Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

This European Standard specifies steering system tests and performance criteria for evaluating the steering capability of rubber-tyred self-propelled earth-moving machines having a machine speed, determined in accordance with ISO 6014:1986, greater than 20 km/h.
It applies to tractors, loaders, backhoe loaders, excavators, dumpers, tractor-scrapers and graders equipped with either manual (unassisted) steering, power-assisted steering of fully powered steering as defined in ISO 6165:2006.
This European Standard excludes rollers, compactors and pipelayers.

Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen (ISO 5010:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt die Lenkanlagenprüfungen und Leistungskriterien zur Bewertung der Lenkbarkeit von Erdbaumaschinen auf Rädern mit aufsitzender Bedienperson entsprechend der Definition in ISO 6165:2012 fest. Zu den Maschinen auf Rädern gehören Maschinen, die mit Rädern, einer oder mehr Trommeln oder Raupen-Rad-Baugruppen ausgestattet sind.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die folgenden signifikanten Gefährdungen, Gefährdungssituationen oder Gefährdungsereignisse, die auf Maschinen auf Rädern zutreffen, wenn sie bestimmungsgemäß und unter den vernünftigerweise vom Hersteller vorhersehbaren Bedingungen des Missbrauchs verwendet werden:
—   mechanische Gefährdungen;
—   ergonomische Gefährdungen;
—   Gefährdung aufgrund der Wartung;
—   Gefährdungen aufgrund des Steuerungssystems;
—   Gefährdungen im Zusammenhang mit der Fahrfunktion.
Die funktionale Sicherheit der Lenkanlage ist nicht Gegenstand dieses Dokuments.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Maschinen auf Rädern, die vor dem Veröffentlichungsdatum dieses Dokuments hergestellt wurden.

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO 5010:2019)

Le présent document spécifie les essais et les critères de performance pour l'évaluation de la capacité de direction des engins de terrassement à conducteur porté et équipés de pneumatiques, tels que définis dans l'ISO 6165:2012. Les engins équipés de pneumatiques comprennent les machines équipées de roues, d'un ou de plusieurs tambours ou ensembles de chenillettes.
Le présent document traite des phénomènes dangereux, situations dangereuses ou événements dangereux significatifs suivants, relatifs aux engins équipés de pneumatiques lorsqu'ils sont utilisés comme prévu ou dans des conditions de mauvais usage raisonnablement prévisible par le fabricant:
— phénomènes dangereux mécaniques;
— phénomènes dangereux engendrés par le non-respect des principes ergonomiques;
— phénomènes dangereux dus à la maintenance;
— phénomènes dangereux dus au système de commande;
— phénomènes dangereux relatifs à la fonction de déplacement;
La sécurité fonctionnelle du système de direction n'est pas couverte dans le présent document.
Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux engins équipés de pneumatiques fabriqués avant la date de sa publication.

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Stroji s kolesi - Zahteve za krmiljenje (ISO 5010:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
22-Oct-2018
Publication Date
14-Jan-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
30-Dec-2019
Due Date
05-Mar-2020
Completion Date
15-Jan-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
01-marec-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12643:2014

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Stroji s kolesi - Zahteve za krmiljenje (ISO 5010:2019)

Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen (ISO 5010:2019)

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO

5010:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 5010:2019
ICS:
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.100 Supersedes EN 12643:2014
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering
requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen

pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO 5010:2019) (ISO 5010:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 November 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 5010:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (Informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending

Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered..................................................... 4

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 5010:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127 "Earth-

moving machinery" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 151 “Construction equipment

and building material machines - Safety” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12643:2014.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For the relationship with EU Directive(s) see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 5010:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 5010:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(Informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the essential
requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending
Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s standardization request M/396 to

provide one voluntary means of conforming to essential requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC of the

European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive

95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157].

