Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 4: Driverless industrial trucks and their systems (ISO 3691-4:2020)

This part of EN ISO 3691 gives safety requirements and the means for their verification for driverless
industrial trucks (hereafter referred to as trucks) and their systems.
It is not applicable to trucks solely guided by mechanical means (rails, guides, etc.).
For the purposes of this part of EN ISO 3691, a driverless industrial truck is a powered vehicle, including any
trailer, which is designed to travel automatically and for which the safety of operation does not depend on
an operator. Remote-controlled trucks are not considered to be driverless trucks. A truck's system
comprises the control system, which may be part of the truck and/or separate from it, guidance means and
power system. Specific requirements for power sources other than batteries (e.g hydrogen fuel cells,
internal combustion engines) are not covered in this standard. Some trucks may also follow the
requirements of EN ISO 3691-1.
The condition of the operating area has a significant effect on the safe operation of the driverless industrial
truck. The preparations of the operating area to eliminate the associated hazards are specified in Annex
A.
This part of EN ISO 3691 deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events,
as listed in Annex B, with the exception of the following, relevant to the applicable machines when
used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the
manufacturer.
It does not establish requirements for hazards that can occur
during operation in severe conditions (e.g. extreme climates, freezer applications, strong magnetic
fields),
during operation in environments subject to special rules (e.g. potentially explosive atmospheres),
during the transportation of passengers other than a trained operator,
when handling loads the nature of which could lead to dangerous situations (e.g. molten metals,
acids/bases, radiating materials),
from parts of trucks requiring manual intervention during operation,
from trucks intended to operate in areas open to persons unaware of the hazards.
Regional requirements, additional to the requirements given in this part of EN ISO 3691, are addressed
in ISO/TS 3691-7 and ISO/TS 3691-8.

Flurförderzeuge - Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Verifizierung - Teil 4: Fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge und ihre Systeme (ISO 3691-4:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt Sicherheitsanforderungen und die Mittel zu deren Verifizierung für fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge (im Folgenden Flurförderzeuge genannt) und deren Systeme fest.
Beispiele für fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge (Flurförderzeuge nach ISO 5053 1) können auch bekannt sein als: „fahrerloses Transportfahrzeug“, „autonomer mobiler Roboter“, „Roboter“, „automatisch geführter Wagen“, „Tunnelschlepper“, „Unterfahr-Fahrzeug“ usw.
Dieses Dokument enthält auch Anforderungen an fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge, die ausgestattet sind mit:
- automatischen Betriebsarten, die entweder eine oder mehrere Handlungen des Bedieners erfordern, um solche automatischen Vorgänge einzuleiten oder zu aktivieren;
- der Möglichkeit, einen oder mehrere Mitfahrer zu befördern (die weder als Fahrer noch als Bediener betrachtet werden);
- zusätzlichen Handbetriebsarten, die es dem Bediener ermöglichen, das Flurförderzeug manuell zu bedienen; oder
- einem Wartungsmodus, der die manuelle Bedienung der Funktionen des Flurförderzeuges aus Wartungsgründen ermöglicht.
Es gilt nicht für Flurförderzeuge, die ausschließlich durch mechanische Einrichtungen (Schienen, Führungen usw.) geführt oder ferngesteuert werden, da diese nicht als fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge angesehen werden.
Für die Zwecke dieses Dokuments ist ein fahrerloses Flurförderzeug ein kraftgetriebenes Flurförderzeug, das für den automatischen Betrieb ausgelegt ist. Das System eines fahrerlosen Flurförderzeugs besteht aus dem Steuerungssystem, das Teil des Flurförderzeugs und/oder von diesem getrennt sein kann, Führungseinrichtungen und Antriebssystem. Die Anforderungen an Energiequellen werden von diesem Dokument nicht abgedeckt.
Der Zustand des Betriebsbereichs hat wesentliche Auswirkungen auf den sicheren Betrieb des fahrerlosen Flurförderzeugs. Die Vorbereitungen des Betriebsbereichs zur Beseitigung der zugehörigen Gefährdungen sind in Anhang A angegeben.
Dieses Dokument behandelt alle in Anhang B aufgeführten signifikanten Gefährdungen, Gefährdungssituationen oder Gefährdungsereignisse während aller Phasen der Flurförderzeug-Lebensdauer (ISO 12100:2010, 5.4), die bei vorgesehener Nutzung der betreffenden Maschinen unter normalen Bedingungen oder bei durch den Hersteller vorhersehbaren Fehlanwendungen relevant sind.
Es stellt keine Anforderungen für zusätzliche Gefährdungen bereit, die auftreten können:
- während des Betriebs unter erschwerten Bedingungen (z. B. extreme Klimate, Gefrierraumanwendungen, starke Magnetfelder),
- während des Betriebs in radioaktiven Umgebungen,
- durch Flurförderzeuge, die für den Betrieb in öffentlichen Bereichen vorgesehen sind (insbesondere ISO 13482),
- während des Betriebs auf öffentlichen Straßen,
- während des Betriebs in möglicherweise explosiven Umgebungen,
- während des Betriebs in militärischen Anwendungen,
- während des Betriebs mit speziellen Hygieneanforderungen,
- während des Betriebs in ionisierender Strahlung,
- während des Transports einer anderen Person (von anderen Personen) als einem (mehreren) vorgesehenen Mitfahrer(n),
- bei der Handhabung von Lasten, deren Eigenschaften zu gefährlichen Situationen führen können (z. B. geschmolzene Metalle, Säuren/Basen, strahlende Materialien),
- bei Fahrerplätzen mit Hubfunktion, deren Plattformboden mehr als 1 200 mm vom Boden entfernt sein kann.
Dieses Dokument enthält keine Sicherheitsanforderungen für Anhänger, die hinter einem Flurförderzeug gezogen werden.
Dieses Dokument enthält keine Sicherheitsanforderungen für Flurförderzeuge mit angehobenem Bedienungspersonal.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Flurförderzeuge, die vor dem Veröffentlichungsdatum dieses Dokuments hergestellt wurden.

