Intelligent transport systems - Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS - Part 1: State of the art and guidelines

This document presents:
-   a concise tutorial on location referencing methods;
-   applicable location referencing specifications, standards and directives;
-   an introduction into challenges given by a multiplicity of different location referencing systems.

Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Ortsreferenzierungsharmonisieung für Urbane ITS - Teil 1: Stand der Technik und Richtlinien

Systèmes de transport intelligents - Harmonisation des localisations pour les ITS urbains - Partie 1: État de l'art et lignes directrices

Inteligentni transportni sistemi (ITS) - Uskladitev navajanja lokacije za mestni ITS - 1. del: Stanje tehnike in smernice

Ta dokument vsebuje:
– strnjen vodnik o metodah navajanja lokacije;
– veljavne lokacije, ki se nanašajo na specifikacije, standarde in direktive;
– uvod v izzive, ki jih prinaša množica različnih sistemov za navajanje lokacije.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jul-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Jun-2019
Due Date
17-Aug-2019
Completion Date
15-Jul-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17297-1:2019
01-september-2019

Inteligentni transportni sistemi (ITS) - Uskladitev navajanja lokacije za mestni ITS -

1. del: Stanje tehnike in smernice

Intelligent transport systems - Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS - Part 1:

State of the art and guidelines

Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Ortsreferenzierungsharmonisieung für Urbane ITS - Teil

1: Stand der Technik und Richtlinien
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17297-1:2019
ICS:
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
prometu
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17297-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17297-1:2019
CEN/TR 17297-1
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
May 2019
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 35.240.60
English Version
Intelligent transport systems - Location referencing
harmonization for Urban ITS - Part 1: State of the art and
guidelines
Intelligente Verkehrssysteme -
Ortsreferenzierungsharmonisieung für Urbane ITS -
Teil 1: Stand der Technik und Richtlinien

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 1 April 2019. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 278.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17297-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 6

5 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Introduction to location referencing ....................................................................................................... 8

6.1 Maps ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Basic concepts of location referencing .................................................................................................... 8

7 Profiles of location referencing methods ............................................................................................ 10

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.2 Location referencing by coordinates .................................................................................................... 10

7.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.2.2 Coordinates, coordinate tuples and coordinate sets ....................................................................... 10

7.2.3 Coordinate systems and coordinate reference systems ................................................................ 11

7.2.4 Map projections ............................................................................................................................................ 12

7.2.5 Commonly used coordinate reference systems ................................................................................ 13

7.2.6 TPEG-GLR ........................................................................................................................................................ 15

7.3 Pre-coded location referencing .............................................................................................................. 15

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.3.2 Methods ........................................................................................................................................................... 16

7.4 Dynamic location referencing ................................................................................................................. 19

7.4.1 Basic concepts ............................................................................................................................................... 19

7.4.2 Methods ........................................................................................................................................................... 20

8 Usage of location referencing methods in some standards for ITS ............................................ 22

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 22

8.2 DATEX II ........................................................................................................................................................... 22

8.3 TPEG .................................................................................................................................................................. 22

8.4 Geographic Data Files (GDF) .................................................................................................................... 23

8.5 TN-ITS ............................................................................................................................................................... 23

8.6 INSPIRE ............................................................................................................................................................ 24

8.7 Rail – Telematics Applications for Passengers/Freight (TAP/TAF) .......................................... 24

8.8 Air ...................................................................................................................................................................... 24

8.9 Multimodal public transport standards: Transmodel and NeTEx ............................................. 24

9 Data exchange between actors ................................................................................................................ 25

9.1 Scenarios ......................................................................................................................................................... 25

9.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

9.1.2 Scenario 1: Bi-lateral exchange ............................................................................................................... 25

9.1.3 Scenario 2: Data-warehousing – data aggregation ........................................................................... 25

9.2 Use cases .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

9.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

9.2.2 Sharing between centres ........................................................................................................................... 26

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9.2.3 On board dynamic routing for a vehicle ............................................................................................... 28

9.2.4 Person centred dynamic trip planning ................................................................................................. 29

9.2.5 Vehicle detection and monitoring in public transport ................................................................... 29

9.2.6 Updating of persistent data ....................................................................................................................... 32