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive, and associated EFTA regulations.
Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and
Directive 2006/42/EC [2006 L157]
Essential Requirements of Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) Remarks/Notes
Directive 2006/42/EC of this EN
1.1.2. Principles of safety
integration 4
1.1.3. Materials and products 4.7.3
1.1.6 .Ergonomics 4.3.8, 4.5.1, 4.9
1.2.1. Safety and reliability of
control systems 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.4
1.2.2. Control devices 4.3.3, 4.3.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
1.2.5. Selection of control or
operating modes 4.8
1.3.2. Risk of break-up during
operation 4.4.1, 4.7.3
1.6.1. Machinery maintenance 4.3.5
1.6.2. Access to operating
positions and servicing points 4.3.5
1.7.1.1. Information and
information devices 4.8.3
1.7.1.2. Warning devices 4.7.1.1
1.7.4.2. Contents of the
instructions 10
3.3.1. Control devices 4.3.2, 4.3.4, 4.3.6, 4.3.7
3.3.5. Control circuit failure 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
3.4.5. Means of access 4.3.7, 4.4.1 c)

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this

European Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union. Users of this standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official

Journal of the European Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the

scope of this standard.
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5010
Fourth edition
2019-11
Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled
machines — Steering requirements
Engins de terrassement — Engins équipés de pneumatiques —
Systèmes de direction
Reference number
ISO 5010:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Required steering systems ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 All steering systems ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.4 Tests with all steering systems ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.5 Primary steering system ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.6 Secondary steering system ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Powered steering system ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.8 Steering systems with principal and alternative steering control elements ..................................... 8

4.9 Ergonomic requirements ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Steering test course ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Machine specifications for test ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Wheel circle test procedure ...................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Steering tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 Tests with primary steering system ..................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Tests with secondary steering system .............................................................................................................................12

8.3 Steering test with alternative steering control elements ................................................................................14

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Instruction handbook ....................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2.1 Machines equipped with powered steering system .......................................................................16

10.2.2 Machines equipped with secondary steering system ...................................................................17

10.2.3 Machines equipped with steering systems with alternative steering

control element with a controlled or limited speed range .......................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery,

Subcommittee SC 2, Safety requirements and human factors.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 5010:2007), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the title has been changed to “Wheeled machines” to include machines with drums and crawler

wheel assemblies;

— requirements have been provided for earth-moving machinery (EMM) with a maximum machine

speed <20 km/h.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organisations, market surveillance etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e. g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);

— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or

type-B standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of

the other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of

this type-C standard.

As functional safety of steering system is not covered in this document, guidance for functional safety

of steering systems can be found in the following standards: ISO 15998, ISO/TS 15998-2, ISO 13849-1,

1) 2) 3)
ISO 19014-1, ISO 19014-2 , ISO 19014-3, ISO 19014-4 and ISO/TS 19014-5 .
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-2:2019.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-4:2019.
3) Under preparation.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5010:2019(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled machines — Steering
requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies steering system tests and performance criteria for evaluating the steering

capability of wheeled, ride-on earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165:2012. Wheeled machines

include machines equipped with wheels, one or more drums or crawler wheel assemblies.

This document deals with the following significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

relevant to wheeled machines, when used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are

reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer:
— mechanical hazards;
— ergonomic hazards;
— hazards due to maintenance;
— hazards due to the control system;
— hazards related to travelling function.
Functional safety of the steering system is not covered in this document.

This document is not applicable to wheeled machines manufactured before the date of its publication.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3450:2011, Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled or high-speed rubber-tracked machines —

Performance requirements and test procedures for brake systems

ISO 6016:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Methods of measuring the masses of whole machines, their

equipment and components

ISO 7457:1997, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of turning dimensions of wheeled machines

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 10968:— , Earth-moving machinery — Operator’s controls

ISO 18752:2014, Rubber hoses and hose assemblies — Wire- or textile-reinforced single-pressure types for

hydraulic applications — Specification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100 and the following apply.

4) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 10968:2019.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
steering system

system including all machine elements between the operator and the ground-contacting wheels (3.2),

drums or crawler wheel assemblies (3.3) participating in steering the machine
3.1.1
manual steering system

steering system (3.1) depending exclusively on the muscular power of the operator to affect steering of

the machine
3.1.2
powered steering system

steering system (3.1) employing auxiliary power sources to supplement or replace the muscular power

of the operator to affect steering of the machine
3.1.3
primary steering system

steering system (3.1) used to steer the machine when the steering system functions as intended

