Space engineering - Electrical and electronic

This Standard establishes the basic rules and general principles applicable to the electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, microwave and engineering processes. It specifies the tasks of these engineering processes and the basic performance and design requirements in each discipline.
It defines the terminology for the activities within these areas.
It defines the specific requirements for electrical subsystems and payloads, deriving from the system engineering requirements laid out in ECSS-E-ST-10 “Space engineering – System engineering general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrttechnik - Elektrik und Elektronik

Ingénierie spatiale - Électrique et électronique

La présente norme établit les règles de base et les principes généraux applicables aux processus électriques, électroniques, électromagnétiques, hyperfréquence et d'ingénierie. Elle spécifie les tâches composant ces processus d'ingénierie et les exigences de base concernant les performances et la conception dans chaque discipline.
Elle définit la terminologie des activités appartenant à ces domaines.
Elle définit les exigences spécifiques pour les sous-systèmes électriques et les charges utiles, issues des exigences d'ingénierie système énoncées dans l'ECSS-E-ST-10 « Ingénierie spatiale — Exigences générales d'ingénierie système ».
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d'un projet spatial, conformément à l'ECSS-S-ST-00.

Vesoljska tehnika - Električna in elektronska

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Mar-2020
Publication Date
20-Sep-2020
Withdrawal Date
08-Sep-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Sep-2021
Due Date
02-Oct-2021
Completion Date
09-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16603-20:2020
01-november-2020
Vesoljska tehnika - Električna in elektronska
Space engineering - Electrical and electronic
Raumfahrttechnik - Elektrik und Elektronik
Ingénierie spatiale - Électrique et électronique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16603-20:2020
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16603-20:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16603-20
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2020
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Electrical and electronic

Ingénierie spatiale - Électrique et électronique Raumfahrttechnik - Elektrik und Elektronik

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 August 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16603-20:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword .................................................................................................. 6

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................. 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................... 9

3.1 Terms from other standards ..................................................................................... 9

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ..................................................................... 9

3.3 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................. 15

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 16

4 General requirements .......................................................................................... 18

4.1 Interface requirements............................................................................................ 18

4.1.1 Overview .................................................................................................. 18

4.1.2 Signals interfaces ..................................................................................... 18

4.1.3 Commands ............................................................................................... 19

4.1.4 Telemetry ................................................................................................. 20

4.2 Design .................................................................................................................... 20

4.2.1 Failure containment and redundancy ........................................................ 20

4.2.2 Data processing ........................................................................................ 23

4.2.3 Electrical connectors ................................................................................. 24

4.2.4 Testing ...................................................................................................... 25

4.2.5 Mechanical: Wired electrical connections ................................................. 26

4.2.6 Miscellaneous ........................................................................................... 26

4.3 Verification ............................................................................................................. 27

4.3.1 Provisions ................................................................................................. 27

4.3.2 Documentation ......................................................................................... 27

5 Electrical power .................................................................................................... 28

5.1 Functional description ............................................................................................ 28

5.2 Power subsystem and budgets ............................................................................... 28

5.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 28

5.2.2 Provisions ................................................................................................. 28

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EN 16603-20:2020 (E)

5.3 Failure containment and redundancy ...................................................................... 30

5.4 Electrical power interfaces ...................................................................................... 30

5.5 Power generation ................................................................................................... 31

5.5.1 Solar cell, coverglass, SCA and PVA qualification .................................... 31

5.5.2 Solar array specification and design ......................................................... 31

5.5.3 Solar array power computation ................................................................. 33

5.5.4 Solar array drive mechanisms ................................................................... 36

5.6 Electrochemical Energy Storage ............................................................................ 36

5.6.1 Applicability ............................................................................................... 36

5.6.2 Batteries ................................................................................................... 36

5.6.3 Battery cell ................................................................................................ 38

5.6.4 Battery use and storage ............................................................................ 39

5.6.5 Battery safety ............................................................................................ 39

5.7 Power conditioning and control ............................................................................... 40

5.7.1 Applicability ............................................................................................... 40

5.7.2 Spacecraft bus .......................................................................................... 40

5.7.3 Battery Charge and Discharge Management ............................................ 44

5.7.4 Bus under-voltage or over-voltage ............................................................ 45

5.7.5 Power converters and regulators .............................................................. 46

5.7.6 Payload interaction ................................................................................... 47

5.8 Power distribution and protection ........................................................................... 47

5.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 47

5.8.2 Harness .................................................................................................... 51

5.9 Safety ..................................................................................................................... 52

