Solid biofuels - Simplified sampling method for small scale applications (ISO 21945:2020)

This International Standard describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small
scale applications and stores including preparation of sampling plans and certificates. Usually the focus
is on stores with a size of 100 t. The standard is applicable to the following solid biofuels:
- fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be
sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
- coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be
sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells;
- large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and
briquettes);
It may be possible to use this standard on other solid biofuels. The methods described in this
International Standard may be used, for example, when a sample is to be tested for moisture content,
ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, ash melting
behaviour and chemical composition.
This International Standard can be used also for applications and stores > 100 t if the involved parties,
e.g. provider and consumer of a biofuel, agree with.
For sampling in general, if higher precision of analytical results are needed or in doubt if this standard
is applicable ISO 18135 should be used.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Probenahme an kleinen Anlagen (ISO 21945:2020)

Dieses Dokument beschreibt vereinfachte Verfahren zur Entnahme von Proben von biogenen Festbrennstoffen an kleinen Anlagen und aus kleinen Lagerräumen, einschließlich der Erstellung von Probenahmeplänen und  berichten. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf Lagerräumen mit einer Größe von ≤ 100 t. Dieses Dokument gilt für die folgenden biogenen Festbrennstoffe:
1) kleine (nominelle Siebgröße bis zu etwa 10 mm) und aus regelmäßig geformten Partikeln bestehende Materialien, von denen mit einer Probenahmeschaufel oder einer Probenahmelanze Proben entnommen werden können, z. B. Sägespäne, Olivensteine und Holzpellets;
2) grobe oder aus unregelmäßig geformten Partikeln bestehende Materialien (nominelle Siebgröße bis zu 200 mm), von denen mit einer Gabel oder einer Schaufel Proben entnommen werden können, z. B. Holzhackschnitzel, grobes Schredderholz und Nussschalen;
3) große Stücke (nominelle Siebgröße größer als 200 mm), die mit der Hand entnommen werden (z. B. Stückholz und Briketts).
Dieses Dokument kann auch für andere biogene Festbrennstoffe angewendet werden, die nicht vorstehend aufgelistet sind, wenn die in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Verfahrensweisen anwendbar sind. Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren fest, die beispielsweise anzuwenden sind, wenn eine Probe im Hinblick auf Wasser  und Aschegehalt, Energiegehalt, Schüttdichte, mechanische Festigkeit, Partikelgrößenverteilung, Ascheschmelzverhalten und chemische Zusammensetzung zu prüfen ist.
Außerdem wird ein Verfahren zur Verringerung des Probenumfangs beschrieben und Anforderungen an die Handhabung und Lagerung von Proben werden festgelegt.
ANMERKUNG 1 Wenn eine höhere Präzision von Analysenergebnissen erforderlich ist oder wenn Zweifel bestehen, ob dieses Dokument anwendbar ist, kann ISO 18135 angewendet werden. Bei Verwendung der in diesem Dokument angegebenen Anzahl von Einzelproben kann die sich ergebende Präzision für die Analysenergebnisse mit den in ISO 18135 angeführten Gleichungen geschätzt werden.
ANMERKUNG 2 Pellets können von Natur aus gasförmiges CO und CO2 freisetzen. Bei der Probenahme von Pellets sind vor und während des Probenahmeprozesses in einem engen Raum, wie z. B. Behälter, Silo oder (Lager )Halle, die CO  und CO2  sowie O2 Konzentrationen zu überprüfen und am Eingang muss sich eine weitere Person in Bereitschaft befinden.

Biocombustibles solides - Méthode d'échantillonnage simplifiée pour les applications à petite échelle (ISO 21945:2020)

