Solid recovered fuels - Vocabulary (ISO 21637:2020)

This International Standard defines terms and definitions concerned in all standardisation work within
the scope of ISO/TC 300, i.e. terms used in the field of production and trade of solid recovered fuels
that are prepared from non-hazardous waste.
NOTE Solid biofuels are covered by the scope of ISO/TC 238.
Definitions in other standards with a scope different from the scope of this International Standard can
be different from the definitions in this International Standard.

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Terminologie, Definitionen und Beschreibungen (ISO 21637:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt Begriffe für feste Sekundärbrennstoffe fest, um es dem Anwender zu ermöglichen, den Tätigkeitsbereich des ISO/TC 300 zu verstehen. Sind eine Benennung und Definition in einer Einzelnorm erforderlich, werden diese in jener Norm in Bezug genommen.
Terminologische Grenzen sind in Bild 1 beschrieben.
[Bild 1]
ANMERKUNG Biogene Festbrennstoffe fallen in den Aufgabenbereich vom ISO/TC 238.

Combustibles solides de récupération - Vocabulaire (ISO 21637:2020)

Trdna alternativna goriva - Slovar (ISO 21637:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Dec-2019
Publication Date
26-Jan-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Jan-2021
Due Date
13-Mar-2021
Completion Date
27-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
01-marec-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15357:2011
Trdna alternativna goriva - Slovar (ISO 21637:2020)
Solid recovered fuels - Vocabulary (ISO 21637:2020)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Terminologie, Definitionen und Beschreibungen (ISO
21637:2020)
Combustibles solides de récupération - Vocabulaire (ISO 21637:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21637:2020
ICS:
01.040.75 Naftna in sorodna tehnologija Petroleum and related
(Slovarji) technologies (Vocabularies)
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST EN ISO 21637:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
EN ISO 21637
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.75; 75.160.10 Supersedes EN 15357:2011
English Version
Solid recovered fuels - Vocabulary (ISO 21637:2020)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Vocabulaire Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Terminologie,

(ISO 21637:2020) Definitionen und Beschreibungen (ISO 21637:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 October 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21637:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
EN ISO 21637:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
EN ISO 21637:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21637:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 "Solid

Recovered Fuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 343 “Solid Recovered Fuels” the

secretariat of which is held by SFS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15357:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21637:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21637:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21637
First edition
2020-12
Solid recovered fuels — Vocabulary
Combustibles solides de récupération — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 21637:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (informative) Terms grouped by typical uses...................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels, in collaboration

with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 343, Solid

Recovered Fuels, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
Introduction

The terminology, definitions and descriptions included in this document are those needed to understand

the scope of ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels, and those that appear in two or more standards of

ISO/TC 300.

Where a term is used in only one standard, the term will be defined in the individual standard.

Due to the development cycle of other standards of ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels, there may be

instances of the terms not following the above rule. Where possible, this document tries to follow the rules

stated, however, users should check terms and the understanding of terms in other standards as well.

Following the ISO rules, this document does not include common and generic terms.

Annex A provides a list of terms grouped by sub-sections to enable the user to find terms more quickly.

Where there are several synonyms that can be used, the preferred one is written first.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21637:2020(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms for solid recovered fuels to enable the user to understand the scope of

the work of ISO/TC 300. Where a term and definition are required in a single standard, the term and

definition will be referenced in that standard.
Vocabulary boundaries are described in Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Vocabulary boundaries for solid recovered fuels
NOTE Solid biofuels are covered by the scope of ISO/TC 238.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
analysis sample

sample (3.63) taken specifically for the purpose of determining specified parameters

3.2
as received
calculation basis for material at delivery to the end user
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
3.3
ash
ash content on dry basis
total ash

mass of inorganic residue remaining after ignition of a fuel under specified conditions, also includes

removed ash contributors (3.62)

Note 1 to entry: This is expressed as mass fraction in per cent of the dry matter (3.22) in the fuel.

Note 2 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency, the ash may contain combustibles.

Note 3 to entry: If a complete combustion is realized, ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components.

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.13, modified — “ignition” has replaced “combustion”, details of the unit

have been moved to a new Note 1 to entry, “also includes removed ash contributors” has been added,

and the old Note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.4
ash fusibility
ash melting behaviour

characteristic physical state of the ash obtained by heating under specific conditions

Note 1 to entry: Ash fusibility is determined under either oxidizing or reducing conditions.

Note 2 to entry: See also ash sphere temperature (3.5).

