Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 7: Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in-orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnologies

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 7: Thermische und umweltbedingte Integrität, Herstellungsaspekte, In-Orbit- und Gesundheitsüberwachung, weiche Werkstoffe, Hybridwerkstoffe und Nanotechnologien

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 7 : Intégrité thermique et en environnement, aspects fabrication, surveillance des matériaux, matériaux souples, matériaux hybrides et nanotechnologies

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Oct-2021
Publication Date
10-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
11-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022
01-marec-2022

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 7. del: Toplotna in okoljska

celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki
materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 7: Thermal and environmental

integrity, manufacturing aspects, in-orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid

materials and nanotechnologies
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 7: Thermische und

umweltbedingte Integrität, Herstellungsaspekte, In-Orbit- und Gesundheitsüberwachung,

weiche Werkstoffe, Hybridwerkstoffe und Nanotechnologien

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 7 : Intégrité thermique et

en environnement, aspects fabrication, surveillance des matériaux, matériaux souples,

matériaux hybrides et nanotechnologies
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-07
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
7: Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing
aspects, in-orbit and health monitoring, soft materials,
hybrid materials and nanotechnologies

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe -

- Partie 7 : Intégrité thermique et en environnement, Teil 7: Thermische und umweltbedingte Integrität,

aspects fabrication, surveillance des matériaux, Herstellungsaspekte, In-Orbit- und

matériaux souples, matériaux hybrides et Gesundheitsüberwachung, weiche Werkstoffe,

nanotechnologies Hybridwerkstoffe und Nanotechnologien

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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CEN/TR 17603-32-07:2022 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................ 30

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 31

82 Thermal behaviour ............................................................................................ 32

82.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................32

82.1.1 General ........................................................................................................32

82.1.2 Physical response .......................................................................................32

82.1.3 Physical properties ......................................................................................32

82.2 MMC: Thermal cycling ............................................................................................33

82.2.1 General ........................................................................................................33

82.2.2 Magnesium-carbon fibre composites ...........................................................33

82.2.3 Aluminium-carbon fibre composites .............................................................34

82.2.4 Aluminium-boron filament composites .........................................................34

82.2.5 Titanium-silicon carbide filament composites ...............................................35

82.2.6 Superalloy (FeCrAlY) composites ................................................................35

82.3 CMC: Thermal cycling ............................................................................................35

82.4 MMC: Thermal shock ..............................................................................................36

82.4.1 General ........................................................................................................36

82.4.2 Metal alloys .................................................................................................36

82.4.3 MMC ............................................................................................................36

82.4.4 Intermetallics ...............................................................................................36

82.5 CMC: Thermal shock ..............................................................................................36

82.5.1 General ........................................................................................................36

82.5.2 SiC-SiC composites .....................................................................................37

82.6 MMC: Thermal conductivity ....................................................................................38

82.6.1 General ........................................................................................................38

82.6.2 Thermal diffusivity measurement .................................................................38

82.6.3 Effect of material composition ......................................................................38

82.6.4 Modelling .....................................................................................................39

82.7 CMC: Thermal conductivity .....................................................................................40

82.7.1 General ........................................................................................................40

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82.7.2 Glass-ceramic matrix composites ................................................................40

82.7.3 SiC-SiC and C-SiC composites....................................................................41

82.8 Specific heat capacity .............................................................................................48

82.9 Surface emissivity ...................................................................................................48

82.10 Surface catalyticity ..................................................................................................49

82.11 References .............................................................................................................49

82.11.1 General .....................................................................................................49

83 Thermo-mechanical fatigue .............................................................................. 52

83.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................52

83.2 Phased TMF ...........................................................................................................52

83.3 Superalloys .............................................................................................................53

83.4 Aluminium composites ............................................................................................53

83.4.1 Particulate reinforced composites ................................................................53

83.4.2 Continuous fibre reinforced composites .......................................................54

83.5 Titanium composites ...............................................................................................54

83.6 Copper composites .................................................................................................57

83.7 Ceramic composites ...............................................................................................58

83.8 Carbon-carbon composites .....................................................................................58

83.9 Predictive methods .................................................................................................58

83.10 References .............................................................................................................59

83.10.1 General .....................................................................................................59

84 Dimensional control .......................................................................................... 62

84.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................62

84.2 Residual stresses ...................................................................................................62