Le présent document décrit des méthodes simplifiées de prélèvement d'échantillons de biocombustibles solides dans des applications et des stockages à petite échelle, préparation de plans d'échantillonnage et de rapports incluse. L'accent est mis sur les stockages d'une taille ≤ 100 t. Ce document s'applique aux biocombustibles solides suivants:
1) des matériaux fins (dont la dimension nominale maximale est d'environ 10 mm) et dont la forme des particules est régulière et qui peuvent être prélevés à l'aide d'une pelle d'échantillonnage ou d'un tube, par exemple: la sciure, les noyaux d'olives et les granulés de bois;
2) des matériaux grossiers (dont la dimension nominale maximale est de 200 mm) ou dont la forme des particules est irrégulière et qui peuvent être prélevés à l'aide d'une fourche ou d'une pelle, par exemple: les copeaux de bois, le combustible bois broyé et les coquilles de noix;
3) des grands morceaux (dont la dimension nominale dépasse 200 mm) qui sont ramassés manuellement (par exemple: bois de chauffage et briquettes).
Ce document peut également être utilisé pour d'autres biocombustibles solides non énumérés ci-dessus si les procédures décrites dans ce document sont applicables. Le présent document décrit les méthodes à utiliser, par exemple, lorsqu'un échantillon doit être soumis à essai afin de déterminer sa teneur en humidité, sa teneur en cendres, son pouvoir calorifique, sa masse volumique apparente, sa résistance mécanique, sa distribution granulométrique, son comportement de fusibilité des cendres et sa composition chimique.
De plus, il décrit une méthode pour la réduction de la taille de l'échantillon et définit des exigences sur la manipulation et le stockage des échantillons.
NOTE 1 Si une plus grande précision des résultats d'analyse est nécessaire ou en cas de doute sur l'applicabilité de ce document, l'ISO 18135 peut être utilisée. En utilisant le nombre de prélèvements élémentaires donné dans le présent document, la précision obtenue pour les résultats d'analyse peut être estimée avec les formules données dans l'ISO 18135.
NOTE 2 Les granulés peuvent générer, par nature, des dégagements gazeux de CO et de CO2. Si les granulés sont prélevés, vérifier les niveaux de CO, de CO2 et d'O2 avant et pendant le processus de prélèvement des échantillons dans un espace confiné comme un conteneur, un silo ou un hangar et demander à une autre personne d'attendre à l'entrée.

Trdna biogoriva - Poenostavljena metoda vzorčenja za uporabo v manjšem obsegu (ISO 21945:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Dec-2018
Publication Date
06-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Mar-2020
Due Date
17-May-2020
Completion Date
07-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
01-maj-2020
Trdna biogoriva - Poenostavljena metoda vzorčenja za uporabo v manjšem
obsegu (ISO 21945:2020)
Solid biofuels - Simplified sampling method for small scale applications (ISO
21945:2020)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Probenahme an kleinen Anlagen

(ISO 21945:2020)

Biocombustibles solides - Méthode d'échantillonnage simplifiée pour les applications à

petite échelle (ISO 21945:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21945:2020
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 21945:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
EN ISO 21945
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.190; 75.160.40
English Version
Solid biofuels - Simplified sampling method for small scale
applications (ISO 21945:2020)

Biocombustibles solides - Méthode d'échantillonnage Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur

simplifiée pour les applications à petite échelle (ISO Probenahme an kleinen Anlagen (ISO 21945:2020)

21945:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 January 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21945:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
EN ISO 21945:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
EN ISO 21945:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21945:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21945:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21945:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21945
First edition
2020-02
Solid biofuels — Simplified sampling
method for small scale applications
Biocombustibles solides — Méthode d'échantillonnage simplifiée pour
les applications à petite échelle
Reference number
ISO 21945:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Visual inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Preparing sampling plan and report ............................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Methods for sampling ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Methods for sampling stationary material ..................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.1 Sampling from small packages (≤50 kg) ..................................................................................................... 6

8.2.2 Sampling from transport containers and lorries ................................................................................. 7

8.2.3 Sampling from small built-in storages .......................................................................................................... 7

8.2.4 Sampling from stockpiles and stacked material ................................................................................... 7

8.3 Methods for sampling moving material ............................................................................................................................ 9

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.2 Manual sampling from falling streams ......................................................................................................... 9

8.3.3 Manual sampling from conveyor belts .......................................................................................................... 9

8.3.4 Manual sampling from grabs and wheel loader buckets ............................................................... 9

9 Minimum number of increments .....................................................................................................................................................10

10 Minimum size of increment ...................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Determination of the volume of the combined sample .............................................................................................10

12 Equipment for manual sampling ......................................................................................................................................................11

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

12.2 Sampling bucket for falling-stream ....................................................................................................................................12

12.3 Scoops ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

12.4 Shovels ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.5 Forks .............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.6 Sample extraction using hands ..............................................................................................................................................13

12.7 Pipes (spears) .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.8 Drills (augers) .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

13 Reduction of sample size ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

14 Handling and storage of samples .....................................................................................................................................................15

14.1 Packaging, storing and transport of samples .............................................................................................................15

14.2 Identification/labelling .................................................................................................................................................................16

15 Sampling report..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Model sampling plan and sampling report (according to ISO 21945) ..............17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take Part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
Introduction

The objective of this document is to provide unambiguous and clear principles for sampling of solid

biofuels from small scale applications and storages. It is to serve as a tool to enable efficient trading of

biofuels and to enable good understanding between seller and buyer. It is also a tool for communication

with equipment manufacturers. It will also facilitate the development of sampling plans and reporting.