Chariots de manutention - Exigences de sécurité et vérification - Partie 4: Chariots sans conducteur et leurs systèmes (ISO 3691-4:2020)

Le présent document spécifie les exigences de sécurité et les moyens de les vérifier pour les chariots de manutention sans conducteur (ci-après dénommés chariots) et leurs systèmes.
Des exemples de chariots de manutention sans conducteur (chariots de l'ISO 5053-1) peuvent également être connus comme: «véhicule autoguidé», «robot mobile autonome», «robot», «chariot autoguidé», «tunnel tugger», «under cart», etc.
Le présent document contient également des exigences pour les chariots de manutention sans conducteur qui sont équipés de:
— modes automatiques qui requièrent une ou des actions de l'opérateur pour initier ou activer de telles opérations automatiques;
— la capacité de transporter une ou plusieurs personnes (qui ne sont considérées ni comme des conducteurs, ni comme des opérateurs);
— des modes manuels supplémentaires qui permettent aux opérateurs de faire fonctionner le chariot manuellement; ou
— un mode de maintenance qui permet le fonctionnement manuel des fonctions du chariot pour des raisons de maintenance.
Il ne s'applique pas aux chariots guidés uniquement par des moyens mécaniques (rails, guides, etc.) ni aux chariots commandés à distance, qui ne sont pas considérés comme des chariots sans conducteur.
Pour les besoins du présent document, un chariot de manutention sans conducteur est un chariot motorisé, qui est conçu pour fonctionner automatiquement. Un système de chariots sans conducteur comprend le système de commande, qui peut faire partie du chariot et/ou en être séparé, des dispositifs de guidage et un système d'alimentation. Les exigences pour les sources d'alimentation ne sont pas couvertes par le présent document.
Les conditions de la zone de travail ont un effet significatif sur la sécurité de fonctionnement du chariot de manutention sans conducteur. Les aménagements de la zone de travail pour éliminer les phénomènes dangereux associés sont spécifiés à l'Annexe A.
Le présent document traite de tous les phénomènes dangereux significatifs, situations dangereuses ou évènements dangereux, pendant toutes les phases de la vie du chariot (ISO 12100:2010, 5.4), tels qu'énumérés dans l'Annexe B, pertinents pour les machines couvertes lorsqu'elles sont utilisées normalement ou dans les conditions de mauvaise utilisation raisonnablement prévisibles prévues par le fabricant.
Il ne donne pas d'exigences pour les phénomènes dangereux supplémentaires qui peuvent survenir:
— pendant le fonctionnement dans des conditions sévères (par exemple, climats extrêmes, applications frigorifiques, champs magnétiques intenses);
— pendant le fonctionnement dans des environnements nucléaires;
— de chariots destinés à fonctionner dans des zones publiques (en particulier l'ISO 13482);
— pendant le fonctionnement sur une voie publique;
— pendant le fonctionnement dans des environnements explosibles;
— pendant le fonctionnement dans des applications militaires;
— pendant le fonctionnement avec des exigences d'hygiène spécifiques;
— pendant le fonctionnement dans des environnements exposés à des rayonnements ionisants;
— pendant le transport d'une ou de plusieurs personnes autres que le ou les conducteurs prévus;
— lors de la manutention de charges dont la nature peut conduire à des situations dangereuses (par exemple, métaux en fusion, acides/bases, matériaux émetteurs de radiations);
— pour des postes de conduite ayant une fonction élévation supérieure à 1 200 mm depuis le plancher/sol jusqu'au plancher de la plate-forme.