10 Problem statements ..................................................................................................................................... 32

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 32

10.2 Location accuracy ......................................................................................................................................... 33

10.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 33

10.2.2 Examples concerning location accuracy .............................................................................................. 33

10.3 Timeliness and currency ............................................................................................................................ 35

11 Expected demands of future applications ........................................................................................... 36

11.1 Emerging applications ................................................................................................................................ 36

11.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 36

11.1.2 Actual trip plan provision .......................................................................................................................... 36

11.1.3 Dynamic car-pooling ................................................................................................................................... 37

11.1.4 Driver Guidance ............................................................................................................................................ 37

11.1.5 Car-sharing and bicycle-sharing or on demand services ............................................................... 38

11.1.6 Smart parking ................................................................................................................................................ 38

11.1.7 Electronic management and exchange of traffic regulations ....................................................... 38

11.2 Main concerns of public transport ......................................................................................................... 39

11.2.1 Demands .......................................................................................................................................................... 39

11.2.2 Issues and problem description: aggregation platforms ............................................................... 39

11.2.3 Issues and problem description: cross-sector interoperability .................................................. 41

12 Approaches for improvement .................................................................................................................. 42

12.1 Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................ 42

12.2 General approaches for improvement .................................................................................................. 42

12.3 Existing EU approaches concerning transport-related data set access .................................... 44

12.3.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

12.3.2 The context of multimodal information provision: EU priority action A ................................. 45

12.3.3 The INSPIRE directive ................................................................................................................................. 47

12.3.4 The context of real-time traffic information provision: priority action B ............................... 48

12.4 Preliminary conclusions ............................................................................................................................ 49

12.5 Quality............................................................................................................................................................... 49

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 52

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17297-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 278

“Intelligent transport systems”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

Location is an ever-present feature of travel-related data and information services. Systems and services

are deployed and evolve using a myriad of ways of defining and describing locations. As we move towards

more sophisticated ITS services benefits will be accrued in the urban environment by the provision of

multimodal offerings to the traveller. This often combines data from the different modes, which in turn

will involve the harmonization of location referencing. Further strong trends are emerging with the drive

towards greater levels of open data, regulated obligations for access to travel data under various

European Union initiatives, and the almost ubiquitous expectation on instant access to travel data by

users via the smartphone or other connected devices. Historically, it is appreciated that many of the

services will have their bespoke location referencing systems that suit their applications well, and that it

would never be successful to oblige city authorities to change their legacy systems, without significant

cost, disruption and risk. Therefore, it is preferable to set out a vision towards greater integration,

including encouraging cities to consider a standardized location referencing system when they develop

or commission new services but support them integrating all systems, both legacy and new.

This document pulls together the many existing referencing systems, classifies them, and then describes

them in selected scenarios with use cases, looking at the advantages and disadvantages and the

challenges. The primary intended purpose of this document is to act as a kind of “handbook” or “primer”

for city engineers and urban administrators who need to combine data from all the transport services

that are in the city domain and those transport services that come into the city, to allow a truly multimodal

offering, be it traveller information, traffic control, urban logistics, public transport, etc. However this

document can be of high interest for every actor dealing with location referencing.

This document has been produced by the CEN/TC 278/WG 17 Project Team 1703 - Location Referencing

Harmonization. The project was formed because in the CEN/TC 278/WG 17 PT 1701 report on U-ITS

(PD CEN/TR 17143), in which location referencing harmonization was the most supported requirement

among the stakeholders consulted. Despite the name of this project, its purpose is not to invent new

location referencing systems or to create a “super set” of location references to achieve harmonization;

that would not be worthwhile. This document is complemented by a Part 2 that normatively specifies

methods for managing the identified challenges, e.g. translating between selected location referencing

methods.

Development of this document was based on an outreach to organizations across Europe to identify what

is being presently used and to ensure that today's requirements are captured; this document also reflects

on emerging application and service requirements and potential foreseeable future needs.

Due to evolving standardization works on indoor location determination and referencing, reference to

these are not yet included in this document. Indoor location determination and referencing are likely to

be considered in future standards.

At the time of production of this document, referencing to precise road-related location referencing,

which is sometimes referred to as lane level referencing, is not yet mature enough to be included.

