed below:
— generally, the text has been checked and brought up to date;

— the Scope now includes Figure 1 to describe the various forms of grouting covered in this document;

— normative references updated and now include reference to EN 1997 for design;
— definitions updated and extended;

— “site investigation” now changed to “ground investigation” in line with EN1997;

— “design considerations” changed to “execution design” in line with EN1997;
— Table 3 moved to Annex B;
— Table 1 included in Clause 8 relating to revised grouting strategies;
— Table B.2 added to characterise grouts;

— Table 5 and A.1 replaced by Annex C with more types of testing included and standards referenced;

— Glossary reviewed and updated;
— Bibliography updated.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
Introduction

The general scope of TC 288 is the standardization of the execution procedures for geotechnical works

(including testing and control methods) and of the required material properties. WG18 has been charged

to revise EN 12715:2000, with the subject area of grouting.

The design, planning and execution of grouting call for experience and knowledge in this specialized field.

The execution phase requires skilled and qualified personnel and the present document cannot replace

the expertise of specialist contractor.
This document has been prepared to complement EN 1997-1, and EN 1997-2.

Until EN 1997-3 is published, the design of grouting works is not clearly defined. In particular, the

boundary between design under the proposed EN 1997-3 and design as part of the execution of grouting

works has not been determined. This document has therefore adopted a distinction between execution

design, i.e. the design of grouting methodology and the other phases of design.

Clause 7 “Execution Design” of this document expands on design only where necessary for the execution.

This document provides coverage of the construction and supervision requirements for grouting works.

Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: prEN 1997-3.
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document is applicable to the execution, testing and monitoring of geotechnical grouting work.

Grouting for geotechnical purposes (geotechnical grouting) is a process in which the remote placement

of a pumpable material in the ground is indirectly controlled by adjusting its rheological characteristics

and by the manipulation of the placement parameters (pressure, volume and the flow rate).

The following principles and methods of geotechnical grouting are covered by this document:

— displacement grouting (compaction and compensation grouting);

— grouting without displacement of the host material (permeation, fissure/contact grouting, bulk

filling).

Figure 1 illustrates the various injection methods associated with these two principles.

NOTE The term consolidation grouting is sometimes used to emphasize an improvement in the strength or

deformation characteristics of a soil or rock mass, with the aim that it does not undergo any unacceptable

deformation. The term compensation grouting is used when the objective of grouting is to concurrently compensate

for ground loss.
Figure 1 — Grouting principles and methods
The principal objectives of geotechnical grouting are:

— the modification of the hydraulic/hydrogeological characteristics of the ground;

— the modification of the mechanical properties of the ground;
— the filling of natural cavities, mine workings, voids adjacent to structures;

— inducing displacement to compensate for ground loss or to stabilize and lift footings, slabs and

pavements.

Specialized grouting activities, generally associated with structural and/or emergency works, are not

covered by this document.

The execution, testing and monitoring of jet grouting work is not covered by this document and is covered

by EN 12716.
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 197-1, Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements

EN 197-2, Cement - Part 2: Assessment and verification of constancy of performance

EN 480-1, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 1: Reference concrete and

reference mortar for testing

EN 480-2, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 2: Determination of setting time

EN 480-4, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 4: Determination of bleeding of

concrete

EN 480-5, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 5: Determination of capillary

absorption

EN 480-6, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 6: Infrared analysis

EN 480-8, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 8: Determination of the

conventional dry material content

EN 480-10, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 10: Determination of water

soluble chloride content

EN 480-11, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 11: Determination of air void

characteristics in hardened concrete

EN 480-12, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 12: Determination of the alkali

content of admixtures

EN 934-1, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 1: Common requirements

EN 934-3, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 3: Admixtures for masonry mortar - Definitions,

requirements, conformity and marking and labelling

EN 934-4, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 4: Admixtures for grout for prestressing tendons

- Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling

EN 934-6, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 6: Sampling, assessment and verification of the

constancy of performance
EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules

EN 1997-2, Eurocode 7 - Geotechnical design - Part 2: Ground investigation and testing

EN 16228-6, Drilling and foundation equipment - Safety - Part 6: Jetting, grouting and injection equipment

EN ISO 22282 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geohydraulic testing (ISO 22282 series)

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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

NOTE The definitions given in this chapter cover only the most important terms involved in geotechnical

grouting. Further definitions are given in the glossary in Annex A.
3.1
bulk filling
placement of grout to fill subterranean cavities
3.2
compaction grouting

injection of a low slump mortar or comparatively stiff (viscous and cohesive) particulate grout into the

soil to compact/densify it by expansion alone

Note 1 to entry: Expanding grouts can be used to cause compaction but may also permeate the ground.

