Space engineering - Spacecraft mechanical loads analysis handbook

This document recommends engineering practices for European programs and projects. It may be cited in contracts and program documents as a reference for guidance to meet specific program/project needs and constraints.
The target users of this handbook are engineers involved in design, analysis and verification of spacecraft and payloads in relation to general structural loads analysis issues. The current know‐how is documented in this handbook in order to make this expertise available to all European developers of space systems.
It is a guidelines document; therefore it includes advisory information rather than requirements.

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur Analyse von mechanischen Lasten

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel d’analyse des charges mécaniques pour vaisseaux spatiaux

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za analizo mehanskih obremenitev vesoljskih plovil

Ta dokument priporoča inženirske prakse za evropske programe in projekte. Lahko se navaja v pogodbah in programskih dokumentih kot referenca za smernice glede izpolnjevanja posebnih potreb in omejitev v okviru programa/projekta.
Ciljni uporabniki tega priročnika so inženirji, ki se ukvarjajo z načrtovanjem, analiziranjem in preverjanjem vesoljskih plovil ter nosilnih raket v zvezi z vprašanji analize obremenitev konstrukcij. Ta priročnik dokumentira dosedanje strokovno znanje, da se dostop do njega omogoči vsem evropskim razvijalcem vesoljskih sistemov.
Ker gre za dokument s smernicami, ne podaja zahtev, temveč vsebuje informacije svetovalne narave.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Jun-2022
Due Date
25-Aug-2022
Completion Date
30-Jun-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-26:2022
01-september-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za analizo mehanskih obremenitev vesoljskih plovil
Space engineering - Spacecraft mechanical loads analysis handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur Analyse von mechanischen Lasten

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel d’analyse des charges mécaniques pour vaisseaux spatiaux

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-26:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-26:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-26:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-26:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-26
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
June 2022
ICS 49.035; 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Spacecraft mechanical loads analysis
handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel d'analyse des charges Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur Analyse von

mécaniques pour vaisseaux spatiaux mechanischen Lasten

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 April 2022. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-26:2022 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 10

Preface...................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 13

2 References ............................................................................................................ 14

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 15

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 15

3.2 Terms specific to the present document ................................................................. 16

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 17

4 Overview of the loads analysis process ............................................................. 21

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 21

4.2 Loads cycles ........................................................................................................... 22

4.3 Logic and sequence of loads analysis ..................................................................... 23

4.4 Loads and verification approach (prototype or protoflight) ....................................... 24

4.5 Loads and levels of assembly ................................................................................. 26

4.6 Mechanical loads for design and verification ........................................................... 27

4.6.1 Spacecraft flight environments and dynamic loads .................................... 27

4.6.2 Vibration environments and frequency range ............................................ 27

4.6.3 Introduction to analysis and test types for verifying mechanical

requirements ............................................................................................. 28

4.6.4 Static and quasi-static loads ...................................................................... 30

4.6.5 Static loads test ......................................................................................... 32

4.6.6 Spacecraft-launcher coupled loads analysis ............................................. 33

4.6.7 Sine vibration ............................................................................................ 34

4.6.8 Spacecraft design loads and test predictions versus LV/SC CLA

results ....................................................................................................... 36

4.6.9 Random vibration and vibro-acoustic environment .................................... 37

4.6.10 Shock testing ............................................................................................ 39

4.7 Basic principles, criteria and assumptions in structure and loads verification .......... 40

4.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 40

4.7.2 Equivalence criteria for loads and environments ....................................... 40

4.7.3 Criteria for assessing verification loads ..................................................... 42

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4.7.4 Main inconsistencies of the loads verification process ............................... 42

4.8 Notching in sine and random vibration testing ......................................................... 43

4.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 43

4.8.2 Example of requirements .......................................................................... 44

4.8.3 Basic principles ......................................................................................... 44

4.8.4 Response and force limiting ...................................................................... 45

4.8.5 Criteria for notching justification ................................................................ 46

4.8.6 Conclusions on notching in sine and random vibration testing .................. 48

4.9 References ............................................................................................................. 49

5 Background on structural dynamics .................................................................. 50

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 50

5.1.1 The dynamic environment ......................................................................... 50

5.1.2 Types of structural analysis ....................................................................... 51

5.1.3 List of topics .............................................................................................. 51

5.1.4 Principal notations ..................................................................................... 52

5.2 Dynamic environments – analysis and specifications .............................................. 54

5.2.1 Generalities ............................................................................................... 54

5.2.2 Example - the maiden flight of Ariane 1 ..................................................... 55

5.2.3 Sine environment ...................................................................................... 57

5.2.4 Transient environment .............................................................................. 62

5.2.5 Random environment ................................................................................ 65

5.2.6 Sine-equivalent dynamics ......................................................................... 74

5.2.7 Combined environments ........................................................................... 83

5.3 Dynamic analysis .................................................................................................... 86

