Railway applications - Ballastless track systems - Part 1: General requirements

This European Standard defines the general requirements concerning the design of ballastless track systems.
It does not include any requirements for inspecting, maintaining, repairing and replacing ballastless track systems during operation.
This European Standard is applicable to all railway applications up to 250 kN axle load.
The requirements of this standard apply to:
-   plain line track, switches and crossings and rail expansion joints;
-   various substructures like embankments and cuttings, tunnels, bridges or similar, with or without floating slabs;
-   transitions between different substructures;
-   transitions between different ballastless track systems;
-   transitions between ballasted and ballastless track systems.
NOTE   Requirements for characterization of the substructures listed above are included in this standard. Design of the substructures is covered by other European Standards, e.g. EN 1992–2, EN 1997–1, etc..

Bahnanwendungen - Feste Fahrbahn-Systeme - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die allgemeinen Anforderungen an die Konstruktion von Feste Fahrbahn-Systemen (FF-Systemen) fest.
Sie beschreibt keine Anforderungen an die Inspektion, Instandhaltung, Reparatur und den Austausch von
FF-Systemen während des Betriebs.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für alle Eisenbahnen bis zu 250 kN Achslast.
Die Anforderungen dieser Norm gelten für:
-   Hauptgleise sowie Weichen, Kreuzungen und Schienenauszugsvorrichtungen;
-   verschiedene Unterbauten wie Dämme und Einschnitte, Tunnel, Brücken oder Ähnliches mit oder ohne elastisch gelagerten Gleistragplatten;
-   Übergänge zwischen verschiedenartigen Unterbauformen;
-   Übergänge zwischen verschiedenen FF-Systemen;
-   Übergänge zwischen Schotteroberbau und FF-Systemen.
ANMERKUNG   Die Anforderungen an die Eigenschaften der oben aufgeführten Unterbauten sind in dieser Norm beschrieben. Die Konstruktion der Unterbauten wird in anderen Europäischen Normen behandelt, z.B. EN 1992 2, EN 1997 1 usw.

Applications ferroviaires - Systèmes de voie sans ballast - Partie 1 : Exigences générales

Cette Norme européenne définit les exigences générales liées à la conception des systèmes de voie sans ballast.
Elle n’inclut aucune exigence liée au contrôle, à la maintenance, à la réparation et au remplacement des systèmes de voie sans ballast en exploitation.
Cette Norme européenne est applicable à toutes les applications ferroviaires jusqu’à une charge par essieu de 250 kN.
Les exigences de cette norme s’appliquent aux :
-   voies courantes, ainsi que les appareils de voie et les appareils de dilatation des rails ;
-   diverses infrastructures telles que des remblais et des déblais, des tunnels, des ponts ou autres structures similaires, avec ou sans dalles flottantes ;
-   transitions entre différentes structures de support ;
-   transitions entre différents systèmes de voie sans ballast ;
-   transitions entre des systèmes de voie ballastée et des systèmes de voie sans ballast.
NOTE   Sont incluses dans cette norme européenne les exigences s’appliquant aux caractéristiques des sous-structures énumérées ci-dessus. La conception des structures de support est couverte par d’autres normes, par exemple l’EN 1992-2, l’EN 1997-1, etc..

Železniške naprave - Progovni sistemi z utrjenimi tirnicami - 1. del: Splošne zahteve