3.1.4
secondary steering system

steering system (3.1) used to steer the machine in the event of a loss of the primary steering power

source (3.5.1)
3.2
wheel

circular structure able to rotate on an axle, either directly or with the use of bearings, with the external

part in contact with the ground
3.3
crawler wheel assembly
crawler system used in place of a wheel (3.2) on a single axle
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: Machines with crawler wheel assemblies are steered using techniques common to rubber-tyred

machines, for example Ackermann steering, articulated steering.
3.4
wheeled machine
machine on wheels (3.2), drums or crawler wheel assemblies (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Key
1 drum
2 crawler wheel assembly
Figure 1 — Wheeled machine with drum and crawler wheel assemblies
3.5 steering power sources
3.5.1
primary steering power source

means for providing power to effect steering in a powered steering system (3.1.2)

EXAMPLE Hydraulic pump, air compressor, electric generator.
3.5.2
secondary steering power source

means for providing power to the secondary steering system (3.1.4) in the event of primary steering

power source failure (3.5.3)
EXAMPLE Hydraulic pump, air compressor, accumulator, battery.

Note 1 to entry: It is assumed that not more than one failure will occur at the same time.

3.5.3
primary steering power source failure
complete and instantaneous loss of the primary steering power source (3.5.1)
3.6
steering control element

control element used by the operator to transmit the steering command for the desired direction or to

control the relative speed of the left-hand and right-hand sides of the drive system

EXAMPLE Steering wheel (3.2), lever controls, joystick controls, pushbutton/touch pad controls and foot

pedal controls.

Note 1 to entry: For a machine that has equal alternative operator’s position both at the left-hand and right-hand

sides of the machine equipped with a conventional steering wheel at each position (e. g. some types of rollers),

these two steering wheels are considered as one steering element.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
3.6.1
principal steering control element

steering control element (3.6) at the operator’s positions that is primarily used to fulfil the primary

steering and, if applicable, the secondary steering
3.6.2
alternative steering control element

additional steering control element (3.6) that can be used instead of the principal steering control element

(3.6.1) to fulfil primary steering
3.7
steering effort

necessary force exerted by the operator on the steering control element (3.6) in order to steer the machine

3.8
steering angle

total displacement angle between the front wheels (3.2) and the rear wheels as they move about one or

more vertical steering axes from their normal straight-ahead condition to a turned condition

Note 1 to entry: The steering angle for multiple-axle machines is determined between the wheels at the farthest

forward and farthest rearward axles.

Note 2 to entry: Ackermann steering inherently has a greater steering angle on the side of the machine toward

the inside of the turn as compared to the wheels on the outside of the turn. Therefore, where Ackermann steering

is involved, the location of the steering angle measurement also needs to be specified.

Note 3 to entry: A steering angle accomplished by a combination of geometries incorporating Ackermann steering

is included, and also requires the location of the steering angle measurement to be specified.

3.9
width over wheels

distance on Y coordinate between two Y planes passing through the farthest points of the machine on

both sides of the zero Y plane measured at the location of the wheels (3.2)
3.10
outer wheel clearance diameter

diameter of the circular path described by the outermost point of the loaded (lower) section of the

wheel (3.2) located on the vertical diameter of the outermost wheel when the machine is executing its

sharpest practical turn under the conditions described in ISO 7457:1997, Clause 7

3.11
wheel circle
outer wheel clearance diameter (3.10) determined in accordance with Clause 7
3.12
maximum machine speed
maximum speed determined in accordance with ISO 6014

[SOURCE: ISO 3450:2011, 3.12, modified — The words ", or equivalent" have been removed.]

4 General requirements
4.1 General

Earth-moving machinery shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this

clause, unless modified by requirements of the relevant specific part of the standard series. In addition,

the machine shall be designed according to the principles of ISO 12100:2010 for hazards relevant but

not significant which are not dealt with by this document.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
4.2 Required steering systems
4.2.1 All machines shall have a primary steering system.

4.2.2 Machines with a maximum machine speed ≥20 km/h shall have a secondary steering system.

This does not apply to machines equipped with a manual steering system as the primary steering system.

4.3 All steering systems

4.3.1 The steering control element shall continue to be the steering control means for the operator

in case of primary steering power source failure. If multiple steering control elements are provided, see

requirements in 4.8.

4.3.2 When the steering control element is released, the selected wheel circle shall remain constant or

become larger during travel in the forward direction.
NOTE For more information on primary steering control requirements see 8.1.2.