5.3.1 Frequency domain analysis ....................................................................... 86

5.3.2 Modal approach ........................................................................................ 88

5.3.3 Effective mass models .............................................................................. 92

5.3.4 Craig-Bampton models ............................................................................. 93

5.4 Coupled analysis and notching in sine tests.......................................................... 107

5.4.1 FRF coupling ........................................................................................... 107

5.4.2 Modal approach ...................................................................................... 108

5.4.3 Simple example ...................................................................................... 109

5.4.4 Use of the shock response spectrum ...................................................... 111

5.5 Primary and secondary notching ........................................................................... 115

5.5.1 Modes concerned by primary notching .................................................... 115

5.5.2 Secondary notching ................................................................................ 115

5.5.3 Simple example ...................................................................................... 116

5.5.4 Conclusions on notching in sine tests ..................................................... 118

5.6 Random tests ....................................................................................................... 118

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5.6.1 Issues on random tests ........................................................................... 118

5.6.2 Mechanical equivalence example ............................................................ 119

5.6.3 Notching in random vibration tests .......................................................... 121

5.7 Practical aspects of modal effective masses ......................................................... 124

5.8 Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 126

5.9 References ........................................................................................................... 126

6 Launcher / spacecraft coupled loads analysis ................................................ 129

6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 129

6.1.1 General aspects ...................................................................................... 129

6.1.2 Launch loads and terminology used in the CLA process ......................... 130

6.1.3 The role of the CLA within the loads cycle ............................................... 132

6.2 The phases of the CLA process ............................................................................ 133

6.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 133

6.2.2 Parameters driving the CLA process ....................................................... 134

6.2.3 Mathematical model verification and database integration ...................... 134

6.2.4 Finite element model reduction ............................................................... 134

6.2.5 Checks on the Craig-Bampton matrices and OTM .................................. 135

6.2.6 Frequency cut-off for computed modes ................................................... 135

6.2.7 Coupling of the launcher and spacecraft models ..................................... 135

6.2.8 Calculation of the generalized responses ................................................ 135

6.2.9 Determination of the physical responses ................................................. 135

6.2.10 Post-processing ...................................................................................... 135

6.2.11 Uncertainty factors .................................................................................. 136

6.3 CLA output and results evaluation ........................................................................ 137

6.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 137

6.3.2 Guidelines to response parameter selection............................................ 138

6.3.3 Equivalent sine input ............................................................................... 138

6.3.4 Computation of static components from OTM ......................................... 138

6.3.5 Relative displacements ........................................................................... 139

6.3.6 Interface mechanical fluxes and overfluxes ............................................. 139

6.3.7 Results review, verification and validation ............................................... 144

6.3.8 Use of CLA results for structural verification ............................................ 145

6.3.9 Reporting ................................................................................................ 145

6.4 Ariane 5 coupled loads analysis ............................................................................ 148

6.4.1 Introduction to Ariane 5 CLA ................................................................... 148

6.4.2 Mission analysis organization and management ..................................... 149

6.4.3 CLA events and load cases ..................................................................... 150

6.4.4 Concomitant events and load cases combination .................................... 159

6.4.5 Flight phases and CLA standard load cases ........................................... 160

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6.4.6 Aspects of the Ariane 5 CLA methodology .............................................. 163

6.5 The Arianespace spacecraft qualification process ................................................ 165

6.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 165

6.5.2 Quasi-static loads ................................................................................... 166

6.5.3 Dynamic environment ............................................................................. 168

6.6 Space Shuttle coupled loads analysis ................................................................... 174

6.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 174

6.6.2 CLA load events ...................................................................................... 175

6.6.3 Elements of the design and verification process for Space Shuttle

payloads ................................................................................................. 176

6.7 References ........................................................................................................... 179

7 Static loads ......................................................................................................... 180

7.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 180

7.2 Quasi-static loads ................................................................................................. 180

7.2.1 General aspects ...................................................................................... 180

7.2.2 Equivalence between dynamic conditions and CoG net accelerations .... 181

7.2.3 Quasi-static loads specification ............................................................... 182

7.2.4 Prediction of QSL and mechanical environment by base-drive

analysis ................................................................................................... 184

7.3 Static test philosophy and objectives .................................................................... 184

7.4 Definition of static test configuration and load cases ............................................. 185

7.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 185

7.4.2 Boundary conditions ................................................................................ 186

7.4.3 Loading systems ..................................................................................... 186

7.4.4 Load cases ............................................................................................. 187

7.4.5 Instrumentation ....................................................................................... 188

7.5 Static test evaluation ............................................................................................. 188

7.6 References ........................................................................................................... 190

8 Sine vibration ...................................................................................................... 199

8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 199

8.2 Sine vibration levels specification ......................................................................... 199

8.2.1 Sine loads for spacecraft ......................................................................... 199

8.2.2 Sine loads for payload and equipment .................................................... 200

8.3 Simulation / test prediction .................................................................................... 201

8.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 201

8.3.2 Boundary conditions ................................................................................ 201

8.3.3 Damping ................................................................................................. 202

8.3.4 Notch assessment................................................................................... 202

8.4 Sine vibration test ................................................................................................. 203