Ta evropski standard določa splošne zahteve za progovne sisteme z utrjenimi tirnicami.
Ne zajema nobenih zahtev za pregledovanje, vzdrževanje, popravljanje in zamenjavo progovnih sistemov z utrjenimi tirnicami med delovanjem.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za vse železniške naprave z osno obremenitvijo do 250 kN.
Zahteve tega standarda veljajo za:
– vozne tire, kretnice in križišča ter diletacijske naprave;
– različne podstrukture, kot so nasipi in zajede, tuneli, mostovi in podobno, s plavajočimi ploščami ali brez njih;
– prehode med različnimi podstrukturami;
– prehode med različnimi sistemi z utrjenimi tirnicami;
– prehode med tiri na gramozni gredi in sistemi z utrjenimi tirnicami.
OPOMBA: Zahteve za karakterizacijo podstruktur, ki so navedene zgoraj, so zajete v tem standardu. Zasnova podstruktur je zajeta v drugih evropskih standardih, npr. EN 1992–2, EN 1997–1 itd.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Mar-2017
Publication Date
07-Aug-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Jul-2017
Due Date
29-Sep-2017
Completion Date
08-Aug-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16432-1:2017
01-september-2017
Železniške naprave - Progovni sistemi z utrjenimi tirnicami - 1. del: Splošne
zahteve
Railway applications - Ballastless track systems - Part 1: General requirements
Bahnanwendungen - Feste Fahrbahn-Systeme - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen

Applications ferroviaires - Systèmes de voie sans ballast - Partie 1 : Exigences générales

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16432-1:2017
ICS:
45.080 7UDþQLFHLQåHOH]QLãNLGHOL Rails and railway
components
SIST EN 16432-1:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.100
English Version
Railway applications - Ballastless track systems - Part 1:
General requirements

Applications ferroviaires - Systèmes de voie sans Bahnanwendungen - Feste Fahrbahn-Systeme - Teil 1:

ballast - Partie 1 : Exigences générales Allgemeine Anforderungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 11 May 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16432-1:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 External actions ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Railway traffic loading .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.1.2 Vertical loads .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.3 Lateral loads................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.1.4 Longitudinal loads ....................................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Substructure .................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.2 Earthworks ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.2.3 Bridges ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

5.2.4 Tunnels ............................................................................................................................................................ 13

5.2.5 Transitions ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3 Environmental............................................................................................................................................... 14

5.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.3.2 Water ................................................................................................................................................................ 14

5.3.3 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.3.4 Earthquake ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.3.5 Chemical exposure, UV exposure and pollution ............................................................................... 15

6 System requirements .................................................................................................................................. 15

6.1 Track design geometry............................................................................................................................... 15

6.2 Track stability ............................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3 Structure gauge ............................................................................................................................................. 16

6.4 Design life........................................................................................................................................................ 16

6.5 Maintainability .............................................................................................................................................. 16

6.6 Sustainability ................................................................................................................................................. 16

6.7 Noise and vibration ..................................................................................................................................... 16

6.8 Derailment ...................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.9 Electrical interfaces ..................................................................................................................................... 17

6.9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.9.2 Rail-to-rail electric insulation ................................................................................................................. 17

6.9.3 Electrical interfaces with traction power supply systems ............................................................ 17

6.9.4 Electrical interfaces with signalling systems ..................................................................................... 18

6.9.5 Track circuit ................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.9.6 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) with signalling systems ................................................... 18

6.10 Fixing of equipment..................................................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Rail temperature increase by using eddy current brake .............................. 20

A.1 Determination of rail temperature increase using chart Figure A.1 ......................................... 20

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EN 16432-1:2017 (E)

A.2 Determination of rail temperature increase using functions of rail heating and

cooling............................................................................................................................................................... 20

A.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

A.2.2 Heating of the rail ......................................................................................................................................... 21

A.2.3 Cooling of the rail .......................................................................................................................................... 21

A.2.4 Example of calculation ................................................................................................................................ 21

Annex B (informative) Examples of loop-free and zones with limited metal content to

ensure EMC ...................................................................................................................................................... 23

B.1 Track circuit bond ........................................................................................................................................ 23

B.2 Detection loop or transmission loop ..................................................................................................... 23

B.3 Balise (Eurobalise) ....................................................................................................................................... 24

B.4 Wheel sensor .................................................................................................................................................. 24

Annex C (informative) Example of balise mounting system ...................................................................... 25

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC ........................................................................................ 26

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 31

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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16432-1:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

This European Standard is one of the series EN 16432 “Railway applications - Ballastless track systems”

as listed below:
— Part 1: General requirements;
— Part 2: System design, subsystems and components;
— Part 3: Acceptance (under preparation).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
Introduction

This European Standard is intended to be used by customers, designers and specifiers of ballastless

track systems as well as for reference and development by suppliers and construction contractors.