This document is intended for all stakeholders.

Priority in this document is to take a number of increments which is possible to handle at small applications

under practical aspects. In ISO 18135 the priority is to obtain a sample with a defined precision and to

calculate the minimum number of increments on basis of the corresponding precision data.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21945:2020(E)
Solid biofuels — Simplified sampling method for small
scale applications
1 Scope

This document describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small scale

applications and storages including preparation of sampling plans and reports. The main focus is on

storages with a size of ≤100 t. This document is applicable to the following solid biofuels:

1) fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be

sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;

2) coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be

sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells;

3) large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and

briquettes).

This document can also be used for other solid biofuels not listed above if the procedures described in

this document are applicable. This document specifies methods to be used, for example, when a sample

is to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability,

particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.

Additionally, it describes a method for the reduction of sample size and defines requirements on

handling and storage of samples.

NOTE 1 If higher precision of analytical results is needed or when in doubt if this document is applicable

ISO 18135 can be used. Using the number of increments given in this document the resulting precision for

analytical results can be estimated with the formulas given in ISO 18135.

NOTE 2 Pellets can generate CO and CO off gasses by nature. If pellets are sampled, check for CO and CO and

2 2

O levels prior and during the sample taking process in a confined space like a container, silo or shed and have

another person standby at the entrance.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14780, Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
3.1
combined sample
sample consisting of all the increments taken from a lot or sub-lot

Note 1 to entry: The increments may be reduced by division before being added to the combined sample.

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.52]
3.2
increment
portion of fuel extracted in a single operation of the sampling device
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.122]
3.3
laboratory sample
combined sample or a sub-sample of a combined sample for use in a laboratory
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.124]
3.4
lot
defined quantity of fuel for which the quality is to be determined
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.128, modified — Note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.5
nominal top size

aperture size of the smallest sieve through which at least 95 % by mass of the material passes during

the determination of particle size distribution

Note 1 to entry: For selection of sieves types and aperture sizes see ISO 17827-1 and ISO 17827-2.

Note 2 to entry: For pellets the diameter is used.

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.137, modified — Note 1 and 2 to entry have been added for additional

information, the word "smallest" has been added and the words "of solid fuels" have been deleted.]

3.6
sample

quantity of material, representative of a larger quantity for which the quality is to be determined

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.170, modified — "(all increments)" has been removed from the definition,

Note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.7
sub-lot
part of a lot for which a test result is required
EXAMPLE Material in a transport unit or on a particular stockpile.
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.197, modified — Example has been added.]
3.8
sub-sample
portion of a sample
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.198]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
d is the nominal top size of the biofuel [mm];
m is the mass of the lot or sublot [kg or t];
V is the minimum volume of an increment [l];
incr
V is the volume required for the foreseen analyses [l];
req
W is the width of a sampling tool [mm].
5 Principle

The main principle of sampling is to obtain (a) representative sample(s) from the whole lot concerned.

Every particle in the lot or sub-lot to be represented by the sample should have an equal probability of

being included in the sample. In order to do so a sampling plan is needed. Figure 1 shows the main steps

of a sampling procedure.

Under certain circumstances (e.g. certain construction types of built in storages, silos or containers)

representative sampling might not be possible.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
Figure 1 — Procedure for sampling
6 Visual inspection

Visual inspection shall be used for the choice or verification of the classification of the solid biofuels.

Based on the sampling plan, verification or selection of the sampling equipment and the sampling method

shall also be made by visual inspection. If the lot/sub-lot consists of substantially inhomogeneous

material or if it contains impurities (such as soil or pieces of metal) this shall be stated in the sampling

report. If the biofuel type or the quality of it is diverging strongly from the one expected, the sampler

shall report without any delay to the appropriate party for further instructions.

If the particle size distribution should be analysed the visible surface of the complete lot should be

inspected for the longest particle — in addition to the sampling and testing — and its length shall be

noted in the sampling report.

NOTE 1 It is advisable to take photographs of deviations noted during visual inspection.

NOTE 2 For documentation of oversized particles photographs are useful. Therefore, it is advisable to include

a folding rule or any other scale into the photograph to enable the estimation of the particles size.