5.10 High voltage engineering ........................................................................................ 52

5.11 Verification ............................................................................................................. 53

5.11.1 Provisions ................................................................................................. 53

5.11.2 <> ............................................................................................. 53

6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ................................................................. 54

6.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 54

6.2 Policy ..................................................................................................................... 54

6.2.1 Overall EMC programme .......................................................................... 54

6.2.2 EMC control plan ...................................................................................... 54

6.2.3 Electromagnetic compatibility advisory board (EMCAB)............................ 55

6.3 System level ........................................................................................................... 55

6.3.1 Electromagnetic interference safety margin (EMISM) ............................... 55

6.3.2 Inter-element EMC and EMC with environment ........................................ 56

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6.3.3 Hazards of electromagnetic radiation ........................................................ 57

6.3.4 Spacecraft charging protection program ................................................... 57

6.3.5 Intrasystem EMC ...................................................................................... 58

6.3.6 Radio frequency compatibility ................................................................... 58

6.3.7 Spacecraft DC magnetic field emission ..................................................... 58

6.3.8 Design provisions for EMC control ............................................................ 59

6.3.9 Detailed design requirements ................................................................... 59

6.4 Verification ............................................................................................................. 59

6.4.1 Verification plan and report ....................................................................... 59

6.4.2 Safety margin demonstration for critical or EED circuit ............................. 60

6.4.3 Detailed verification requirements ............................................................. 60

7 Radio frequency systems .................................................................................... 61

7.1 Functional description ............................................................................................ 61

7.2 Antennas ................................................................................................................ 62

7.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 62

7.2.2 Antenna structure ..................................................................................... 63

7.2.3 Antenna interfaces .................................................................................... 68

7.2.4 Antennas Verification ................................................................................ 69

7.3 RF Power ............................................................................................................... 69

7.3.1 Overview .................................................................................................. 69

7.3.2 RF Power handling (thermal) .................................................................... 70

7.3.3 Corona or Gas Discharge ......................................................................... 70

7.3.4 Qualification for power handling and gas discharge .................................. 71

7.4 Passive intermodulation ......................................................................................... 71

7.4.1 Overview .................................................................................................. 71

7.4.2 General requirements ............................................................................... 71

7.4.3 Identification of potentially critical intermodulation products ...................... 72

7.4.4 Verification ................................................................................................ 72

7.4.5 Qualification for passive intermodulation ................................................... 72

7.5 Verification ............................................................................................................. 72

8 Pre-tailoring matrix per space product and feature types ................................ 74

8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 74

8.2 Use of the inclusive and exclusive requirement categories ..................................... 75

Annex A (normative) EMC control plan - DRD .................................................... 118

Annex B (normative) Electromagnetic effects verification plan (EMEVP) -

DRD .................................................................................................................... 121

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EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
Annex C (normative) Electromagnetic effects verification report (EMEVR) -

DRD .................................................................................................................... 124

Annex D (normative) Battery user manual - DRD ............................................... 126

Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 128

Figures

Figure 5-1: Output impedance mask (Ohm) ......................................................................... 43

Figure 5-2: Source and load impedance characterisation ..................................................... 49

Figure 5-3: Thevenin equivalent model ................................................................................ 49

Figure 5-4: Norton equivalent model .................................................................................... 50

Tables

Table 4-1: <> ........................................................... 27

Table 5-1: Parameters for BOL worst and best case power calculations .............................. 35

Table 5-2: Additional power parameters for EOL worst and best case calculations. ............. 35

Table 5-3: <> ........................................................... 53

Table 7-1: <> ........................................................... 69

Table 7-2: <> ........................................................... 73

Table 8-1: Definition of pre-tailoring matrix applicability statuses ......................................... 77

Table 8-2: Definition of features for exclusive requirements ................................................. 77

Table 8-3: Pre-tailoring matrix per “Space product and feature types" .................................. 78

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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
European Foreword
This document (EN 16603-20:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee
CEN-CENELEC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This standard (EN 16603-20:2020) originates from ECSS-E-ST-20C Rev.1.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either
by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March
2021, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by
March 2021.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this
document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall
not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN 16603-20:2014.
The main changes with respect to EN 16603-20:2014 are listed below:
• Addition of Pre-Tailoring per “Space product types” and Feature
types” in clause 8
• Implementation of Change Requests
• Several definitions and abbreviated terms updated (see clause 3)
This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to
CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has
therefore precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards
organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United
Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
Scope
This Standard establishes the basic rules and general principles applicable to
the electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, microwave and engineering
processes. It specifies the tasks of these engineering processes and the basic
performance and design requirements in each discipline.
It defines the terminology for the activities within these areas.
It defines the specific requirements for electrical subsystems and payloads,
deriving from the system engineering requirements laid out in ECSS-E-ST-10
“Space engineering – System engineering general requirements”.

