Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials -- Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C

This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and cellulose nanomaterial. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C.
In the context of this document, the term "cellulose nanomaterial" refers specifically to cellulose nano-object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper, board and pulps.

Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose -- Détermination du résidu (cendres) après incinération à 900 °C

Le présent document décrit la détermination du résidu (cendres) aprčs incinération du papier, du carton, des pâtes et nanomatériaux ŕ base de cellulose. Le présent document s'applique ŕ tous les types de papier, de carton, de pâte et de nanomatériau ŕ base de cellulose. Le présent document fournit des procédures de mesure pour obtenir une fidélité de mesure de 0,01 % ou meilleure pour le résidu (cendres) aprčs incinération ŕ 900 °C.
Dans le cadre du présent document, le terme «nanomatériau ŕ base de cellulose» fait spécifiquement référence ŕ un nano-objet ŕ base de cellulose (voir 3.2 ŕ 3.4). En raison de leurs dimensions nanométriques, ces nano-objets ŕ base de cellulose peuvent présenter des propriétés intrinsčques, des comportements ou des fonctionnalités différents de ceux du papier, du carton et des pâtes.

Papir, karton, lepenka in vlaknine ter celulozni nanomateriali - Določevanje ostanka (pepela) pri sežigu pri 900 °C

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Oct-2020
Publication Date
18-Oct-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Oct-2020
Due Date
24-Dec-2020
Completion Date
19-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 2144:2020
01-november-2020
Papir, karton, lepenka in vlaknine ter celulozni nanomateriali - Določevanje
ostanka (pepela) pri sežigu pri 900 °C
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials -- Determination of residue (ash
content) on ignition at 900 °C

Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose -- Détermination du résidu

(cendres) après incinération à 900 °C
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 2144:2019
ICS:
85.040 Vlaknine Pulps
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
SIST ISO 2144:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2144
Sixth edition
2019-06
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose
nanomaterials — Determination of
residue (ash content) on ignition at
900 °C
Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose —
Détermination du résidu (cendres) après incinération à 900 °C
Reference number
ISO 2144:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling and preparation of test specimen ............................................................................................................................ 3

6.1 Sample amount ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Paper, board and pulp sampling............................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Cellulose nanomaterial sampling ............................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Measurement of moisture or dry matter content ..................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Measurement of residue (ash) mass .................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition (ISO 2144:2015), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— The scope has been changed to cover also cellulose nanomaterials instead of only paper, board

and pulps;

— A definition of cellulose nanomaterial, along with additional instructions for sampling, sample

preparation, and incineration for cellulose nanomaterials have been incorporated;

— Additional instructions are given on how to express results when a sample has low ash content.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Introduction

The magnitude of the residue (ash content) on ignition at a given temperature is related to, but not

equal to, the content of mineral constituents in the sample. For coated and filled products, the amount

of added mineral constituents can only be calculated from the result if the loss on ignition of the

particular pigment used is known. For China clay, the residue on ignition at 900 °C varies from 89 % to

86 % and for calcium carbonate it is about 56 %.

The determination is mainly used as a screening test for checking the overall quality of a product, in

many cases against specifications. The ignition procedure described can be used as a preliminary step

when determining particular mineral constituents.

Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 525 °C of paper, board, pulps and cellulose

[1]
nanomaterials is described in ISO 1762 .
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2144:2019(E)
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials —
Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C
1 Scope

This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board,

pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and

cellulose nanomaterial. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement

precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C.

In the context of this document, the term “cellulose nanomaterial” refers specifically to cellulose nano-

object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have

intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper,

board and pulps.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 287, Paper and board — Determination of moisture content of a lot — Oven-drying method

ISO 638, Paper, board and pulps — Determination of dry matter content — Oven-drying method

ISO 7213, Pulps — Sampling for testing
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
residue on ignition
ash content

ratio of the mass of the residue remaining after a test specimen of paper, board, pulp or cellulose

nanomaterial (3.2) is ignited at 900 °C ± 25 °C to the oven-dry mass of the test specimen before ignition

Note 1 to entry: This property has been referred to as either “residue on ignition” or “ash content” in earlier

editions of this document.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
3.2
cellulose nanomaterial

material composed predominantly of cellulose, with any external dimension between approximately 1

nm and 100 nm, or a material having internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale, with the

internal structure or surface structure composed predominantly of cellulose

Note 1 to entry: The terms nanocellulose and cellulosic nanomaterial are synonymous with cellulose

nanomaterial.