The content and relationship between part 1, 2 and 3 are shown in Figure 1.

This part of the series EN 16432 covers the general requirements for ballastless track systems.

Figure 1 — Structure of EN 16432-1, EN 16432-2 and EN 16432-3
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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard defines the general requirements concerning the design of ballastless track

systems.

It does not include any requirements for inspecting, maintaining, repairing and replacing ballastless

track systems during operation.

This European Standard is applicable to all railway applications up to 250 kN axle load.

The requirements of this standard apply to:
— plain line track, switches and crossings and rail expansion joints;

— various substructures like embankments and cuttings, tunnels, bridges or similar, with or without

floating slabs;
— transitions between different substructures;
— transitions between different ballastless track systems;
— transitions between ballasted and ballastless track systems.

NOTE Requirements for characterization of the substructures listed above are included in this standard.

Design of the substructures is covered by other European Standards, e.g. EN 1992–2, EN 1997–1, etc..

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1991-2:2003, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges

EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules

EN 50122 (series), Railway applications - Fixed installations - Electrical safety, earthing and the return

circuit

EN 13481-5, Railway applications - Track - Performance requirements for fastening systems - Part 5:

Fastening systems for slab track with rail on the surface or rail embedded in a channel

EN 13848-5, Railway applications - Track - Track geometry quality - Part 5: Geometric quality levels -

Plain line

EN 13848-6, Railway applications - Track - Track geometry quality - Part 6: Characterisation of track

geometry quality

EN 14363, Railway applications - Testing and Simulation for the acceptance of running characteristics of

railway vehicles - Running Behaviour and stationary tests
EN 15273-3, Railway applications - Gauges - Part 3: Structure gauges

EN 15528, Railway applications - Line categories for managing the interface between load limits of

vehicles and infrastructure
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EN 16432-1:2017 (E)

EN 16207, Railway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Magnetic Track Brake

systems for use in railway rolling stock
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
design life

assumed period for which a ballastless track system, or part of it, is to be used for its intended purpose

with planned maintenance but without major repair
3.2
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMC

ability of equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without

introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment

3.3
floating slab

track system where a designed elasticity is introduced between the ballastless track system and

substructure
EXAMPLE For vibration mitigation.
3.4
substructure

earthworks (embankment, cutting or at-grade) or bridges (or similar civil structures) or tunnel floor

that lie below the ballastless track system
3.5
static action

action that does not cause significant acceleration of the structure or structural members

3.6
quasi-static action
dynamic action represented by an equivalent static action in a static model
3.7
dynamic action

action that causes significant acceleration of the structure or structural members

3.8
exceptional load
infrequent load which exceeds the limit for the relevant operational conditions
3.9
track stability
resistance of the track to buckling
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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
4 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
CWR Continuous Welded Rail
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
UV Ultra Violet (radiation)
ECB Eddy Current Brake
5 External actions
5.1 Railway traffic loading
5.1.1 General

The main function of the track is to safely guide the vehicle and to distribute the loads through the

ballastless track system to the substructure. The ballastless track system shall carry the loads from the

railway traffic over the design life within the specified operational and safety limits.

Loads are generated by:
— static or quasi static actions;
— dynamic actions;
— exceptional actions.

Other loads associated with construction, maintenance and emergency access shall be considered as

necessary. 5.1 of this standard describes the requirements of railway traffic by vehicles that run on the

rails of the ballastless track system.