Vozila za talni transport - Varnostne zahteve in preverjanje - 4. del: Vozila brez voznika in njihovi sistemi (ISO 3691-4:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Jun-2018
Publication Date
02-Sep-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Jun-2020
Due Date
09-Aug-2020
Completion Date
03-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
01-oktober-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1525:1999

Vozila za talni transport - Varnostne zahteve in preverjanje - 4. del: Vozila brez

voznika in njihovi sistemi (ISO 3691-4:2020)

Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 4: Driverless industrial

trucks and their systems (ISO 3691-4:2020)

Flurförderzeuge - Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Verifizierung - Teil 4:

Fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge und ihre Systeme (ISO 3691-4:2020)

Chariots de manutention - Exigences de sécurité et vérification - Partie 4: Chariots sans

conducteur et leurs systèmes (ISO 3691-4:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ICS:
53.060 Industrijski tovornjaki Industrial trucks
SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
EN ISO 3691-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.060 Supersedes EN 1525:1997
English Version
Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification -
Part 4: Driverless industrial trucks and their systems (ISO
3691-4:2020)

Chariots de manutention - Exigences de sécurité et Flurförderzeuge - Sicherheitstechnische

vérification - Partie 4: Chariots sans conducteur et Anforderungen und Verifizierung - Teil 4: Fahrerlose

leurs systèmes (ISO 3691-4:2020) Flurförderzeuge und ihre Systeme (ISO 3691-4:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 11 January 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 3691-4:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
EN ISO 3691-4:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
EN ISO 3691-4:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 3691-4:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 110

"Industrial trucks" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 150 “Industrial Trucks - Safety”

the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1525:1997.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 3691-4:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 3691-4:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3691-4
First edition
2020-02
Industrial trucks — Safety
requirements and verification —
Part 4:
Driverless industrial trucks and
their systems
Chariots de manutention — Exigences de sécurité et vérification —
Partie 4: Chariots sans conducteur et leurs systèmes
Reference number
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures ...............................................................10

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.1 Overall requirements ................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.2 Normal climatic conditions..................................................................................................................................10

4.1.3 Electrical requirements ..........................................................................................................................................10

4.1.4 Stored energy components ..................................................................................................................................11

4.1.5 Edges or angles ...............................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.6 Guards ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.7 Interlocking devices for guards ........................................................................................................................11

4.1.8 Two hand control devices .....................................................................................................................................11

4.1.9 Transmission parts .....................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.10 Electro-sensitive protective equipment ....................................................................................................11

4.1.11 Pressure-sensitive protective devices ........................................................................................................11

4.1.12 Hydraulic systems ........................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.13 Pneumatic systems .....................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.14 Avoidance of automatic restart ........................................................................................................................12

4.1.15 Foot protection ...............................................................................................................................................................12

4.2 Braking system .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.3 Speed control .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4 Automatic battery charging ......................................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Load handling .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.6 Steering .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.7 Stability .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.7.2 Tilting platform stability test .............................................................................................................................13

4.7.3 Stability requirements for trucks not covered by 4.7.2 ..............................................................14

4.8 Protective devices and complementary measures ................................................................................................14

4.8.1 Emergency stop .............................................................................................................................................................14

4.8.2 Detection of persons in the path .....................................................................................................................15

4.9 Modes of operation ..........................................................................................................................................................................17

4.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.9.2 Automatic mode ............................................................................................................................................................18

4.9.3 Manual mode ....................................................................................................................................................................19

4.9.4 Maintenance mode ......................................................................................................................................................20

4.10 Trucks intended to tow trailers .............................................................................................................................................20

4.11 Safety-related parts of the control system ...................................................................................................................20

4.12 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)..............................................................................................................................25

4.13 Conveyors fitted to a truck .........................................................................................................................................................25

4.13.1 Trucks fitted with conveyors ..............................................................................................................................25

4.13.2 Conveyors ............................................................................................................................................................................26

5 Verification of safety requirements and/or protective measures .................................................................26

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

5.2 Tests for detection of persons .................................................................................................................................................26

5.3 Stability tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................28

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

5.3.2 Stability tests for truck not covered by 4.7.2 .......................................................................................28

5.4 Fitness for purpose ..........................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

5.4.2 Structural tests ...............................................................................................................................................................28

5.4.3 Dynamic tests ..................................................................................................................................................................29

6 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................29

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

6.2 Warning systems ................................................................................................................................................................................29

6.3 Instruction handbook for use ..................................................................................................................................................30

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.3.2 Concerning the trucks and system ................................................................................................................30

6.3.3 Operation of the trucks and system ............................................................................................................31

6.3.4 Routine service and maintenance of the trucks and system ...................................................31

6.3.5 Operating information .............................................................................................................................................32

6.3.6 Information for the application ......................................................................................................................32

6.3.7 Details for floor/ground conditions .............................................................................................................32