Note 2 to entry: Some cellulose nanomaterials can be composed of chemically modified cellulose.

Note 3 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of cellulose nano-object and cellulose nanostructured material.

Note 4 to entry: See also definitions of cellulose, nanoscale, cellulose nano-object and cellulose nanostructured

material in ISO/TS 20477:2017.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 3.3.1, modified — “1 nm to 100 nm” changed to “1 nm and 100 nm”;

abbreviations deleted from Note 1 to entry; Note 4 to entry added.]
3.3
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.4
cellulose nano-object
nano-object composed predominantly of cellulose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 5.2]
3.5
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from larger sizes are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
4 Principle

The test specimen is weighed in a heat-resistant crucible and incinerated at 900 °C ± 25 °C in a muffle

furnace. The moisture or dry matter content of a separate test specimen is also measured. The

percentage ash is then determined, on a dry (moisture-free) basis, from the mass of residue (ash) after

ignition and the moisture or dry matter content of the sample.

Cellulosic and organic materials as well as carbonate in the sample are completely lost by ignition at

900 °C. For coated and filled products, the amount of added mineral constituents can only be calculated

from the result if the loss on ignition of the particular pigment used is known. This value varies from

one pigment to another and also between different batches of many pigments. If higher ignition

temperatures are used, the corresponding loss on ignition will increase, but there is no guarantee that

it will become exactly 100 % at any temperature. For pulps and other materials without any added

minerals, the ash content is a measure of the amount of unwanted mineral constituents such as silica,

silicates or particles of minerals. Some soluble inorganic constituents such as sodium chloride will

escape the determination, whereas sulfates will normally be retained.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
5 Apparatus
Ordinary laboratory equipment, including the following:

5.1 Crucibles of platinum, ceramics or silica, of capacity to accommodate about 10 g of sample

(normally a capacity of 50 ml is sufficient).

The crucibles shall not lose or gain mass on ignition or react chemically with the sample or its ignition

residue.

Larger-capacity crucibles may also be used for low-density materials to accommodate sufficient sample.

A lid of an appropriate material, placed slightly ajar to a
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
01-oktober-2020
Papir, karton, lepenka in vlaknine ter celulozni nanomateriali - Določevanje
ostanka (pepela) pri sežigu pri 900 °C
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials -- Determination of residue (ash
content) on ignition at 900 °C

Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose -- Détermination du résidu

(cendres) après incinération à 900 °C
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 2144:2019
ICS:
85.040 Vlaknine Pulps
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
oSIST ISO 2144:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2144
Sixth edition
2019-06
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose
nanomaterials — Determination of
residue (ash content) on ignition at
900 °C
Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose —
Détermination du résidu (cendres) après incinération à 900 °C
Reference number
ISO 2144:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling and preparation of test specimen ............................................................................................................................ 3

6.1 Sample amount ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Paper, board and pulp sampling............................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Cellulose nanomaterial sampling ............................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Measurement of moisture or dry matter content ..................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Measurement of residue (ash) mass .................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition (ISO 2144:2015), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— The scope has been changed to cover also cellulose nanomaterials instead of only paper, board

and pulps;

— A definition of cellulose nanomaterial, along with additional instructions for sampling, sample

preparation, and incineration for cellulose nanomaterials have been incorporated;

— Additional instructions are given on how to express results when a sample has low ash content.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Introduction

The magnitude of the residue (ash content) on ignition at a given temperature is related to, but not

equal to, the content of mineral constituents in the sample. For coated and filled products, the amount

of added mineral constituents can only be calculated from the result if the loss on ignition of the

particular pigment used is known. For China clay, the residue on ignition at 900 °C varies from 89 % to

86 % and for calcium carbonate it is about 56 %.

The determination is mainly used as a screening test for checking the overall quality of a product, in

many cases against specifications. The ignition procedure described can be used as a preliminary step

when determining particular mineral constituents.

Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 525 °C of paper, board, pulps and cellulose

[1]
nanomaterials is described in ISO 1762 .
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2144:2019(E)
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials —
Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C
1 Scope

This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board,

pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and

cellulose nanomaterial. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement

precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C.