NOTE Other vehicles that run during construction, maintenance or during an emergency or at level crossings

on the track surface beside the rails are not in the scope of this standard.
5.1.2 Vertical loads
5.1.2.1 General

If no specific information is available regarding the vertical loading then load model 71 shall be applied

as static vertical load for railway traffic to design the rail supporting structure. If specified, the

ballastless track system may also be designed for vertical loads which are of short duration or are

applied only infrequently during the design life according to the line category. Also models representing

real vehicles may be used.
5.1.2.2 Load model 71

The rail traffic covered by load model 71 according to EN 1991-2:2003, 6.3.2, represents all types of

vehicles and European standard railway traffic up to 250 kN axle load.
5.1.2.3 Load model according to line category

If specified by the customer, vertical load models according to the line categories in EN 15528 shall be

applied for the design of the ballastless track system.
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EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
5.1.2.4 Real vehicle model

If specified by the customer, a real vehicle load model representing the conditions of traffic operation

for the line (e.g. for specially dedicated rolling stock running on self-contained railways with uniform

traffic and limited variation in vehicle type over the design life) shall be used for the design of the

ballastless track system.
5.1.2.5 Additional vertical loads

Vertical static loads act unequally on the inner and outer rails due to centrifugal effects in curves or

non-uniform load distribution. Such effects shall be determined on the basis of the applied vehicle

model, taking into account of track alignment parameters such as cant and cant deficiency.

If track alignment parameters are not specified, the load distribution between inner and outer wheel

shall be a maximum of ± 25 %, equivalent to factor k = 1,25 (±20 % equivalent to factor k = 1,20 if

q q
tilting vehicles are excluded).

NOTE 1 k is the factor to increase the static wheel loads by additional vertical load (additional quasi static

wheel load acting on outside rail along curves).
NOTE 2 For more information, see EN 16432–2:2017, Annex A.
5.1.2.6 Dynamic vertical loads

Dynamic vertical loads are dependent on vehicle speed, the condition of the vehicle and of the track

quality, see EN 13848-5 and EN 13848-6.

The dynamic vertical load is obtained from multiplication of the static load from the applied load model

and the factor, e.g. k × load model 71.

Unless otherwise specified a factor of k = 1,5 shall be applied to all static and quasi-static loads, see

5.1.2.2, 5.1.2.3 and 5.1.2.4.

NOTE 2 The factor 1,5 is set also according to the maximum safety limit of 5,0 m/s vertical car body

acceleration of EN 14363.
Alternative models to determine the dynamic loads or the dynamic factor k are:

— track quality characterized by normal distribution using deviation from the intended vertical

profile of the loaded rail within the following limits:
a) coefficient of variation should be limited to 10 %;
b) confidence level 99,7 % unless otherwise specified;

— Power Spectral Density (PSD) function describing vehicle response (e.g. by Multi-Body-Simulation)

according to specified limits;

— other models describing vehicle-track-substructure interaction in combination with acceptance

criteria.
5.1.2.7 Exceptional vertical loads

Exceptional loads shall be checked taking into account the low frequency of occurrence.

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EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
5.1.3 Lateral loads
5.1.3.1 General

Lateral loads always act in combination with the corresponding vertical loads, see 5.1.2.

5.1.3.2 Static and quasi static train guiding loads

Unless otherwise specified a sum of lateral guidance forces (including centrifugal forces) according to

the safety limit Σ Y of EN 14363 shall be applied.
max,lim
Y k × 10+ 2× Q / 3 (1)
( )
l 1
where
Y is the sum of lateral guidance forces acting on the rail head in kN;
k is 1,0 for all kinds of vehicle on ballastless track;
Q is the vertical static wheel load in kN.

If specified by the customer alternative models to determine the static and quasi-static lateral loads

shall be applied.
5.1.3.3 Exceptional lateral loads

The exceptional lateral load shall be able to be resisted by the track system at any point. It should not be

used in addition to the quasi-static lateral load.

The exceptional lateral load shall be taken as Y = 1,2 × Q according to EN 14363 acting on a single

wheel.
5.1.4 Longitudinal loads
5.1.4.1 Braking and acceleration

Longitudinal loads caused by braking and acceleration shall be considered equivalent to the force

generated by at least 2,5 m/s in combination with the corresponding vertical loads. If specified by the

customer higher accelerations shall be considered according to EN 1991-2:2003, 6.5.3.