84.3 Creep: Metallic materials ........................................................................................62

84.3.1 General ........................................................................................................62

84.3.2 Particulate reinforced aluminium composites ...............................................63

84.3.3 Discontinuous fibre reinforced aluminium ....................................................63

84.4 Creep: Ceramic composites ....................................................................................63

84.4.1 General ........................................................................................................63

84.4.2 Creep mismatch ratio (CMR) .......................................................................63

84.5 Crack densities .......................................................................................................66

84.6 CTE: Metallic materials ...........................................................................................66

84.6.1 General ........................................................................................................66

84.6.2 Continuous reinforcement ............................................................................66

84.6.3 Particulate reinforcement .............................................................................67

84.7 CTE: Ceramic composites ......................................................................................67

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84.7.1 SiC matrix composites .................................................................................67

84.7.2 Glass matrix composites ..............................................................................70

84.7.3 Environmental factors ..................................................................................70

84.8 References .............................................................................................................70

84.8.1 General ........................................................................................................70

85 High-temperature environmental stability ...................................................... 72

85.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................72

85.2 Aqueous corrosion: Metals .....................................................................................72

85.2.1 General ........................................................................................................72

85.2.2 Aluminium-based composites ......................................................................72

85.3 Hot corrosion: Metals ..............................................................................................73

85.3.1 Applications .................................................................................................73

85.3.2 Causes ........................................................................................................73

85.3.3 Protection systems ......................................................................................74

85.4 Hot corrosion: CMC ................................................................................................74

85.4.1 Causes ........................................................................................................74

85.5 Oxidation: Metals ....................................................................................................74

85.6 Oxidation: Ceramics ...............................................................................................74

85.6.1 Carbon-containing materials ........................................................................74

85.6.2 SiC-SiC composites .....................................................................................75

85.6.3 Chemical reactions ......................................................................................76

85.6.4 Effect of conditions ......................................................................................76

85.6.5 Effect of manufacturing route .......................................................................76

85.6.6 Modelling .....................................................................................................77

85.7 Hydrogen embrittlement..........................................................................................77

85.7.1 General ........................................................................................................77

85.7.2 Metal-based materials .................................................................................77

85.7.3 Ceramic-based materials .............................................................................78

85.7.4 Precautions .................................................................................................78

85.8 Hydrogen: Titanium materials .................................................................................79

85.8.1 General ........................................................................................................79

85.8.2 Alloys ...........................................................................................................79

85.8.3 MMC ............................................................................................................80

85.9 Hydrogen: Intermetallic materials ............................................................................80

85.9.1 Titanium aluminides .....................................................................................80

85.10 Hydrogen: Carbon composites................................................................................82

85.11 References .............................................................................................................82

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85.11.1 General .....................................................................................................82

86 High-temperature test facilities ........................................................................ 85

86.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................85

86.2 Thermo-mechanical loading ....................................................................................86

86.2.1 General ........................................................................................................86

86.2.2 Spaceplane verification ................................................................................86

86.2.3 Test facilities ................................................................................................86

86.3 Thermo-acoustic testing..........................................................................................87

86.3.1 General ........................................................................................................87

86.3.2 Test facilities ................................................................................................87

86.4 Plasma arc jet tests ................................................................................................87

86.4.1 General ........................................................................................................87

86.4.2 Test facilities ................................................................................................87

86.5 Electric arc jet tests .................................................................................................87

86.5.1 General ........................................................................................................87

86.5.2 Test facilities ................................................................................................88

86.6 Oxygen-hydrogen combustors ................................................................................88

86.7 European facilities ..................................................................................................88

86.7.1 General ........................................................................................................88

86.7.2 France .........................................................................................................88

86.7.3 Germany ......................................................................................................89

86.7.4 Switzerland ..................................................................................................89

86.7.5 Austria .........................................................................................................89

86.7.6 UK ...............................................................................................................90

86.7.7 The Netherlands ..........................................................................................90

86.7.8 Belgium .......................................................................................................90

86.7.9 Russia .........................................................................................................90

86.8 References .............................................................................................................90

86.8.1 General ........................................................................................................90