In the context of this document, the term “cellulose nanomaterial” refers specifically to cellulose nano-

object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have

intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper,

board and pulps.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 287, Paper and board — Determination of moisture content of a lot — Oven-drying method

ISO 638, Paper, board and pulps — Determination of dry matter content — Oven-drying method

ISO 7213, Pulps — Sampling for testing
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
residue on ignition
ash content

ratio of the mass of the residue remaining after a test specimen of paper, board, pulp or cellulose

nanomaterial (3.2) is ignited at 900 °C ± 25 °C to the oven-dry mass of the test specimen before ignition

Note 1 to entry: This property has been referred to as either “residue on ignition” or “ash content” in earlier

editions of this document.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
3.2
cellulose nanomaterial

material composed predominantly of cellulose, with any external dimension between approximately 1

nm and 100 nm, or a material having internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale, with the

internal structure or surface structure composed predominantly of cellulose

Note 1 to entry: The terms nanocellulose and cellulosic nanomaterial are synonymous with cellulose

nanomaterial.

Note 2 to entry: Some cellulose nanomaterials can be composed of chemically modified cellulose.

Note 3 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of cellulose nano-object and cellulose nanostructured material.

Note 4 to entry: See also definitions of cellulose, nanoscale, cellulose nano-object and cellulose nanostructured

material in ISO/TS 20477:2017.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 3.3.1, modified — “1 nm to 100 nm” changed to “1 nm and 100 nm”;

abbreviations deleted from Note 1 to entry; Note 4 to entry added.]
3.3
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.4
cellulose nano-object
nano-object composed predominantly of cellulose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 5.2]
3.5
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from larger sizes are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
4 Principle

The test specimen is weighed in a heat-resistant crucible and incinerated at 900 °C ± 25 °C in a muffle

furnace. The moisture or dry matter content of a separate test specimen is also measured. The

percentage ash is then determined, on a dry (moisture-free) basis, from the mass of residue (ash) after

ignition and the moisture or dry matter content of the sample.

Cellulosic and organic materials as well as carbonate in the sample are completely lost by ignition at

900 °C. For coated and filled products, the amount of added mineral constituents can only be calculated

from the result if the loss on ignition of the particular pigment used is known. This value varies from

one pigment to another and also between different batches of many pigments. If higher ignition

temperatures are used, the corresponding loss on ignition will increase, but there is no guarantee that

it will become exactly 100 % at any temperature. For pulps and other materials without any added

minerals, the ash content is a measure of the amount of unwanted mineral constituents such as silica,

silicates or particles of minerals. Some soluble inorganic constituents such as sodium chloride will

escape the determination, whereas sulfates will normally be retained.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2144:2020
ISO 2144:2019(E)
5 Apparatus
Ordinary laboratory equipment, including the following:

5.1 Crucibles of platinum, ceramics or silica, of capacity to accommodate about 10 g of sample

(normally a capacity of 50 ml is sufficient).

The crucibles shall not lose or gain mass on ignition or react chemically with the sample or its ignition

residue.

Larger-capacity crucibles may also be used for low-density materials to accommodate sufficient sample.

A lid of an appropriate material, placed slightly ajar to
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2144
Sixth edition
2019-06
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose
nanomaterials — Determination of
residue (ash content) on ignition at
900 °C
Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose —
Détermination du résidu (cendres) après incinération à 900 °C
Reference number
ISO 2144:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2144:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2144:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling and preparation of test specimen ............................................................................................................................ 3

6.1 Sample amount ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Paper, board and pulp sampling............................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Cellulose nanomaterial sampling ............................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Measurement of moisture or dry matter content ..................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Measurement of residue (ash) mass .................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

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ISO 2144:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition (ISO 2144:2015), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— The scope has been changed to cover also cellulose nanomaterials instead of only paper, board

and pulps;

— A definition of cellulose nanomaterial, along with additional instructions for sampling, sample

preparation, and incineration for cellulose nanomaterials have been incorporated;

— Additional instructions are given on how to express results when a sample has low ash content.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2144:2019(E)
Introduction

The magnitude of the residue (ash content) on ignition at a given temperature is related to, but not

equal to, the content of mineral constituents in the sample. For coated and filled products, the amount

of added mineral constituents can only be calculated from the result if the loss on ignition of the

particular pigment used is known. For China clay, the residue on ignition at 900 °C varies from 89 % to

86 % and for calcium carbonate it is about 56 %.

The determination is mainly used as a screening test for checking the overall quality of a product, in

many cases against specifications. The ignition procedure described can be used as a preliminary step

when determining particular mineral constituents.

Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 525 °C of paper, board, pulps and cellulose

[1]
nanomaterials is described in ISO 1762 .
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2144:2019(E)
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials —
Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C
1 Scope

This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board,

pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and

cellulose nanomaterial. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement

precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C.

In the context of this document, the term “cellulose nanomaterial” refers specifically to cellulose nano-

object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have

intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper,

board and pulps.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 287, Paper and board — Determination of moisture content of a lot — Oven-drying method

ISO 638, Paper, board and pulps — Determination of dry matter content — Oven-drying method

ISO 7213, Pulps — Sampling for testing
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
residue on ignition
ash content

ratio of the mass of the residue remaining after a test specimen of paper, board, pulp or cellulose

nanomaterial (3.2) is ignited at 900 °C ± 25 °C to the oven-dry mass of the test specimen before ignition

Note 1 to entry: This property has been referred to as either “residue on ignition” or “ash content” in earlier

editions of this document.
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ISO 2144:2019(E)
3.2
cellulose nanomaterial

material composed predominantly of cellulose, with any external dimension between approximately 1

nm and 100 nm, or a material having internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale, with the

internal structure or surface structure composed predominantly of cellulose

Note 1 to entry: The terms nanocellulose and cellulosic nanomaterial are synonymous with cellulose

nanomaterial.

Note 2 to entry: Some cellulose nanomaterials can be composed of chemically modified cellulose.

Note 3 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of cellulose nano-object and cellulose nanostructured material.

Note 4 to entry: See also definitions of cellulose, nanoscale, cellulose nano-object and cellulose nanostructured

material in ISO/TS 20477:2017.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 3.3.1, modified — “1 nm to 100 nm” changed to “1 nm and 100 nm”;

abbreviations deleted from Note 1 to entry; Note 4 to entry added.]
3.3
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.4
cellulose nano-object
nano-object composed predominantly of cellulose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 5.2]
3.5
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from larger sizes are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
4 Principle

The test specimen is weighed in a heat-resistant crucible and incinerated at 900 °C ± 25 °C in a muffle

furnace. The moisture or dry matter content of a separate test specimen is also measured. The

percentage ash is then determined, on a dry (moisture-free) basis, from the mass of residue (ash) after

ignition and the moisture or dry matter content of the sample.

Cellulosic and organic materials as well as carbonate in the sample are completely lost by ignition at

900 °C. For coated and filled products, the amount of added mineral constituents can only be calculated

from the result if the loss on ignition of the particular pigment used is known. This value varies from

one pigment to another and also between different batches of many pigments. If higher ignition

temperatures are used, the corresponding loss on ignition will increase, but there is no guarantee that

it will become exactly 100 % at any temperature. For pulps and other materials without any added

minerals, the ash content is a measure of the amount of unwanted mineral constituents such as silica,

silicates or particles of minerals. Some soluble inorganic constituents such as sodium chloride will

escape the determination, whereas sulfates will normally be retained.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2144:2019(E)
5 Apparatus
Ordinary laboratory equipment, including the following:

5.1 Crucibles of platinum, ceramics or silica, of capacity to accommodate about 10 g of sample

(normally a capacity of 50 ml is sufficient).

The crucibles shall not lose or gain mass on ignition or react chemically with the sample or its ignition

residue.

Larger-capacity crucibles may also be used for low-density materials to accommodate sufficient sample.

A lid of an appropriate material, placed slightly ajar to allow air for combustion, may also be used with

the crucible to help prevent low density or flyaway material from escaping during the ash ignition

process.
Platinum crucibles are recommended if a small amount of residue is expected.
5.2 Muffle furnace, capable of maintaining a temperature of 900 °C ± 25 °C.

It is recommended that the furnace be placed in a hood or that means are provided for evacuating

smoke and fumes.

5.3 Analytical balance, with a scale division (readability) of 0,1 mg or better in order to obtain a

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 2144
Sixième édition
2019-06
Papiers, cartons, pâtes et
nanomatériaux à base de cellulose —
Détermination du résidu (cendres)
après incinération à 900 °C
Paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials — Determination of
residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C
Numéro de référence
ISO 2144:2019(F)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2144:2019(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2019

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 2144:2019(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Appareillage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Échantillonnage et préparation de l’éprouvette ................................................................................................................. 3

6.1 Quantité d’échantillon ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Échantillonnage des papiers, cartons et pâtes ............................................................................................................ 3

6.3 Échantillonnage des nanomatériaux à base de cellulose ................................................................................... 4

7 Mode opératoire.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.2 Mesurage de la teneur en humidité ou en matières sèches ............................................................................. 5

7.3 Incinération ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Mesurage de la masse du résidu (cendres) .................................................................................................................... 5

8 Expression des résultats............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

9 Rapport d’essai ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annexe A (informative) Fidélité................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

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ISO 2144:2019(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comité membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 6, Papiers, cartons et pâtes.