The audience of this document is those who need to combine data which use different location

referencing methods due to their different applications, modes or vendors.
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1 Scope
This document presents:
— a concise tutorial on location referencing methods;
— applicable location referencing specifications, standards and directives;

— an introduction into challenges given by a multiplicity of different location referencing systems.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
data set
set of road and traffic data (provided by the data owner)
[SOURCE: SPA - Coordinated Metadata Catalogue]
3.2
geographic identifier
identifier of a geographic location, e.g. a street name with house number
4 Symbols and abbreviations
AVM automatic vehicle monitoring
CRS coordinate reference system
CS coordinate system
EPSG European Petroleum Survey Group
ETRS European terrestrial reference system
EU European Union
GALILEO name of the European satellite navigation and time reference system
GIS geographic information system
GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System
NOTE 1 Russian: globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja sistema.
NOTE 2 Name of the satellite navigation and time reference system of the Russian
Federation.
GLR geographic location referencing
GML geography markup language
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GNSS global navigation satellite system
GPS global positioning system

NOTE 3 Name of the satellite navigation and time reference system of the United States of

America.
INSPIRE infrastructure for spatial information in Europe

NOTE 4 Name of a directive of the EC; aims at creating a European Union spatial data

infrastructure.
IOGP International association of oil and gas producers
ITRS international terrestrial reference system
ITS intelligent transport systems
LRM location referencing method
LRS location referencing system
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OGC open geospatial consortium
TN-ITS transport networks for ITS
U-ITS urban ITS
UTM universe transverse Mercator
5 Overview

The CEN/TC 278 PT1701 final technical report recommended over 100 actions needed to support the

coordination of “Intelligent Transport Systems” (ITS) services in the urban environment. The most

requested action concerned location referencing and the need to be able to combine both real-time,

historic and planned data to provide coordinated multi-modal services in an urban environment.

Nearly all ITS applications need some form of location determination and referencing to put the data or

information into a spatial context. Unfortunately, the historical technical evolution of services resulted in

existing legacy systems based on different location referencing methods (LRMs), each of them being

optimized for the specific purposes. These silo approaches impose challenges to the users, e.g. urban

administrators, where data from different silos need to be merged together, or where data from one silo

needs to be used in another silo, as direct transformation between location referencing systems (LRSs)

are not necessarily possible with sufficient location accuracy.

NOTE The terms LRM and LRS are explained in 6.2. Classes of LRMs are presented in Clause 7.

A way to face these challenges is, first to identify the characteristics of location referencing and then

evolve:
a) a conversion strategy for short term usage, and
b) a migration strategy for the long-term usage;

with constant pressure on budgets in urban administrations, this represents a major challenge.

This document presents:
— a tutorial on location referencing covering:

1) basics of location referencing, i.e. LRMs, and the difference to location mapping;

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2) LRSs of the identified LRMs;
3) identification of standards and industry specifications on LRMs and LRSs;

— a description of the data exchange scenarios that typify the need for location referencing

transformations:
1) bi-lateral exchange between two actors;
2) data-warehousing – data aggregation;
— a description of use cases with a linkage to LRSs.
6 Introduction to location referencing
6.1 Maps

Before discussing location referencing, it is helpful to make a distinction between location references and

maps.
NOTE “Location referencing” is a process whilst “map” is an object.

Most of us have exposure to various forms of maps throughout our daily lives. Although historically maps

were typically drawn or printed on paper, the greatest exposure to maps for many people today is in the

form of a digital spatial data set that provides some spatial context, against which things are referenced

by some form of location referencing – these maps are often rendered on the screens of smartphones,

digital devices and computers.

The nature of maps will differ dependent on their intended purpose, the expectation of how they will be

rendered and used, which organization creates and distributes them, how they are created and

maintained, as well as their geographic coverage and data content, e.g. is this a road map, a map of

waterways, a topological land features map, etc.?

As the creation of spatial data sets can be expensive and time-consuming, there are often costs associated

with the purchase, use or distribution of map content. For the local authority transportation officer, the

nature and scale of these costs is often a deciding factor in which data set to use.