87 Integrated manufacturing ................................................................................. 93

87.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................93

87.2 Process development .............................................................................................93

87.2.1 Techniques ..................................................................................................93

87.2.2 Status ..........................................................................................................93

87.2.3 Expertise .....................................................................................................93

87.3 Stages in manufacture ............................................................................................94

87.3.1 Process techniques .....................................................................................94

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87.3.2 Finishing ......................................................................................................95

87.3.3 Surface protection and coatings ..................................................................95

88 Manufacturing techniques ................................................................................ 96

88.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................96

88.2 Composite manufacture ..........................................................................................96

88.2.1 Matrix phase ................................................................................................96

88.2.2 Reinforcement .............................................................................................98

88.2.3 Processing ...................................................................................................98

88.3 Powder processing .................................................................................................98

88.3.1 Metals ..........................................................................................................98

88.3.2 MMC ............................................................................................................99

88.4 Sintering ............................................................................................................... 101

88.5 Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) .................................................................................. 101

88.6 Foil and fibre consolidation ................................................................................... 101

88.6.1 General ...................................................................................................... 101

88.6.2 Metal foils .................................................................................................. 102

88.6.3 Powder cloth .............................................................................................. 102

88.7 Superplastic forming (SPF) ................................................................................... 103

88.7.1 Metal characteristics .................................................................................. 103

88.7.2 Techniques ................................................................................................ 103

88.8 Diffusion bonding (DB) .......................................................................................... 105

88.9 Hot pressing ......................................................................................................... 106

88.9.1 MMC .......................................................................................................... 106

88.9.2 Glass and ceramic-based composites ....................................................... 106

88.10 Diffusion coatings ................................................................................................. 106

88.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 106

88.10.2 Pack cementation ................................................................................... 106

88.10.3 Chromising .............................................................................................. 107

88.10.4 Aluminising ............................................................................................. 108

88.10.5 Selective oxidation .................................................................................. 109

88.10.6 Modified native oxides ............................................................................. 109

88.11 Reaction bonding .................................................................................................. 109

88.12 Polymer or pitch infiltration and pyrolysis .............................................................. 110

88.13 Melt infiltration ...................................................................................................... 111

88.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 111

88.13.2 Metal matrix ............................................................................................ 111

88.13.3 Glass matrix ............................................................................................ 113

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88.13.4 Ceramic matrix ........................................................................................ 114

88.14 In-situ siliconising.................................................................................................. 114

88.14.1 Molten ..................................................................................................... 114

88.14.2 Particulate ............................................................................................... 114

88.15 In-situ oxidation .................................................................................................... 114

88.15.1 MMC to ceramic oxide matrix .................................................................. 114

88.15.2 Oxide coatings on metals ........................................................................ 115

88.15.3 Oxide coatings on ceramics .................................................................... 115

88.16 Sol-gel .................................................................................................................. 115

88.17 Slurry infiltration .................................................................................................... 118

88.18 Investment casting ................................................................................................ 120

88.19 Spray techniques .................................................................................................. 122

88.19.1 Atomisation ............................................................................................. 122

88.19.2 Plasma spraying ..................................................................................... 122

88.20 Physical vapour deposition (PVD) ......................................................................... 125

88.20.1 Coatings .................................................................................................. 125

88.21 Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) ....................................................................... 127

88.22 Chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) ......................................................................... 128

88.23 References ........................................................................................................... 131

88.23.1 General ................................................................................................... 131

89 European sources of expertise ...................................................................... 134

89.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 134

89.2 Company specialisation ........................................................................................ 135

89.2.1 General ...................................................................................................... 135

89.2.2 Aerospatiale .............................................................................................. 135

89.2.3 Societe Européene de Propulsion (SEP) ................................................... 136

89.2.4 ONERA : L'Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiale ......... 136

89.2.5 Le Carbone ................................................................................................ 136

89.2.6 SNECMA ................................................................................................... 136

89.2.7 Dassault Aviation ....................................................................................... 136

89.2.8 Dornier Luftfahrt GmbH ............................................................................. 136

89.2.9 Dornier Deutche Aerospace ....................................................................... 136

89.2.10 MAN Technologie AG ............................................................................. 137

89.2.11 SIGRI ...................................................................................................... 137

89.2.12 MBB (DASA) ........................................................................................... 137

89.2.13 MTU Motoren und Turbinen Union GmbH ............................................... 137

89.2.14 Sintec Keramik ........................................................................................ 137

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89.2.15 Deutche Forschunganstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR) ........................ 137