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
7 Preparing sampling plan and report

The sampler shall prepare the sampling plan. The sampling plan may be prepared either by using a

copy of the form presented in Annex A or by preparing his own forms or documents containing the

appropriate items selected from those shown in Annex A.
Once completed, this form becomes a sampling report.
The sampling plan shall include the key elements:
a) a reference to this document (ISO 21945:2020);
b) the unique identification code of the sample;
c) the name and contact data of the sampler;
d) the date and time of sampling;

e) information required in order to identify the origin of the sample (e.g. supplier(s), location of

storage, customer, trade name);
f) the type of lot or sub-lot (e.g. pile, silo, cargo hold, storage, lorry);
g) sampling from stationary or moving material;
h) the identification code of the lot or the sub-lot;
i) the mass or volume of the sub-lot or the lot;
j) the traded form of the biofuel (wood pellet, briquette, chips, etc.);
k) the number of increments;
l) the required volume of sample;

m) the volume of sample sent to the laboratory and number of packages if applicable;

n) the question, if the combined sample has been divided before sending to the laboratory;

o) the type of packaging of the sample sent to the laboratory (e.g. airtight container, plastic bag).

Also consider including the following items:

p) in case of sampling stationary material: location (centre, bottom, etc.) from where the sample was

obtained (optional: mark sampling locations in a sketch);

q) storage information of the lot (e.g. how to reach the material, weather conditions, storage inside or

outside, covered or uncovered);
r) the sampling technique, e.g. shovelling, sampling pipe, stopped belt, etc.;

s) existence of material of other origin in the same storage or pile (incl. estimated amount if possible),

e.g. residues of a former lot of pellets in a pellet storage;
t) the approximate nominal top size (visual assessment);
u) any other details (e.g. visual inspection remarks).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)
8 Methods for sampling
8.1 General

It is difficult to take samples in a way that satisfies the principle of correct sampling, stating that all

individual parts of the lot shall have an equal probability of becoming part of the final sample. The

chance that this can be achieved when the material is stationary (for example in a silo, or stockpile, or in

a lorry) is low. It is easier when the material is moving (for example, on a conveyor belt, or being loaded

into or unloaded from transport equipment). Hence sampling from moving materials is to be preferred

wherever possible, care shall be taken that fuel parameters (physical properties) to be analysed are not

affected.
The following general aspects of sampling shall be considered:

a) Sampling equipment shall be properly cleaned and maintained. The equipment shall be controlled

after every sampling to avoid contamination of following samples.

b) The integrity of the sampled material shall be ensured, e.g. avoiding loss or gain of moisture,

formation of fines etc. E.g. working quickly and storing the sample in an airtight container, e.g.

plastic bag or bucket during sampling could help avoiding loss or gain of moisture.

c) All increments belonging to one combined sample shall be:
1) extracted in a uniform way,
2) of equal weight or volume,

3) transferred to the sampling bucket without any contamination or loss of material.

d) If an increment or combined sample mass (volume) is too large to be handled or transported, the

mass shall be reduced in accordance with the methods described in ISO 14780.

e) All personnel performing sampling shall be properly instructed or trained in the specific use of the

device and method.
f) All aspects of health and safety shall be considered.
8.2 Methods for sampling stationary material
8.2.1 Sampling from small packages (≤50 kg)

When sampling a lot consisting of individual packages, a primary increment consists of an entire or

partial package. Packages (e.g. pellet bags) shall be chosen at random from the entire lot, making sure

all packages have an equal probability of being selected. The number of selected packages shall be

chosen from Table 1 (see Clause 9). Since the segregation of fines is not a problem as for stationary bulk

material, the minimum number of increments specified for sampling moving material shall be chosen.

In this case one package corresponds to one increment regardless of taking the whole package or a part

of it as increment.

If the packages are transported on a conveyor (e.g. after bagging at the bagging line), a lot can be defined

as a certain time frame, a certain number of packages or similar. Increments shall be chosen either

systematically, randomly from defined strata, or completely at random, from the entire lot.

If the packages are stored, it is important to ensure that packages are chosen at random from the entire

lot. It is recommended not to extract all increments from one pallet but from three pallets minimum.

In case it is necessary to minimize the number of opened pallets or when access to all pallets is difficult

or impossible the possible consequences of not respecting the principle of correct sampling shall be

stated in the sampling report.
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21945:2020
ISO 21945:2020(E)

If only a part of a package is taken as an increment, it shall be taken by using a scoop, in case of loose

material (e.g. pellets), or by hand, in case of piece goods (e.g. briquettes). If the amount of fines or the

share of overlong particles are to be analysed the package shall be emptied completely. Sample division

is then to be performed according to Clause 13.
8.2.2 Sampling from transport containers and lorries

It is always recommended if possible, to sample when the biofuel is in motion, e.g. during loading or

unloading.

It shall always be stated in the sampling report when a sampling device cannot reach the bottom of the

container
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