5.1.4.2 Eddy current braking

Where applicable, effects due to eddy current braking shall be considered. Effects of eddy current

braking systems, if used for regular service braking are dependent on the activated brake force and the

sequence of trains. Effects activated by emergency braking are significantly higher and should be

handled as exceptional loading, according to 5.1.2.7 and 5.1.4.3 for magnetic rail brakes. The effects of

eddy current brake systems in terms of operational track loading are:

— a vertical attraction force between the brake and ferromagnetic components of the ballastless track

system and track equipment;

a) maximum vertical attraction force activated by magnets shall be determined and specified from

the rolling stock. The attraction force interferes with movable track components,

e.g. turnouts-lift of tongue rail, and track equipment;

b) attraction forces between the braking system and the CWR are insignificant in terms of

ballastless track system loading unless the force exceeds 40 kN/bogie and per rail due to

emergency braking;
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SIST EN 16432-1:2017
EN 16432-1:2017 (E)
— a longitudinal rail force equal to the activated braking force;
— heating of the rails:

1) this effect shall be calculated by increasing the maximum rail temperature. It shall also be

considered for the definition of the neutral rail temperature for making of continuous welded

rails (CWR);

2) decisive rail temperature is equivalent to overall temperature of rail cross-section not surface

temperature;

3) temperature increase by eddy current braking shall be determined based on the specified

performance of the brake set up and configuration, e.g. gap between rail and brake. It shall also

take into account the maximum contribution of eddy current brake to operational deceleration

and sequence of trains. Unless otherwise specified the procedure according to Annex A should

be applied for the calculation of rail temperature increase by ECB;

4) alternatively the maximum allowable rail temperature increase due to eddy current braking

shall be specified. This requires a vehicle or track based rail temperature control system for

acceptance of eddy current brakes as operational braking systems.
5.1.4.3 Exceptional longitudinal loads

Magnetic track brakes are normally used as emergency braking and not operational braking systems.

Therefore thermal effects and longitudinal loads should be considered to be exceptional track loadings.

As long as the rail temperature increase by emergency braking does not exceed 6 Kelvin (K), the case is

covered by the safety margin applied for track design procedures and no further calculation is required.

In case magnetic track brakes are used as operational braking systems the requirements according to

EN 16207 shall be applied.
5.2 Substructure
5.2.1 General

This clause specifies general requirements for the ballastless track system according to the

substructure characteristics.

The required substructure characteristics are separately specified in this clause for earthworks

(cuttings, embankments or at-grade situations), bridge structures and tunnels. It also covers transitions

between these different substructure types.
5.2.2 Earthworks
5.2.2.1 General

The earthwork formation (cuttings, embankments or at-grade) which supports the ballastless track

system shall be able to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads from the ballastless track system into

the subsoil, without failure of the ground support or excessive deformation. The design of the

ballastless track system shall be compatible with the characteristics and performance of an earthwork

as specified in EN 1997-1.

For a ballastless track system it is necessary to limit permanent deformations (settlement or heave) as

well as elastic deformations due to variable loading. The design limits for these parameters shall be

determined for the design of the ballastless track system and to define the specification for design and

construction of the earthworks.
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EN 16432-1:2017 (E)

During construction, appropriate tests should be undertaken to ensure achievement of the designed

deformation response to load in the track formation.

NOTE EN 1997–2 provides a range of standard tests suitable for measurement of the earthwork parameters

required for compaction, stability, bearing capacity, drainage and frost susceptibility.

5.2.2.2 Stiffness

The stiffness of the substructure shall be defined, in order to design the ballastless track system. If

deformation modulus E on formation level is applied it should be at least 60 N/mm .

5.2.2.3 Bearing capacity

The limiting stress to be applied by the ballastless track system shall be specified. Unless otherwise

specified vertical stress activated by operational rail traffic loading should not exceed 0,05 N/mm .

5.2.2.4 Permanent deformation

A ballastless track system does not normally tolerate significant permanent deformation of the

substructure which would adversely affect the design speed or ride quality for railwa

...

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