89.2.16 British Aerospace (BAe) .......................................................................... 137

89.2.17 Rolls Royce ................................................................................

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07:2021
01-oktober-2021

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 7.del: Toplotna in okoljska

celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje v orbiti in zdravju, mehki materiali,
hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 7: Thermal and environmental

integrity, manufacturing aspects, in-orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid

materials and nanotechnologies
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 7: Thermische und

umweltbedingte Integrität, Herstellungsaspekte, In-Orbit- und Gesundheitsüberwachung,

weiche Werkstoffe, Hybridwerkstoffe und Nanotechnologien

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 7 : Intégrité thermique et

en environnement, aspects fabrication, surveillance des matériaux, matériaux souples,

matériaux hybrides et nanotechnologies
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
7: Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing
aspects, in-orbit and health monitoring, soft materials,
hybrid materials and nanotechnologies

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe -

- Partie 7 : Intégrité thermique et en environnement, Teil 7: Thermische und umweltbedingte Integrität,

aspects fabrication, surveillance des matériaux, Herstellungsaspekte, In-Orbit- und

matériaux souples, matériaux hybrides et Gesundheitsüberwachung, weiche Werkstoffe,

nanotechnologies Hybridwerkstoffe und Nanotechnologien

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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FprCEN/TR 17603-32-07:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................ 30

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 31

82 Thermal behaviour ............................................................................................ 32

82.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................32

82.1.1 General ........................................................................................................32

82.1.2 Physical response .......................................................................................32

82.1.3 Physical properties ......................................................................................32

82.2 MMC: Thermal cycling ............................................................................................33

82.2.1 General ........................................................................................................33

82.2.2 Magnesium-carbon fibre composites ...........................................................33

82.2.3 Aluminium-carbon fibre composites .............................................................34

82.2.4 Aluminium-boron filament composites .........................................................34

82.2.5 Titanium-silicon carbide filament composites ...............................................35

82.2.6 Superalloy (FeCrAlY) composites ................................................................35

82.3 CMC: Thermal cycling ............................................................................................35

82.4 MMC: Thermal shock ..............................................................................................36

82.4.1 General ........................................................................................................36

82.4.2 Metal alloys .................................................................................................36

82.4.3 MMC ............................................................................................................36

82.4.4 Intermetallics ...............................................................................................36

82.5 CMC: Thermal shock ..............................................................................................36

82.5.1 General ........................................................................................................36

82.5.2 SiC-SiC composites .....................................................................................37

82.6 MMC: Thermal conductivity ....................................................................................38

82.6.1 General ........................................................................................................38

82.6.2 Thermal diffusivity measurement .................................................................38

82.6.3 Effect of material composition ......................................................................38

82.6.4 Modelling .....................................................................................................39

82.7 CMC: Thermal conductivity .....................................................................................40

82.7.1 General ........................................................................................................40

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82.7.2 Glass-ceramic matrix composites ................................................................40

82.7.3 SiC-SiC and C-SiC composites....................................................................41

82.8 Specific heat capacity .............................................................................................48

82.9 Surface emissivity ...................................................................................................48

82.10 Surface catalyticity ..................................................................................................49

82.11 References .............................................................................................................49

82.11.1 General .....................................................................................................49

83 Thermo-mechanical fatigue .............................................................................. 52

83.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................52

83.2 Phased TMF ...........................................................................................................52

83.3 Superalloys .............................................................................................................53

83.4 Aluminium composites ............................................................................................53

83.4.1 Particulate reinforced composites ................................................................53

83.4.2 Continuous fibre reinforced composites .......................................................54

83.5 Titanium composites ...............................................................................................54

83.6 Copper composites .................................................................................................57

83.7 Ceramic composites ...............................................................................................58

83.8 Carbon-carbon composites .....................................................................................58

83.9 Predictive methods .................................................................................................58

83.10 References .............................................................................................................59

83.10.1 General .....................................................................................................59

84 Dimensional control .......................................................................................... 62

84.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................62

84.2 Residual stresses ...................................................................................................62

84.3 Creep: Metallic materials ........................................................................................62

