Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

Part 1-1 gives generic detailed strength rules which are applicable to steel structures in general. Their use and any limits of applicability are explained in the text where necessary. It does not cover resistance to fire; particular aspects of special types of buildings and civil engineering works (e.g. bridges, masts, silos, piling or off-shore structures).

Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau

(1)   Eurocode 3 gilt für den Entwurf, die Berechnung und die Bemessung von Bauwerken aus Stahl. Eurocode 3 entspricht den Grundsätzen und Anforderungen an die Tragfähigkeit und Gebrauchstauglichkeit von Tragwerken sowie den Grundlagen für ihre Bemessung und Nachweise, die in EN 1990, Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung, enthalten sind.
(2)   Eurocode 3 behandelt ausschließlich Anforderungen an die Tragfähigkeit, die Gebrauchstauglichkeit, die Dauerhaftigkeit und den Feuerwiderstand von Tragwerken aus Stahl. Andere Anforderungen, wie z. B. Wärmeschutz oder Schallschutz, werden nicht berücksichtigt.
(3)   Eurocode 3 gilt in Verbindung mit folgenden Regelwerken:
-   EN 1990,  Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung;
-   EN 1991,  Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke;
-   ENs, ETAGs und ETAs für Bauprodukte, die für Stahlbauten Verwendung finden;
-   EN 1090,  Herstellung und Errichtung von Stahlbauten - Technische Anforderungen;
-   EN 1992 bis EN 1999, soweit auf Stahltragwerke oder Stahlbaukomponenten Bezug genommen wird.
(4)   Eurocode 3 ist in folgende Teile unterteilt:
EN 1993-1,  Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau;
EN 1993-2,  Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 2: Stahlbrücken;
EN 1993-3,  Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 3: Türme, Maste und Schornsteine;
EN 1993-4,  Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 4: Tank- und Silobauwerke und Rohrleitungen;
EN 1993-5,  Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 5: Spundwände und Pfähle aus Stahl;
EN 1993-6,  Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 6: Kranbahnträger.

Eurocode 3: Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1: Regles générales et regles pour les bâtiments

Evrokod 3: Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij – 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila za stavbe

Področje uporabe 1-1. dela evrokoda 3
(1)EN 1993-1-1 navaja osnovna pravila projektiranja za jeklene konstrukcije z debelino materiala
t  3 mm. Prav tako navaja dodatna pravila za projektiranje jeklenih stavb. Ta dodatna pravila so označena s črko “B”, ki sledi številki odstavka: (  )B.
OPOMBA:Za hladno oblikovane tankostenske elemente z debelino t < 3 mm glej EN 1993-1-3.
(2)   EN 1993-1-1 vsebuje naslednja poglavja:
1   Splošno
2   Osnove projektiranja
3   Materiali
4   Trajnost
5   Analiza konstrukcij
6   Mejna stanja nosilnosti
7   Mejna stanja uporabnosti
(3)Poglavji 1 in 2 vsebujeta dodatna pravila k pravilom, navedenim v EN 1990 “Osnove projektiranja konstrukcij”.
(4)Poglavje 3 obravnava lastnosti materiala za proizvode iz malo legiranih konstrukcijskih jekel.
(5)Poglavje 4 podaja splošna pravila za trajnost.
(6)Poglavje 5 se nanaša na analizo konstrukcij, pri kateri je mogoče z dovolj veliko natančnostjo pri globalni analizi elemente modelirati z linijskimi elementi.
(7)V poglavju 6 so navedena podrobna pravila za projektiranje prečnih prerezov in elementov.
(8)V poglavju 7 so navedena pravila za uporabnost.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Sep-2005
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6100 - Translation of adopted SIST standards (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Sep-2006
Due Date
01-Sep-2006
Completion Date
01-Sep-2006