Cette sixième édition annule et remplace la cinquième édition (ISO 2144:2015), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique. Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— Le domaine d’application a été modifié pour traiter également des nanomatériaux à base de cellulose

au lieu du papier, du carton et des pâtes uniquement;

— Une définition du nanomatériau cellulosique, ainsi que des instructions supplémentaires relatives à

l’échantillonnage, à la préparation des échantillons et à l’incinération des nanomatériaux à base de

cellulose, ont été incorporées;

— Des instructions relatives à l’expression des résultats ont été ajoutées pour les échantillons à faible

teneur en cendres.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 2144:2019(F)
Introduction

La quantité de résidu (cendres) après incinération à une température donnée est liée, mais non égale,

à la teneur en constituants minéraux dans l’échantillon. Pour les produits couchés ou contenant des

charges, on peut calculer la quantité de constituants minéraux introduits à partir du résultat, seulement

si la perte au feu du pigment précisément utilisé est connue. Pour le kaolin, le résidu après incinération

à 900 °C varie de 89 % à 86 % et, pour le carbonate de calcium, il est d’environ 56 %.

La détermination est principalement utilisée comme un essai de sélection pour vérifier la qualité globale

d’un produit, dans de nombreux cas par rapport à des spécifications. La procédure d’incinération décrite

peut être utilisée comme étape préliminaire de détermination de constituants minéraux particuliers.

La détermination du résidu (cendres) après incinération à 525 °C des papiers, cartons, pâtes et

[1]
nanomatériaux à base de cellulose est décrite dans l’ISO 1762 .
© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 2144:2019(F)
Papiers, cartons, pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de
cellulose — Détermination du résidu (cendres) après
incinération à 900 °C
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document décrit la détermination du résidu (cendres) après incinération du papier, du

carton, des pâtes et nanomatériaux à base de cellulose. Le présent document s’applique à tous les

types de papier, de carton, de pâte et de nanomatériau à base de cellulose. Le présent document fournit

des procédures de mesure pour obtenir une fidélité de mesure de 0,01 % ou meilleure pour le résidu

(cendres) après incinération à 900 °C.

Dans le cadre du présent document, le terme «nanomatériau à base de cellulose» fait spécifiquement

référence à un nano-objet à base de cellulose (voir 3.2 à 3.4). En raison de leurs dimensions

nanométriques, ces nano-objets à base de cellulose peuvent présenter des propriétés intrinsèques, des

comportements ou des fonctionnalités différents de ceux du papier, du carton et des pâtes.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 186, Papier et carton — Échantillonnage pour déterminer la qualité moyenne

ISO 287, Papier et carton — Détermination de la teneur en humidité d'un lot — Méthode par séchage à l'étuve

ISO 638, Papiers, cartons et pâtes — Détermination de la teneur en matières sèches — Méthode par séchage

à l'étuve
ISO 7213, Pâtes — Échantillonnage pour essais
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https: //www .iso .org/obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
résidu après incinération
teneur en cendres

rapport de la masse du résidu restant après incinération d’une prise d’essai de papier, carton, pâte ou

nanomatériau à base de cellulose (3.2) à 900 °C ± 25 °C à la masse de la prise d’essai séchée à l’étuve

avant incinération

Note 1 à l'article: Cette propriété était dénommée «résidu après incinération» ou «teneur en cendres» dans de

précédentes éditions du présent document.
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ISO 2144:2019(F)
3.2
nanomatériau à base de cellulose

matériau principalement composé de cellulose, dont toutes les dimensions externes sont comprises

approximativement entre 1 nm et 100 nm, ou matériau dont la structure interne ou de surface,

principalement composée de cellulose, est à l’échelle nanométrique

Note 1 à l'article: Les termes «nanocellulose» et «nanomatériau cellulosique» sont des synonymes du terme

«nanomatériau à base de cellulose».

Note 2 à l'article: Certains nanomatériaux à base de cellulose peuvent être composés de cellulose chimiquement

modifiée.