84.3.1 General ........................................................................................................62

84.3.2 Particulate reinforced aluminium composites ...............................................63

84.3.3 Discontinuous fibre reinforced aluminium ....................................................63

84.4 Creep: Ceramic composites ....................................................................................63

84.4.1 General ........................................................................................................63

84.4.2 Creep mismatch ratio (CMR) .......................................................................63

84.5 Crack densities .......................................................................................................66

84.6 CTE: Metallic materials ...........................................................................................66

84.6.1 General ........................................................................................................66

84.6.2 Continuous reinforcement ............................................................................66

84.6.3 Particulate reinforcement .............................................................................67

84.7 CTE: Ceramic composites ......................................................................................67

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84.7.1 SiC matrix composites .................................................................................67

84.7.2 Glass matrix composites ..............................................................................70

84.7.3 Environmental factors ..................................................................................70

84.8 References .............................................................................................................70

84.8.1 General ........................................................................................................70

85 High-temperature environmental stability ...................................................... 72

85.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................72

85.2 Aqueous corrosion: Metals .....................................................................................72

85.2.1 General ........................................................................................................72

85.2.2 Aluminium-based composites ......................................................................72

85.3 Hot corrosion: Metals ..............................................................................................73

85.3.1 Applications .................................................................................................73

85.3.2 Causes ........................................................................................................73

85.3.3 Protection systems ......................................................................................74

85.4 Hot corrosion: CMC ................................................................................................74

85.4.1 Causes ........................................................................................................74

85.5 Oxidation: Metals ....................................................................................................74

85.6 Oxidation: Ceramics ...............................................................................................74

85.6.1 Carbon-containing materials ........................................................................74

85.6.2 SiC-SiC composites .....................................................................................75

85.6.3 Chemical reactions ......................................................................................76

85.6.4 Effect of conditions ......................................................................................76

85.6.5 Effect of manufacturing route .......................................................................76

85.6.6 Modelling .....................................................................................................77

85.7 Hydrogen embrittlement..........................................................................................77

85.7.1 General ........................................................................................................77

85.7.2 Metal-based materials .................................................................................77

85.7.3 Ceramic-based materials .............................................................................78

85.7.4 Precautions .................................................................................................78

85.8 Hydrogen: Titanium materials .................................................................................79

85.8.1 General ........................................................................................................79

85.8.2 Alloys ...........................................................................................................79

85.8.3 MMC ............................................................................................................80

85.9 Hydrogen: Intermetallic materials ............................................................................80

85.9.1 Titanium aluminides .....................................................................................80

85.10 Hydrogen: Carbon composites................................................................................82

85.11 References .............................................................................................................82

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85.11.1 General .....................................................................................................82

86 High-temperature test facilities ........................................................................ 85

86.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................85

86.2 Thermo-mechanical loading ....................................................................................86

86.2.1 General ........................................................................................................86

86.2.2 Spaceplane verification ................................................................................86

86.2.3 Test facilities ................................................................................................86

86.3 Thermo-acoustic testing..........................................................................................87

86.3.1 General ........................................................................................................87

86.3.2 Test facilities ................................................................................................87

86.4 Plasma arc jet tests ................................................................................................87

86.4.1 General ........................................................................................................87

86.4.2 Test facilities ................................................................................................87

86.5 Electric arc jet tests .................................................................................................87

86.5.1 General ........................................................................................................87

86.5.2 Test facilities ................................................................................................88

86.6 Oxygen-hydrogen combustors ................................................................................88

86.7 European facilities ..................................................................................................88

86.7.1 General ........................................................................................................88

86.7.2 France .........................................................................................................88

86.7.3 Germany ......................................................................................................89

86.7.4 Switzerland ..................................................................................................89

86.7.5 Austria .........................................................................................................89

86.7.6 UK ...............................................................................................................90

86.7.7 The Netherlands ..........................................................................................90

86.7.8 Belgium .......................................................................................................90

86.7.9 Russia .........................................................................................................90

86.8 References .............................................................................................................90

86.8.1 General ........................................................................................................90

87 Integrated manufacturing ................................................................................. 93

87.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................93

87.2 Process development .............................................................................................93

87.2.1 Techniques ..................................................................................................93

87.2.2 Status ..........................................................................................................93