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildingsEvrokod 3: Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij – 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila za stavbeEurocode 3: Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1: Regles générales et regles pour les bâtimentsEurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den HochbauTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1993-1-1:2005SIST EN 1993-1-1:2005en91.080.10Kovinske konstrukcijeMetal structures91.010.30Technical aspectsICS:SIST ENV 1993-1-1:1996/A2:2001SIST ENV 1993-1-1:1996/A1:1996SIST ENV 1993-1-1:19961DGRPHãþDSLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1993-1-1:200501-oktober-2005
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1993-1-1
May 2005 ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.10 Supersedes ENV 1993-1-1:1992 English version

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

Eurocode 3: Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1: Règles générales et règles pour les bâtiments

Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 April 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels © 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 1993-1-1:2005: E

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
Contents Page

1 General.....................................................................................................................................................9 1.1 Scope..................................................................................................................................................9 1.2 Normative references.......................................................................................................................10 1.3 Assumptions.....................................................................................................................................11 1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules.....................................................................11 1.5 Terms and definitions......................................................................................................................11 1.6 Symbols............................................................................................................................................12 1.7 Conventions for member axes..........................................................................................................20 2 Basis of design........................................................................................................................................22 2.1 Requirements...................................................................................................................................22 2.1.1 Basic requirements..................................................................................................................22 2.1.2 Reliability management...........................................................................................................22 2.1.3 Design working life, durability and robustness.......................................................................22 2.2 Principles of limit state design........................................................................................................23 2.3 Basic variables................................................................................................................................23 2.3.1 Actions and environmental influences.....................................................................................23 2.3.2 Material and product properties...............................................................................................23 2.4 Verification by the partial factor method........................................................................................23 2.4.1 Design values of material properties.......................................................................................23 2.4.2 Design values of geometrical data...........................................................................................23 2.4.3 Design resistances....................................................................................................................24 2.4.4 Verification of static equilibrium (EQU).................................................................................24 2.5 Design assisted by testing................................................................................................................24 3 Materials.................................................................................................................................................25 3.1 General............................................................................................................................................25 3.2 Structural steel.................................................................................................................................25 3.2.1 Material properties...................................................................................................................25 3.2.2 Ductility requirements.............................................................................................................25 3.2.3 Fracture toughness...................................................................................................................25 3.2.4 Through-thickness properties..................................................................................................27 3.2.5 Tolerances................................................................................................................................28 3.2.6 Design values of material coefficients.....................................................................................28 3.3 Connecting devices..........................................................................................................................28 3.3.1 Fasteners..................................................................................................................................28 3.3.2 Welding consumables..............................................................................................................28 3.4 Other prefabricated products in buildings......................................................................................28 4 Durability...............................................................................................................................................28 5 Structural analysis.................................................................................................................................29 5.1 Structural modelling for analysis....................................................................................................29 5.1.1 Structural modelling and basic assumptions............................................................................29

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)

5.1.2 Joint modelling........................................................................................................................29 5.1.3 Ground-structure interaction....................................................................................................29 5.2 Global analysis................................................................................................................................30 5.2.1 Effects of deformed geometry of the structure........................................................................30 5.2.2 Structural stability of frames...................................................................................................31 5.3 Imperfections...................................................................................................................................32 5.3.1 Basis........................................................................................................................................32 5.3.2 Imperfections for global analysis of frames............................................................................33 5.3.3 Imperfection for analysis of bracing systems..........................................................................36 5.3.4 Member imperfections.............................................................................................................38 5.4 Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities..............................................................38 5.4.1 General....................................................................................................................................38 5.4.2 Elastic global analysis.............................................................................................................39 5.4.3 Plastic global analysis..............................................................................................................39 5.5 Classification of cross sections........................................................................................................40 5.5.1 Basis........................................................................................................................................40 5.5.2 Classification...........................................................................................................................40 5.6 Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis...................................................................41 6 Ultimate limit states...............................................................................................................................45 6.1 General............................................................................................................................................45 6.2 Resistance of cross-sections............................................................................................................45 6.2.1 General....................................................................................................................................45 6.2.2 Section properties....................................................................................................................46 6.2.3 Tension....................................................................................................................................49 6.2.4 Compression............................................................................................................................49 6.2.5 Bending moment.....................................................................................................................50 6.2.6 Shear........................................................................................................................................50 6.2.7 Torsion.....................................................................................................................................52 6.2.8 Bending and shear...................................................................................................................53 6.2.9 Bending and axial force...........................................................................................................54 6.2.10 Bending, shear and axial force................................................................................................56 6.3 Buckling resistance of members......................................................................................................56 6.3.1 Uniform members in compression..........................................................................................56 6.3.2 Uniform members in bending..................................................................................................60 6.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression.............................................................64 6.3.4 General method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling of structural components...............65 6.3.5 Lateral torsional buckling of members with plastic hinges.....................................................67 6.4 Uniform built-up compression members.........................................................................................69 6.4.1 General....................................................................................................................................69 6.4.2 Laced compression members...................................................................................................71 6.4.3 Battened compression members..............................................................................................72 6.4.4 Closely spaced built-up members............................................................................................74 7 Serviceability limit states......................................................................................................................75 7.1 General............................................................................................................................................75 7.2 Serviceability limit states for buildings...........................................................................................75 7.2.1 Vertical deflections..................................................................................................................75 7.2.2 Horizontal deflections..............................................................................................................75 7.2.3 Dynamic effects.......................................................................................................................75 Annex A [informative] – Method 1: Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.3(4).............76