6.2 Basic concepts of location referencing

Nearly all ITS applications need some form of description of the location of features (physical objects,

restrictions, events, etc.) in a spatial context, both in absolute relationship to the surface of the Earth, and

in relation to other features. 6.2 describes the basics of such location referencing.

The term “location” has been defined in various ways, e.g. in several standards and deliverables from ISO

and CEN. A very basic definition is provided by EN ISO 19111 as “identifiable geographic place”. A “place”

is defined in ISO 19155:2012, 4.8 as an “identifiable part of any space”. Such a part may be a single point,

a segment, an area, a volume or any other part that the space in question may be divided into. The terms

“location” and “position” can also be confusing. According to ISO 19155, a “place” is referred to as a

“position” when that place is identified using coordinates, while a “place” is referred to as a “location”

when that place is identified using geographic identifiers. Note that a location with a given shape will also

have a position, i.e. the reference position of the shape. In this document, the term “location” will be used

as defined in ISO 19155. In comparison, ISO 17572-1:2015, 2.1.23 defines in a more general way a

location as a “simple or compound geographic object to be referenced by a location reference”.

EN ISO 19111 or other standards from ISO/TC 211 do not have a definition of the term “location

reference”, but the term “spatial reference” is defined as a “description of position in the real-world”

(EN ISO 19111:2007, 4.43). Based on this and the definition of the term “location”, a definition of the term

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“location referencing” would be “description of an identifiable geographic place”. ISO 17572-1:2015,

2.1.25 defines a location reference as a “label which is assigned to a location”, while ISO/TS 21219-7:2017,

3.3 TPEG2-LRC defines location referencing as “means to provide information that allows a system to

identify accurately a location”.

Furthermore, a location reference is described using a location referencing method (LRM), and within a

location referencing system (LRS) based on the LRM. These terms are well defined in ISO 17572-1:2015,

2.1.26 and 2.1.27; a “location referencing method” is a “methodology of assigning location references to

locations”, and a “location referencing system” is a “complete system by which location references are

generated, according to a location referencing method (…)”.

From these definitions, it follows that location referencing is about describing a location within an LRS,

according to an LRM. Applying location referencing to a feature results in a description of that feature's

location.

Figure 1 illustrates the concepts of location referencing. In Figure 1, two LRMs are given, i.e. LRM and

LRM , each with two LRSs, i.e. LRS and LRS according to LRM , and LRS and LRS according to LRM .

B A1 A2 A B1 B2 B

Two real-world locations are described, i.e. L and L . As shown in Figure 1, the same location can be

α β

described with location references in different LRSs. Both, LR and LR with different LRSs and LRMs,

A1,α B2,α

describe location L ; and both, LR and LR , describe location L . Of course, different locations can be

α A1,β B1,β β

described with location references from the same LRS; Both L and L are described with location

α β
references (LR and LR ) from LRS .
A1,α A1,β A1
Figure 1 — Location referencing concepts

In the ITS domain, a feature can be a physical object like a vehicle, a pedestrian, a road side unit or a road

sign; it can be a restriction or regulation such as speed limits or access restrictions; it can be an event like

a traffic incident or a road closure; it can be a physical road condition such as black-ice, and so on. Location

referencing of these features results in descriptions where these features are in relation to each other

and in relation to the real world.
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7 Profiles of location referencing methods
7.1 General

Three profiles of location reference methods containing various methods are distinguished in this

document:
— location referencing by coordinates, see 7.2;
— pre-coded location referencing, see 7.3;
— dynamic location referencing, see 7.4.
7.2 Location referencing by coordinates
7.2.1 General

The most common, well-known and understood methods for describing locations probably are by using

names by humans, and by using coordinates by machines. The concepts for using coordinates are defined

in EN ISO 19111 and EN ISO 6709.
7.2.2 Coordinates, coordinate tuples and coordinate sets

Three basic elements in location referencing by coordinates are coordinates, coordinate tuples and

coordinate sets. According to EN ISO 19111:2007, 4.5 and 4.12, a coordinate is “one of a sequence of n

numbers designating the position of a point in n-dimensional space”, and a coordinate tuple is a “tuple

composed of a sequence of coordinates”. The number of coordinates in the coordinate tuple equals the

dimension of the coordinate s
...

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