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply, However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are
encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions
of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system – Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10 ECSS-E-ST-10 Space engineering – System engineering general
requirements
EN 16603-20-06 ECSS-E-ST-20-06 Space engineering – Spacecraft charging
EN 16603-20-07 ECSS-E-ST-20-07 Space engineering – Electromagnetic compatibility
EN 16603-20-08 ECSS-E-ST-20-08 Space engineering - Photovoltaic assemblies and
components

EN 16603-20-20 ECSS-E-ST-20-20 Space engineering - Electrical design and interface

requirements for power supply
EN 16603-33-11 ECSS-E-ST-33-11 Space engineering – Explosive systems and devices

EN 16603-50-05 ECSS-E-ST-50-05 Space engineering – Radio frequency and modulation

EN 16603-50-14 ECSS-E-ST-50-14 Space engineering – Spacecraft discrete interfaces

EN 16602-30-11 ECSS-Q-ST-30-11 Space product assurance – Derating – EEE components

EN 16602-40 ECSS-Q-ST-40 Space product assurance – Safety
IEEE 145-1993 Antenna terms
Impedance Impedance Specifications for Stable DC Distributed
Specifications for Power Systems, X. Feng, J. Liu, F.C. Lee, IEEE
Stable DC Distributed Transactions on power electronics, Vol. 17, no. 2,
Power Systems, EEE March 2002
transactions on power
electronics, Vol. 17,
no. 2, March 2002
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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
a. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from
ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply.
b. For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions
from ECSS-E-ST-20-20 apply:
1. latching current limiter (LCL)
2. retriggerable latching current limiter (RLCL)
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 antenna farm
ensemble of all antennas accommodated on the spacecraft and provides for all
the transmission and reception of RF signals
3.2.2 antenna port
abstraction of the physical connection among the antenna and its feeding lines,
realised by means of connectors or waveguide flanges
3.2.3 antenna RF chain
sequence of microwave components inserted between an antenna input port or
a BFN output port and a corresponding individual radiating element
NOTE Examples of microwave components are:
ortho-mode transducers, polarisers,
transformers as well as filters.
3.2.4 antenna support structure
part of an antenna having no electrical function, which can however impact its
electrical performances, either directly due to scattering or indirectly
NOTE Example of indirect effect is induced thermo-
elastic deformations.
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SIST EN 16603-20:2020
EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
3.2.5 array antenna
antenna composed by a number of, possibly different, elements that radiate RF

signals directly into free space operating in combination, such that all or a part

of them radiate the same signals
3.2.6 array-fed reflector antenna
antenna composed by a feed array, which can include or not a beam forming
network, and one or more optical elements like reflectors and lenses
3.2.7 battery bus
primary power bus directly connected to the battery
NOTE Battery bus is sometimes called unregulated
bus (although the battery charge is regulated).
3.2.8 beam forming network (BFN)
wave-guiding structure composed a chain of microwave components and
devices aimed at distributing the RF power injected at the input ports to a
number of output ports; in a transmitting antenna the RF power injected from
the transmitter is routed to the radiating elements, in a receiving antenna the
RF power coming from the radiating elements is routed to the antenna ports
connected to the receiver
NOTE Examples of microwave components and
devices are lines, phase shifters, couplers,
loads.
3.2.9 conducted emission (CE)
desired or undesired electromagnetic energy that is propagated along a
conductor
3.2.10 critical pressure
pressure at which corona or partial discharge can occur in an equipment
3.2.11 diffusivity
ability of a body to generate incoherent diffuse scattering due to local
roughness, inhomogeneity or anysotropy when illuminated by RF waves
3.2.12 depth of discharge (DOD)
ampere–hour removed from a battery expressed as a percentage of the
nameplate capacity
3.2.13 double insulation
barrier between conductors or elements of an electronic circuit such that after
any credible single failure, conductors or elements of an electronic circuit are
still insulated from each other
3.2.14 electrical bonding
process of connecting conductive parts to each other so that a low impedance
path is established for grounding and shielding purposes
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EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
3.2.15 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
ability of equipment or an element to function satisfactorily in its
electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic
disturbances to anything in that environment
3.2.16 electromagnetic compatibility control
set of techniques to effectively regulate the electromagnetic interference
environment or susceptibility of individual space system components or both
NOTE They include, among others, the design,
placement of components, shielding, and
employment of rejection filters.
3.2.17 electromagnetic interference (EMI)
undesired electrical phenomenon that is created by, or adversely affects any
device whose normal functioning is predicated upon the utilization of electrical
phenomena
NOTE It is characterized by the manifestation of
degradation of the performance of an
equipment, transmission channel, or element
caused by an electromagnetic disturbance.
3.2.18 electromagnetic interference safety margin (EMISM)