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)

Annex B [informative] – Method 2: Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.3(4).............79 Annex AB [informative] – Additional design provisions...........................................................................81 Annex BB [informative] – Buckling of components of building structures.............................................82

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
Foreword

This European Standard EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures, has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 « Structural Eurocodes », the Secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2005, and conflicting National Standards shall be withdrawn at latest by March 2010.

This Eurocode supersedes ENV 1993-1-1.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the National Standard Organizations of the following countries are bound to implement these European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Background of the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonization of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonized technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to the CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products – CPD – and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts: EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural design EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

5 1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

Eurocode standards recognize the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State.

Status and field of application of Eurocodes

The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognize that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes : – as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N°1 - Mechanical resistance and stability - and Essential Requirement N°2 - Safety in case of fire; – as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services; – as a framework for drawing up harmonized technical specifications for construction products (ENs and ETAs)

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2

referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonized product standard3. Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving a full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex (informative).

The National Annex (informative) may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e. : – values for partial factors and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode, – values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode, – geographical and climatic data specific to the Member State, e.g. snow map, – the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode, – references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the Eurocode.

Links between Eurocodes and product harmonized technical specifications (ENs

2 According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for hENs and ETAGs/ETAs.

3 According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall : a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonizing the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ; b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ; c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonized standards and guidelines for European technical approvals. The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
and ETAs)

There is a need for consistency between the harmonized technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes should clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

Additional information specific to EN 1993-1

EN 1993 is intended to be used with Eurocodes EN 1990 – Basis of Structural Design, EN 1991 – Actions on structures and EN 1992 to EN 1999, when steel structures or steel components are referred to.

EN 1993-1 is the first of six parts of EN 1993 – Design of Steel Structures. It gives generic design rules intended to be used with the other parts EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-6. It also gives supplementary rules applicable only to buildings.

EN 1993-1 comprises twelve subparts EN 1993-1-1 to EN 1993-1-12 each addressing specific steel components, limit states or materials.

It may also be used for design cases not covered by the Eurocodes (other structures, other actions, other materials) serving as a reference document for other CEN TC´s concerning structural matters.

EN 1993-1 is intended for use by – committees drafting design related product, testing and execution standards, – clients (e.g. for the formulation of their specific requirements) – designers and constructors – relevant authorities

Numerical values for partial factors and other reliability parameters are recommended as basic values that provide an acceptable level of reliability. They have been selected assuming that an appropriate level of workmanship and quality management applies.