4.3.3 The steering system shall be designed so that the movement of the steering control element is

consistent with its effect. If control operation is not obvious, an operational sign shall be provided (e.g.

using symbols). Operation of the steering control element shall be in accordance with ISO 10968:— and,

as applicable, with the normal functioning of the machine.

4.3.4 During machine operation, no uncontrolled steering movement shall occur due to the operation

of the steering control element.

4.3.5 Steering system reliability shall be enhanced by the selection and design of components arranged

so that inspection and maintenance can be readily performed.

4.3.6 Steering system disturbances shall meet the conditions given in 4.3.6.1 and 4.3.6.2.

4.3.6.1 Steering system disturbances due to other machine functions shall be minimized by appropriate

arrangement and geometry. Examples of influences to be minimized are:
— axle oscillations, and
— braking torque at the wheels.

4.3.6.2 Steering system disturbances due to the influences of external forces on the machine within

the applications for which the machine is designed (e.g. articulated machine na
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
01-marec-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12643:2014

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Stroji s kolesi - Zahteve za krmiljenje (ISO 5010:2019)

Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen (ISO 5010:2019)

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO

5010:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 5010:2019
ICS:
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.100 Supersedes EN 12643:2014
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering
requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen

pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO 5010:2019) (ISO 5010:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 November 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 5010:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (Informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending

Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered..................................................... 4

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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 5010:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127 "Earth-

moving machinery" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 151 “Construction equipment

and building material machines - Safety” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12643:2014.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For the relationship with EU Directive(s) see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 5010:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 5010:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(Informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the essential
requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending
Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s standardization request M/396 to

provide one voluntary means of conforming to essential requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC of the

European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive

95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157].

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive, and associated EFTA regulations.
Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and
Directive 2006/42/EC [2006 L157]
Essential Requirements of Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) Remarks/Notes
Directive 2006/42/EC of this EN
1.1.2. Principles of safety
integration 4
1.1.3. Materials and products 4.7.3
1.1.6 .Ergonomics 4.3.8, 4.5.1, 4.9
1.2.1. Safety and reliability of
control systems 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.4
1.2.2. Control devices 4.3.3, 4.3.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
1.2.5. Selection of control or
operating modes 4.8
1.3.2. Risk of break-up during
operation 4.4.1, 4.7.3
1.6.1. Machinery maintenance 4.3.5
1.6.2. Access to operating
positions and servicing points 4.3.5
1.7.1.1. Information and
information devices 4.8.3
1.7.1.2. Warning devices 4.7.1.1
1.7.4.2. Contents of the
instructions 10
3.3.1. Control devices 4.3.2, 4.3.4, 4.3.6, 4.3.7
3.3.5. Control circuit failure 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
3.4.5. Means of access 4.3.7, 4.4.1 c)

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this

European Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union. Users of this standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official

Journal of the European Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the

scope of this standard.
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5010
Fourth edition
2019-11
Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled
machines — Steering requirements
Engins de terrassement — Engins équipés de pneumatiques —
Systèmes de direction
Reference number
ISO 5010:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Required steering systems ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 All steering systems ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.4 Tests with all steering systems ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.5 Primary steering system ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.6 Secondary steering system ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Powered steering system ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.8 Steering systems with principal and alternative steering control elements ..................................... 8

4.9 Ergonomic requirements ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Steering test course ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Machine specifications for test ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Wheel circle test procedure ...................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Steering tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 Tests with primary steering system ..................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Tests with secondary steering system .............................................................................................................................12

8.3 Steering test with alternative steering control elements ................................................................................14

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Instruction handbook ....................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2.1 Machines equipped with powered steering system .......................................................................16

10.2.2 Machines equipped with secondary steering system ...................................................................17

10.2.3 Machines equipped with steering systems with alternative steering

control element with a controlled or limited speed range .......................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery,

Subcommittee SC 2, Safety requirements and human factors.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 5010:2007), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the title has been changed to “Wheeled machines” to include machines with drums and crawler

wheel assemblies;

— requirements have been provided for earth-moving machinery (EMM) with a maximum machine

speed <20 km/h.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organisations, market surveillance etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e. g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);

— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or

type-B standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of

the other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of

this type-C standard.