ratio between the susceptibility threshold and the interference present on a test

point
3.2.19 emission
electromagnetic energy propagated by radiation or conduction
3.2.20 energy balance
situation in which the spacecraft energy budget is positive when elaborated
over a considered period of time
NOTE 1 Energy budget is generation minus
consumption and losses.
NOTE 2 The considered period of time can be one orbit,
several orbits or any relevant mission period.
3.2.21 energy reserve
energy that remains available from the energy storage assembly at the worst-
case, most depleted, point of nominal operations
NOTE It is important that the energy reserve is
sufficient to permit reaching a safe operating
mode upon occurrence of an anomaly
3.2.22 essential function
function without which the spacecraft cannot be recovered following any
conceivable on-board or ground-based failure
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EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
NOTE Examples of unrecoverable spacecraft is when
spacecraft cannot be commanded, or
permanently losses attitude and control, or the
energy balance is no longer ensured, or the
spacecraft consumables (e.g. hydrazine or
Xenon) are depleted to such an extent that
more than 10% of its lifetime is affected, or the
safety of the crew is threatened.
3.2.23 faulty signal

signal generated by a circuit, appearing at its interface to another circuit, going

out of its nominal range because of a failure
3.2.24 foldback current limiter (FCL)
non latching current-limiting function where the current limit decreases with
the output voltage
NOTE This function is used for power distribution
and protection typically for essential loads.
3.2.25 fully regulated bus
bus providing power during sunlight and eclipse periods with a regulated
voltage
3.2.26 grounding
process of establishing intentional electrical conductive paths between an
electrical circuit reference or a conductive part and equipment chassis or space
vehicle structure
NOTE grounding is typically performed for safety,
functionality, signal integrity, EMI control or
charge bleeding purpose.
3.2.27 high Priority telecommand (HPC)
command originated from ground and issued by the telecommand decoder for
essential spacecraft functions without main on board software intervention
3.2.28 high voltage
AC or DC voltage at which partial discharges, corona, arcing or high electrical
fields can occur
3.2.29 lens antenna
antenna composed by a number of RF lenses and reflecting surfaces
illuminated by a primary source, the feed
3.2.30 lightning indirect effects

electrical transients induced by lightning in electrical circuits due to coupling of

electromagnetic fields
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EN 16603-20:2020 (E)
3.2.31 major reconfiguration function
function used to recover from system failures of criticality 1, 2 or 3
NOTE Criticality categories are defined in ECSS-Q-
ST-30 and ECSS-Q-ST-40.
3.2.32 nameplate capacity
capacity stated by the manufacturer of an energy storage cell or battery
NOTE It is given in ampere-hours. It is not necessarily
equal to any measurable capacity.
3.2.33 non essential loads
loads related to units which do not implement essential functions for the
spacecraft
3.2.34 passive intermodulation products (PIM)
spurious signals generated by non-linear current-voltage characteristics in
materials and junctions exposed to sufficiently RF high power carried by
guided or radiated fields and currents, possibly triggered by microscopic
mechanical movement
3.2.35 photovoltaic assembly (PVA)
power generating network comprising the interconnected solar cell assemblies,
the shunt and blocking diodes, the busbars and wiring collection panels, the
string, section and panel wiring, the wing transfer harness, connectors, bleed
resistors and thermistors
3.2.36 primary cell or battery
battery or cell that is designed to be discharged once and never to be recharged
3.2.37 primary power bus
spacecraft electrical node closest to the power sources where power is
controlled
...

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