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8.4.1 Objectives ............................................................................................... 203

8.4.2 Notching process .................................................................................... 204

8.4.3 Test preparation ...................................................................................... 206

8.4.4 Sine test campaign.................................................................................. 219

8.5 References ........................................................................................................... 229

9 Random vibration and vibro-acoustics ............................................................ 230

9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 230

9.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 230

9.1.2 Random vibration loads .......................................................................... 231

9.1.3 Vibro-acoustic loads ................................................................................ 231

9.2 Requirements ....................................................................................................... 234

9.3 Random vibration specification ............................................................................. 234

9.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 234

9.3.2 Component vibration environment predictor, Spann method ................... 234

9.3.3 Specifications derived from random and vibro-acoustic test data ............ 236

9.3.4 VibroSpec ............................................................................................... 238

9.3.5 Test/analysis extrapolation method ......................................................... 240

9.4 Random vibration analysis .................................................................................... 242

9.4.1 Finite element analysis and Miles’ equation ............................................ 242

9.4.2 Finite element analysis ............................................................................ 243

9.4.3 Guidelines for FE random vibration response analysis ............................ 245

9.5 Random vibration testing ...................................................................................... 247

9.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 247

9.5.2 Notching .................................................................................................. 247

9.6 Vibro-acoustic analysis ......................................................................................... 264

9.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 264

9.6.2 Boundary element analysis ..................................................................... 264

9.6.3 Statistical energy analysis ....................................................................... 267

9.6.4 General guidelines for vibro-acoustic analyses ....................................... 270

9.7 Acoustic testing .................................................................................................... 272

9.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 272

9.7.2 Test plan/procedure ................................................................................ 272

9.8 Verification of compliance ..................................................................................... 274

9.8.1 General aspects ...................................................................................... 274

9.8.2 An example based on the vibration response spectrum .......................... 275

9.9 Special topics in random vibration ........................................................................ 278

9.9.1 Simulation of the random time series ...................................................... 278

9.9.2 Prediction of random acoustic vibration of equipment mounted on

panels ..................................................................................................... 281

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9.9.3 Quick way to predict fatigue life (Steinberg method) ................................ 285

9.10 References ........................................................................................................... 288

10 Shock ................................................................................................................. 291

10.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 291

10.2 Shock environment ............................................................................................... 291

10.3 Shock design and verification process .................................................................. 292

10.3.1 Shock input derivation to subsystems ..................................................... 293

10.3.2 Shock verification approach .................................................................... 294

10.3.3 Shock damage risk assessment .............................................................. 297

10.4 References ........................................................................................................... 300

11 Dimensional stability ........................................................................................ 301

11.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 301

11.2 Dimensional stability analysis ............................................................................... 302

11.2.1 Thermo-elastic distortion analysis ........................................................... 303

11.2.2 1g-0g transition (gravity release) ............................................................. 310

11.2.3 Moisture absorption / release .................................................................. 311

11.3 Dimensional stability verification ........................................................................... 313

11.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 313

11.3.2 Thermal distortion test ............................................................................. 313

11.3.3 Gravity release test ................................................................................. 319

11.4 Material property characterisation testing ............................................................. 320

11.4.1 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) characterisation ....................... 320

11.4.2 Coefficient of Moisture Expansion (CME) characterisation ...................... 321

11.5 References ........................................................................................................... 322

12 Fatigue and fracture control ............................................................................ 323

12.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 323

12.2 Definitions ............................................................................................................. 326

12.3 List of events ........................................................................................................ 326

12.4 Load spectra per event ......................................................................................... 330

12.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 330

12.4.2 Existing load curves ................................................................................ 330

12.4.3 Measured load curves ............................................................................. 332

12.4.4 Calculating load curves ........................................................................... 334

12.5 Generation of fatigue spectra ................................................................................ 337

12.6 References ........................................................................................................... 339

13 Micro-gravity and micro-vibrations ................................................................. 341

13.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 341

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13.1.1 Background ............................................................................................. 341

13.1.2 Scope...................................................................................................... 342

13.2 Micro-gravity ......................................................................................................... 342

13.2.1 General aspects ...................................................................................... 343

13.2.2 Derivation of micro-gravity specifications ................................................ 354

13.2.3 Micro-gravity environment verification ..................................................... 362

13.3 Micro-vibration ...................................................................................................... 369

13.3.1 General aspects ...................................................................................... 369

13.3.2 Micro-vibration analysis ........................................................................... 371

13.3.3 Micro-vibration budget assessment ......................................................... 379

13.3.4 Pointing error synthesis ........................................................................... 382

13.3.5 Micro-vibration verification test ................................................................ 383

13.4 Micro-gravity and micro-vibration disturbance sources ......................................... 387

13.4.1 Scope...................................................................................................... 387

13.4.2 Review of potential disturbance sources ................................................. 387

13.4.3 Characterisation of the disturbance sources forcing functions ................. 398

13.5 References ........................................................................................................... 435

14 Soft stowed packaging ...............................................
...

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