As functional safety of steering system is not covered in this document, guidance for functional safety

of steering systems can be found in the following standards: ISO 15998, ISO/TS 15998-2, ISO 13849-1,

1) 2) 3)
ISO 19014-1, ISO 19014-2 , ISO 19014-3, ISO 19014-4 and ISO/TS 19014-5 .
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-2:2019.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-4:2019.
3) Under preparation.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5010:2019(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled machines — Steering
requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies steering system tests and performance criteria for evaluating the steering

capability of wheeled, ride-on earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165:2012. Wheeled machines

include machines equipped with wheels, one or more drums or crawler wheel assemblies.

This document deals with the following significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

relevant to wheeled machines, when used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are

reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer:
— mechanical hazards;
— ergonomic hazards;
— hazards due to maintenance;
— hazards due to the control system;
— hazards related to travelling function.
Functional safety of the steering system is not covered in this document.

This document is not applicable to wheeled machines manufactured before the date of its publication.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3450:2011, Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled or high-speed rubber-tracked machines —

Performance requirements and test procedures for brake systems

ISO 6016:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Methods of measuring the masses of whole machines, their

equipment and components

ISO 7457:1997, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of turning dimensions of wheeled machines

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 10968:— , Earth-moving machinery — Operator’s controls

ISO 18752:2014, Rubber hoses and hose assemblies — Wire- or textile-reinforced single-pressure types for

hydraulic applications — Specification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100 and the following apply.

4) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 10968:2019.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
steering system

system including all machine elements between the operator and the ground-contacting wheels (3.2),

drums or crawler wheel assemblies (3.3) participating in steering the machine
3.1.1
manual steering system

steering system (3.1) depending exclusively on the muscular power of the operator to affect steering of

the machine
3.1.2
powered steering system

steering system (3.1) employing auxiliary power sources to supplement or replace the muscular power

of the operator to affect steering of the machine
3.1.3
primary steering system

steering system (3.1) used to steer the machine when the steering system functions as intended

3.1.4
secondary steering system

steering system (3.1) used to steer the machine in the event of a loss of the primary steering power

source (3.5.1)
3.2
wheel

circular structure able to rotate on an axle, either directly or with the use of bearings, with the external

part in contact with the ground
3.3
crawler wheel assembly
crawler system used in place of a wheel (3.2) on a single axle
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: Machines with crawler wheel assemblies are steered using techniques common to rubber-tyred

machines, for example Ackermann steering, articulated steering.
3.4
wheeled machine
machine on wheels (3.2), drums or crawler wheel assemblies (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Key
1 drum
2 crawler wheel assembly
Figure 1 — Wheeled machine with drum and crawler wheel assemblies
3.5 steering power sources
3.5.1
primary steering power source

means for providing power to effect steering in a powered steering system (3.1.2)

EXAMPLE Hydraulic pump, air compressor, electric generator.
3.5.2
secondary steering power source

means for providing power to the secondary steering system (3.1.4) in the event of primary steering

power source failure (3.5.3)
EXAMPLE Hydraulic pump, air compressor, accumulator, battery.

Note 1 to entry: It is assumed that not more than one failure will occur at the same time.

3.5.3
primary steering power source failure
complete and instantaneous loss of the primary steering power source (3.5.1)
3.6
steering control element

control element used by the operator to transmit the steering command for the desired direction or to

control the relative speed of the left-hand and right-hand sides of the drive system

EXAMPLE Steering wheel (3.2), lever controls, joystick controls, pushbutton/touch pad controls and foot

pedal controls.

Note 1 to entry: For a machine that has equal alternative operator’s position both at the left-hand and right-hand

sides of the machine equipped with a conventional steering wheel at each position (e. g. some types of rollers),

these two steering wheels are considered as one steering element.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
3.6.1
principal steering control element

steering control element (3.6) at the operator’s positions that is primarily used to fulfil the primary

steering and, if applicable, the secondary steering
3.6.2
alternative steering control element

additional steering control element (3.6) that can be used instead of the principal steering control element

(3.6.1) to fulfil primary steering
3.7
steering effort

necessary force exerted by the operator on the steering control element (3.6) in order to steer the machine

3.8
steering angle

total displacement angle between the front wheels (3.2) and the rear wheels as they move about one or

more vertical steering axes from their normal straight-ahead condition to a turned condition

Note 1 to entry: The steering angle for multiple-axle machines is determined between the wheels at the farthest

forward and farthest rearward axles.