6.3.8 Details for power sources .....................................................................................................................................32

6.3.9 Truck modification ......................................................................................................................................................33

6.4 Minimum marking ............................................................................................................................................................................33

6.4.1 Marking .................................................................................................................................................................................33

6.4.2 Warning signs ..................................................................................................................................................................33

6.4.3 Information plates .......................................................................................................................................................33

6.5 Putting into service (commissioning) ..............................................................................................................................34

Annex A (normative) Requirements for preparation of the operating zones ........................................................35

Annex B (informative) List of significant hazards................................................................................................................................45

Annex C (normative) Determination of rated capacity ..................................................................................................................50

Annex D (informative) Load transfer operations .................................................................................................................................52

Annex E (normative) Verification of essential health and safety requirements ..................................................55

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................84

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 110, Industrial trucks, Subcommittee

SC 2, Safety of powered industrial trucks.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 3691 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)
Introduction
General
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organizations, market surveillance etc.)

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e.g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);
— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or B

standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of the

other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of this

type-C standard.
Structure

An important step forward in the work on the ISO 3691 series of standards was the agreement to issue

a new structure of International Standards for industrial trucks having on one side basic standards

for all types of trucks and on the other side independent standards to cover the respective specific

functions of industrial trucks, e.g. visibility, noise, electrical requirements, etc.

Assessment of hazards

The product needs to be designed in such a way that it is fit for its purpose or function and can be

adjusted and maintained without putting persons at risk when used under the conditions foreseen by

the manufacturer.

In order to properly design a product and to cover all specific safety requirements, the manufacturer

needs to identify the hazards that apply to their product and carry out a risk assessment. The

manufacturer then needs to design and construct the product taking this assessment into account.

The aim of this procedure is to eliminate the risk of accidents throughout the foreseeable lifetime of the

machinery, including the phases of assembling and dismantling where risks of accidents can also arise

from foreseeable abnormal situations.

In selecting the most appropriate methods, the manufacturer needs to apply the following principles, in

the order given here:

a) eliminate or reduce risks as far as possible by design (inherently safe machinery design and

construction);
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
ISO 3691-4:2020(E)

b) take the necessary protective measures in relation to risks that cannot be eliminated by design;

c) inform users of any shortcoming of the protective measures adopted;
d) indicate whether any particular training is required;
e) specify any need to provide personal protection equipment;
f) refer to the appropriate user's document for proper operating instructions.

Industrial trucks need to be designed to prevent foreseeable misuse wherever possible, if such would

engender risk. In other cases, the manufacturer's instructions need to draw the user's attention to ways

shown by experience in which the machinery ought not to be used.

This document does not repeat all the technical rules which are state-of-the-art, and which are

applicable to the material used to construct the industrial truck. Refer to ISO 12100.

Global relevance

From the very beginning, the task was to revise ISO 3691:1980 to establish international basic

standards to align with the major legislative regulations in, for example, the EU, Japan, Australia and

North America.

Every effort was made to develop a globally relevant International Standard. That goal was achieved for

most of the issues addressed. For several potential problem areas, compromises were needed and will

still be needed in the future. Where divergent regional requirements remain, these are addressed by

ISO/TS 3691-8.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
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SIST EN ISO 3691-4:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3691-4:2020(E)
Industrial trucks — Safety requirements and
verification —
Part 4:
Driverless industrial trucks and their systems
1 Scope

This document specifies safety requirements and the means for their verification for driverless

industrial trucks (hereafter referred to as trucks) and their systems.

Examples of driverless industrial trucks (trucks of ISO 5053-1) can also be known as: “automated guided

vehicle”, “autonomous mobile robot”, “bots”, “automated guided cart”, “tunnel tugger”, “under cart”, etc.

This document also contains requirements for driverless industrial trucks which are provided with:

— automatic modes which either require operators’ action(s) to initiate or enable such automatic

operations;

— the capability to transport one or more riders (which are neither considered as drivers nor as

operators);

— additional manual modes which allow operators to operate the truck manually; or

— a maintenance mode which allows manual operation of truck functions for maintenance reasons.

It is not applicable to trucks solely guided by mechanical means (rails, guides, etc.) or to remotely

controlled trucks, which are not considered to be driverless trucks.

For the purposes of this document, a driverless industrial truck is a powered truck, which is designed

to operate automatically. A driverless truck system comprises the control system, which can be part of

the truck and/or separate from it, guidance means and power system. Requirements for power sources

are not covered in this document.

The condition of the operating zone has a significant effect on the safe operation of the driverless

industrial truck. The preparations of the operating zone to eliminate the associated hazards are

specified in Annex A.

This document deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events during all

phases of the life of the truck (ISO 12100:2010, 5.4), as listed in Annex B, relevant to the applicable

machines when it is used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable

by the
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