87.2.3 Expertise .....................................................................................................93

87.3 Stages in manufacture ............................................................................................94

87.3.1 Process techniques .....................................................................................94

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87.3.2 Finishing ......................................................................................................95

87.3.3 Surface protection and coatings ..................................................................95

88 Manufacturing techniques ................................................................................ 96

88.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................96

88.2 Composite manufacture ..........................................................................................96

88.2.1 Matrix phase ................................................................................................96

88.2.2 Reinforcement .............................................................................................98

88.2.3 Processing ...................................................................................................98

88.3 Powder processing .................................................................................................98

88.3.1 Metals ..........................................................................................................98

88.3.2 MMC ............................................................................................................99

88.4 Sintering ............................................................................................................... 101

88.5 Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) .................................................................................. 101

88.6 Foil and fibre consolidation ................................................................................... 101

88.6.1 General ...................................................................................................... 101

88.6.2 Metal foils .................................................................................................. 102

88.6.3 Powder cloth .............................................................................................. 102

88.7 Superplastic forming (SPF) ................................................................................... 103

88.7.1 Metal characteristics .................................................................................. 103

88.7.2 Techniques ................................................................................................ 103

88.8 Diffusion bonding (DB) .......................................................................................... 105

88.9 Hot pressing ......................................................................................................... 106

88.9.1 MMC .......................................................................................................... 106

88.9.2 Glass and ceramic-based composites ....................................................... 106

88.10 Diffusion coatings ................................................................................................. 106

88.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 106

88.10.2 Pack cementation ................................................................................... 106

88.10.3 Chromising .............................................................................................. 107

88.10.4 Aluminising ............................................................................................. 108

88.10.5 Selective oxidation .................................................................................. 109

88.10.6 Modified native oxides ............................................................................. 109

88.11 Reaction bonding .................................................................................................. 109

88.12 Polymer or pitch infiltration and pyrolysis .............................................................. 110

88.13 Melt infiltration ...................................................................................................... 111

88.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 111

88.13.2 Metal matrix ............................................................................................ 111

88.13.3 Glass matrix ............................................................................................ 113

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88.13.4 Ceramic matrix ........................................................................................ 114

88.14 In-situ siliconising.................................................................................................. 114

88.14.1 Molten ..................................................................................................... 114

88.14.2 Particulate ............................................................................................... 114

88.15 In-situ oxidation .................................................................................................... 114

88.15.1 MMC to ceramic oxide matrix .................................................................. 114

88.15.2 Oxide coatings on metals ........................................................................ 115

88.15.3 Oxide coatings on ceramics .................................................................... 115

88.16 Sol-gel .................................................................................................................. 115

88.17 Slurry infiltration .................................................................................................... 118

88.18 Investment casting ................................................................................................ 120

88.19 Spray techniques .................................................................................................. 122

88.19.1 Atomisation ............................................................................................. 122

88.19.2 Plasma spraying ..................................................................................... 122

88.20 Physical vapour deposition (PVD) ......................................................................... 125

88.20.1 Coatings .................................................................................................. 125

88.21 Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) ....................................................................... 127

88.22 Chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) ......................................................................... 128

88.23 References ........................................................................................................... 131

88.23.1 General ................................................................................................... 131

89 European sources of expertise ...................................................................... 134

89.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 134

89.2 Company specialisation ........................................................................................ 135

89.2.1 General ...................................................................................................... 135

89.2.2 Aerospatiale .............................................................................................. 135

89.2.3 Societe Européene de Propulsion (SEP) ................................................... 136

89.2.4 ONERA : L'Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiale ......... 136

89.2.5 Le Carbone ................................................................................................ 136

89.2.6 SNECMA ................................................................................................... 136

89.2.7 Dassault Aviation ....................................................................................... 136

89.2.8 Dornier Luftfahrt GmbH ............................................................................. 136

89.2.9 Dornier Deutche Aerospace ....................................................................... 136

89.2.10 MAN Technologie AG ............................................................................. 137

89.2.11 SIGRI ...................................................................................................... 137

89.2.12 MBB (DASA) ........................................................................................... 137

89.2.13 MTU Motoren und Turbinen Union GmbH ............................................... 137

89.2.14 Sintec Keramik ........................................................................................ 137

...

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