Note 3 à l'article: Ce terme générique englobe les nano-objets à base de cellulose et les matériaux nanostructurés

à base de cellulose.

Note 4 à l'article: Voir également les définitions de cellulose, échelle nanométrique, nano-objet à base de cellulose

et matériau nanostructuré à base de cellulose dans l’ISO/TS 20477:2017.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 3.3.1, modifiée — en anglais «1 nm to 100 nm» remplacé par «1 nm and

100 nm»; abréviations supprimées de la Note 1 à l’article; Note 4 à l’article ajoutée.]

3.3
nano-objet

élément individuel de produit dont une, deux ou trois dimensions externes sont à l’échelle nanométrique

Note 1 à l'article: Les deuxième et troisième dimensions externes sont orthogonales à la première dimension et

l’une à l’autre.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.4
nano-objet à base de cellulose
nano-objet principalement composé de cellulose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 20477:2017, 5.2]
3.5
échelle nanométrique
plage de longueurs approximativement entre 1 nm et 100 nm

Note 1 à l'article: Les propriétés qui ne sont pas extrapolées à partir de tailles supérieures se situent

essentiellement dans cette plage de longueurs.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
4 Principe

La prise d’essai est pesée dans un creuset résistant à la chaleur, puis incinérée à 900 °C ± 25 °C dans un

four à moufle. La teneur en humidité ou en matières sèches d’une prise d’essai distincte est également

mesurée. Le pourcentage de cendres est ensuite déterminé, sur une base sèche (exempte d’humidité),

à partir de la masse du résidu (cendres) après incinération et de la teneur en humidité ou en matières

sèches de l’échantillon.

Les matières cellulosiques et organiques ainsi que le carbonate de l’échantillon sont complètement

perdus par incinération à 900 °C. Pour les produits couchés ou contenant des charges, on peut calculer

à partir du résultat la quantité de constituants minéraux introduits, seulement si la perte au feu du

pigment précisément utilisé est connue. Cette valeur varie d’un pigment à l’autre et aussi, pour de

nombreux pigments, d’un lot à l’autre. Si l’on utilise des températures d’incinération supérieures, la

perte au feu correspondante augmente, mais il n’y a aucune garantie qu’elle atteigne exactement 100 %

à quelque température que ce soit. Pour les pâtes et autres matières sans minéraux ajoutés, la teneur en

cendres est une mesure de la quantité de constituants minéraux indésirables, tels que silice, silicates,

2 © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 2144:2019(F)

particules de minéraux. Certains constituants minéraux solubles, comme le chlorure de sodium, vont

échapper à la détermination tandis que les sulfates seront, normalement, conservés.

5 Appareillage
Appareillage de laboratoire courant incluant les matériels suivants:

5.1 Creusets en platine, céramique ou silice, de capacité adaptée à environ 10 g de prise d’essai

(normalement une capacité de 50 ml est suffisante).

Les creusets ne doivent pas perdre ni gagner de la masse à l’occasion de l’incinération, ni réagir

chimiquement avec la prise d’essai ou son résidu après incinération.

Des creusets de capacité supérieure peuvent également être utilisés pour les matériaux de faible masse

volumique afin d’accueillir une quantité suffisante d’échantillon.

Un couvercle en matériau approprié, placé légèrement entrouvert pour laisser entrer l’air en vue de la

combustion, peut également être utilisé avec le creuset pour empêcher les matières de faible masse

volumique ou volantes de s’échapper au cours du processus d’incinération.

Des creusets en platine sont recommandés si une faible quantité de résidu est attendue.

5.2 Four à moufle, pouvant maintenir une température de 900 °C ± 25 °C.

Il est recommandé de placer le four sous une hotte ou de prévoir un moyen d’évacuer la fumée et les

vapeurs.

5.3 Balance analytique, à graduation (lisibilité) au moins tous les 0,1 mg pour obtenir une fidélité de

mesure de 0,01 % ou meilleure.
5.4 Dessiccateur.
6 Échantillonnage et préparation de l’éprouvette

AVERTISSEMENT — La méthode spécifiée dans le présent document implique l’utilisation

de nanomatériaux. Il convient de s’assurer de prendre les précautions appropriées, et de se

conformer aux lignes directrices en matière de sécurité des nanotechnologies en laboratoire et

aux bonnes pratiques décrites.
6.1 Quantité d’échantillon
Une quantité suffisante de matériau d
...

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