7 4

See Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
National annex for EN 1993-1-1

This standard gives values with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1993-1 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of steel structures to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-1 through the following clauses: – 2.3.1(1) – 3.1(2) – 3.2.1(1) – 3.2.2(1) – 3.2.3(1) – 3.2.3(3)B – 3.2.4(1)B – 5.2.1(3) – 5.2.2(8) – 5.3.2(3) – 5.3.2(11) – 5.3.4(3) – 6.1(1) – 6.1(1)B – 6.3.2.2(2) – 6.3.2.3(1) – 6.3.2.3(2) – 6.3.2.4(1)B – 6.3.2.4(2)B – 6.3.3(5) – 6.3.4(1) – 7.2.1(1)B – 7.2.2(1)B – 7.2.3(1)B – BB.1.3(3)B

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
1 General 1.1 Scope 1.1.1 Scope of Eurocode 3

(1) Eurocode 3 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in steel. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural design.

(2) Eurocode 3 is concerned only with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of steel structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not covered.

(3) Eurocode 3 is intended to be used in conjunction with: – EN 1990 “Basis of structural design” – EN 1991 “Actions on structures” – ENs, ETAGs and ETAs for construction products relevant for steel structures – EN 1090 “Execution of Steel Structures – Technical requirements” – EN 1992 to EN 1999 when steel structures or steel components are referred to

(4) Eurocode 3 is subdivided in various parts: EN 1993-1 Design of Steel Structures : General rules and rules for buildings. EN 1993-2 Design of Steel Structures : Steel bridges. EN 1993-3 Design of Steel Structures : Towers, masts and chimneys. EN 1993-4

Design of Steel Structures : Silos, tanks and pipelines. EN 1993-5
Design of Steel Structures : Piling. EN 1993-6
Design of Steel Structures : Crane supporting structures.

(5) EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-6 refer to the generic rules in EN 1993-1. The rules in parts EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-6 supplement the generic rules in EN 1993-1.

(6) EN 1993-1 “General rules and rules for buildings” comprises: EN 1993-1-1 Design of Steel Structures : General rules and rules for buildings. EN 1993-1-2 Design of Steel Structures : Structural fire design. EN 1993-1-3 Design of Steel Structures : Cold-formed thin gauge members and sheeting. EN 1993-1-4 Design of Steel Structures : Stainless steels. EN 1993-1-5 Design of Steel Structures : Plated structural elements. EN 1993-1-6 Design of Steel Structures : Strength and stability of shell structures. EN 1993-1-7 Design of Steel Structures : Strength and stability of planar plated structures transversely loaded. EN 1993-1-8 Design of Steel Structures : Design of joints. EN 1993-1-9 Design of Steel Structures : Fatigue strength of steel structures. EN 1993-1-10 Design of Steel Structures : Selection of steel for fracture toughness and through-thickness properties. EN 1993-1-11 Design of Steel Structures : Design of structures with tension components made of steel. EN 1993-1-12 Design of Steel Structures : Supplementary rules for high strength steel.

EN 1993-1-1: 2005 (E)
1.1.2 Scope of Part 1.1 of Eurocode 3

(1) EN 1993-1-1 gives basic design rules for steel structures with material thicknesses t ≥ 3 mm. It also gives supplementary provisions for the structural design of steel buildings. These supplementary provisions are indicated by the letter “B” after the paragraph number, thus (

)B.
NOTE

For cold formed thin gauge members and plate thicknesses t < 3 mm see EN 1993-1-3.

(2) The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1993-1-1: Section 1: General Section 2: Basis of design Section 3: Materials Section 4: Durability Section 5: Structural analysis Section 6: Ultimate limit states Section 7: Serviceability limit states

(3) Sections 1 to 2 provide additional clauses to those given in EN 1990 “Basis of structural design”.

(4) Section 3 deals with material properties of products made of low alloy structural steels.

(5) Section 4 gives general rules for durability.

(6) Section 5 refers to the structural analysis of structures, in which the members can be modelled with sufficient accuracy as line elements for global analysis.

(7) Section 6 gives detailed rules for the design of cross sections and members.
(8) Section 7 gives rules for serviceability. 1.2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments). 1.2.1 General reference standards

EN 1090 Execution of steel structures – Technical requirements EN ISO 12944 Paints and varnishes – Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paint systems EN 1461 Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles – specifications and test methods 1.2.2 Weldable structural steel reference standards

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