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.16, modified — In Note 2 to entry, “ash shrinkage temperature” has been

changed to “ash sphere temperature”.]
3.5
ash sphere temperature

temperature where the height of a pyramidal and truncated-cone ash test piece is equal to the width

of the base, or the edges of cubical or cylindrical ash test pieces are completely round with the height

remaining unchanged
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 540:2008, 3.2.
3.6
bale
material which has been compressed and bound to keep its shape and density
3.7
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.32, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been removed.]

3.8
bridging
arching

tendency of particles to form a stable bridge across an opening and which restricts flow

3.9
bulk density

mass of a portion (i.e. a large quantity of particulate material) of a solid fuel divided by the volume of

the container which is filled by that portion under specific conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.40]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
3.10
calorific value
heating value

quantity of heat produced by the complete combustion, at a constant pressure equal to 1 013,25 mbar,

of a unit volume or mass of gas, the constituents of the combustible mixture being taken at reference

conditions and the products of combustion being brought back to the same conditions

[SOURCE: EN 437:2018, modified — The second paragraph and list have been removed.]

3.11
chips

chipped material with a typical length 5 mm to 50 mm commonly in the form of pieces with a defined

particle size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools such as knives
3.12
classification of solid recovered fuels

categorizing of solid recovered fuels (3.75) into classes focusing on the key properties (net calorific

value, chlorine and mercury) that are defined by boundary values
3.13
component

part or element of a larger whole of a solid recovered fuel (3.75) or a general material

3.14
composition
break down of solid recovered fuels (3.75) by types of components (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: This is typically expressed as a percentage of the mass fraction component in the fuel on an as

received (3.2) basis (% in mass ar).

Note 2 to entry: Examples of components: wood, paper, board, textiles, plastics, rubber.

3.15
crushing

mechanical reduction of particle size by exerting mainly blunt deforming forces to a material

3.16
densified solid recovered fuel

solid recovered fuel (3.75) made by mechanically compressing loose material to mould it into a specific

size and shape
Note 1 to entry: Examples are pellets and briquettes.
Note 2 to entry: The process can be aided by adding heat or binders.
3.17
distribution factor

correction factor for the particle size distribution (3.53) of the material to be sampled

3.18
drop flow

material flow falling over an overflow point or a drop point in a transport system

3.19
drying
process of removing water from a material

Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of test sample preparation, it may be useful to remove just the amount of water

that could interfere with other processes involved (e.g. during crushing (3.15) or milling (3.42)). In order to

minimise the alteration of the solid fuel during test portion preparation, removing the total amount of water

present is not necessarily needed.
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
3.20
dry
dry basis
calculation basis in which the material is considered free from moisture (3.46)

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.72, modified — “Solid biofuel” has been replaced with “material” and the

notes to entry have been removed.]
3.21
dry ash free
dry ash free basis
daf

calculation basis in which the material is considered free from moisture (3.46) and ash (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of dry ash free is daf.

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.71, modified — “Solid biofuel” has been replaced by “material” and

“inorganic matter” by “ash”.]
3.22
dry matter
material remaining after removal of moisture (3.46) under specific conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.73]
3.23
duplicate sample
two samples (3.63) taken under comparable conditions

Note 1 to entry: This selection may be accomplished by taking units adjacent in time or space.

3.24
effective increment size
minimum sample size (3.44) divided by the number of increments (3.39)
3.25
effective sample size
effective increment size (3.24) multiplied by the number of increments (3.39)
3.26
electromagnetic separation of non-ferrous metals
separation of non-ferrous metals by inducing temporary magnetic forces
Note 1 to entry: This term is also known as eddy current separation.
3.27
energy conversion

use of the calorific value (3.10) of the solid recovered fuel (3.75) for energy purposes (3.29), alone or with

other fuels

Note 1 to entry: Solid recovered fuels may be an intermediary energy carrier and used directly or indirectly for

the energy conversion such as in multi-stage production and use of synthetic gas. Examples of energy conversion

processes are incineration, co-incineration, combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, in which

energy is used for supplying heat, cooling and/or electric power.
3.28
energy density
ratio of net energy content and bulk volume

Note 1 to entry: The energy density is calculated by dividing the net calorific value by the bulk density (3.9).

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21637:2021
ISO 21637:2020(E)
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.79, modified — Note 1 to entry has been changed.]
3.29
energy purposes

use of the calorific value (3.10) within industrial processes or for the supply of heat and electrical power

Note 1 to entry: For industrial processes, the use of solid recovered fuel may contribute to the energy source

within the process of producing specific materials, such as cement clinker, bricks and lime.

3.30
fines

small sized particles in fuel below a certain pre-defined size, as agreed by the parties (3.54)

Note 1 to entry
...

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