3.3
contact grouting
injection of grout into the interface between man-made structures and the ground
3.4
displacement grouting

injection of grout into a host medium in such a manner as to deform, compress, or displace the ground

3.5
effective pressure

pressure governing the flow in the ground, estimated from the grouting pressure considering the sum of

all head losses and head gains in the injection system and the ground
3.6
fissure grouting
injection of grout into fissures, joints, fractures and discontinuities in rock
3.7
grout

pumpable material (suspension, solution or resins, emulsion or mortar), introduced into soil or rock,

which stiffens and sets with time
3.8
grouting pressure
working pressure

pressure applied during the grouting process and measured at defined locations, usually at the pump or

the borehole collar
3.9
hydraulic fracturing
injection of water or grout that creates a new localized fracture in the ground
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
3.10
hydraulic jacking
hydrojacking

injection of water or grout within existing fractures in the ground to enhance the grout spread and

penetrability
3.11
penetration grouting

grout injection of joints or fractures in rock, or pore spaces in soil, without displacing the ground

Note 1 to entry: The term includes permeation (impregnation), fissure and contact grouting.

3.12
permeation grouting
impregnation grouting
replacement of interstitial water or gas of a porous medium with a grout
3.13
non-displacement grouting

injection of grout into a host medium in such a manner as not to deform, compress, or displace the ground

Note 1 to entry: The term includes penetration grouting and bulk filling.
3.14
bleed

process by which water forms a separate segregation phase from the grout under gravity or pressure

3.15
stable suspension

ability of a suspension to minimise bleed and segregation and retain its original properties under

pressure
3.16
field grouting trial
trial executed in order to define or validate a grouting methodology
3.17
hydraulic binder
all cements and similar products used in aqueous suspensions to produce grout
3.18
fine

hydraulic binders or cements that are characterized by a particle size d of less than 40 µm

3.19
microfine

hydraulic binders or cements that are characterized by a particle size d of less than 20 µm

3.20
ultrafine

hydraulic binders or cements that are characterized by a particle size d of less than 10 µm

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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
3.21
additive

any grout ingredient other than the basic components of a grout mix (water,

aggregates, or cementitious material), which is used to modify the properties of the fluid and the

hardened grout
3.22
mortars

highly particulate grout containing sand and fine aggregates, commonly a concrete with an aggregate size

of less than 4 mm
3.23
split spacing

procedure by which additional grout injection holes are located midway between previously grouted

holes
3.24
sleeved pipe
TAM

injection pipe perforated at regular intervals where the perforations are covered externally by sleeves

acting as non-return valves
Note 1 to entry: TAM is the abbreviation for tube á manchette.
4 Information needed for the execution of work
4.1 General

4.1.1 All information required to execute the works shall be provided in advance.

4.1.2 This information should include the following, where relevant:
— any legal or statutory restrictions;
— the location of main grid lines for setting out;

— the conditions of structures, roads, services, etc. adjacent to the work, including any necessary

surveys;

— a suitable quality management system, including supervision, monitoring and testing;

— the geometry of the site (boundary conditions, topography, access, slopes, headroom restrictions,

etc.);

— the existing underground structures, services, known contaminations, and archaeological

constraints;
— the environmental restrictions, including noise, vibration, pollution; and

— the future or ongoing activities such as dewatering, tunnelling, deep excavations on or adjacent to

the worksite.
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
4.2 Specific information
4.2.1 The specific information shall cover, where relevant:
— execution specifications;
— previous use of the site;
— adjacent foundations (types, loads and geometry);
— geotechnical information and data as specified in Clause 5;

— presence of obstructions in the ground (old masonry, anchors, concrete, blocks and boulders, etc.);

— presence of headroom restrictions;
— presence of archaeological remains;
— presence of natural and/or manmade cavities (mines, etc.);
— presence of polluted ground and type, extent and degree of pollution;

— any specific requirements for the grouting works, in particular those pertaining to tolerances, quality

of materials, methods and frequency of testing;

— where available, previous experience with grouting works on or adjacent to the site;

— proposed adjacent enabling or advance works that could affect the grouting works;

— functional requirements for instrumentation and monitoring of potentially affected structures;

— necessity, extent, procedure and content for any survey on the conditions of structures, roads,

services, etc. adjacent to the works area.

4.2.2 Required site surveys shall be carried out and be available prior to the commencement of the

works.

NOTE The results are useful to define the threshold values for any movement which affect adjacent structures

by the works area construction.

4.2.3 Any additional or deviating requirements to this document shall be established and agreed with

the relevant parties or authorities before the commencement of the works and the quality control system

shall be suitably amended.
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SIST EN 12715:2021
EN 12715:2020 (E)
5 Ground investigation
5.1 General

Any ground investigation shall fulfil the requirements of EN 1997-2 and the relevant national documents.

5.2 Specific requirements

5.2.1 Relevant experience of the execution of comparable grouting works under similar conditions

and/or in the vicinity of the site should be taken into account when determining the extent of the ground

investigation (reference to relevant experience is permitted if appropriate means of verification were

taken).
5.2.2 The ground investigation report shall be sufficient for the
...

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