Note 2 to entry: Ackermann steering inherently has a greater steering angle on the side of the machine toward

the inside of the turn as compared to the wheels on the outside of the turn. Therefore, where Ackermann steering

is involved, the location of the steering angle measurement also needs to be specified.

Note 3 to entry: A steering angle accomplished by a combination of geometries incorporating Ackermann steering

is included, and also requires the location of the steering angle measurement to be specified.

3.9
width over wheels

distance on Y coordinate between two Y planes passing through the farthest points of the machine on

both sides of the zero Y plane measured at the location of the wheels (3.2)
3.10
outer wheel clearance diameter

diameter of the circular path described by the outermost point of the loaded (lower) section of the

wheel (3.2) located on the vertical diameter of the outermost wheel when the machine is executing its

sharpest practical turn under the conditions described in ISO 7457:1997, Clause 7

3.11
wheel circle
outer wheel clearance diameter (3.10) determined in accordance with Clause 7
3.12
maximum machine speed
maximum speed determined in accordance with ISO 6014

[SOURCE: ISO 3450:2011, 3.12, modified — The words ", or equivalent" have been removed.]

4 General requirements
4.1 General

Earth-moving machinery shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this

clause, unless modified by requirements of the relevant specific part of the standard series. In addition,

the machine shall be designed according to the principles of ISO 12100:2010 for hazards relevant but

not significant which are not dealt with by this document.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
4.2 Required steering systems
4.2.1 All machines shall have a primary steering system.

4.2.2 Machines with a maximum machine speed ≥20 km/h shall have a secondary steering system.

This does not apply to machines equipped with a manual steering system as the primary steering system.

4.3 All steering systems

4.3.1 The steering control element shall continue to be the steering control means for the operator

in case of primary steering power source failure. If multiple steering control elements are provided, see

requirements in 4.8.

4.3.2 When the steering control element is released, the selected wheel circle shall remain constant or

become larger during travel in the forward direction.
NOTE For more information on primary steering control requirements see 8.1.2.

4.3.3 The steering system shall be designed so that the movement of the steering control element is

consistent with its effect. If control operation is not obvious, an operational sign shall be provided (e.g.

using symbols). Operation of the steering control element shall be in accordance with ISO 10968:— and,

as applicable, with the normal functioning of the machine.

4.3.4 During machine operation, no uncontrolled steering movement shall occur due to the operation

of the steering control element.

4.3.5 Steering system reliability shall be enhanced by the selection and design of components arranged

so that inspection and maintenance can be readily performed.

4.3.6 Steering system disturbances shall meet the conditions given in 4.3.6.1 and 4.3.6.2.

4.3.6.1 Steering system disturbances due to other machine functions shall be minimized by appropriate

arrangement and geometry. Examples of influences to be minimized are:
— axle oscillations, and
— braking torque at the wheels.

4.3.6.2 Steering system disturbances due to the influences of external forces on the machine within

the applications for which the machine is designed (e.g. articulated machine na
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
01-marec-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12643:2014

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Stroji s kolesi - Zahteve za krmiljenje (ISO 5010:2019)

Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen (ISO 5010:2019)

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO

5010:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 5010:2019
ICS:
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.100 Supersedes EN 12643:2014
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Wheeled machines - Steering
requirements (ISO 5010:2019)

Engins de terrassement - Engins équipés de Erdbaumaschinen - Bereifte Maschinen - Lenkanlagen

pneumatiques - Systèmes de direction (ISO 5010:2019) (ISO 5010:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 November 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 5010:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (Informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending

Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered..................................................... 4

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 5010:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127 "Earth-

moving machinery" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 151 “Construction equipment

and building material machines - Safety” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12643:2014.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For the relationship with EU Directive(s) see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 5010:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 5010:2019 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(Informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the essential
requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending
Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s standardization request M/396 to

provide one voluntary means of conforming to essential requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC of the

European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive

95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157].

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive, and associated EFTA regulations.
Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and
Directive 2006/42/EC [2006 L157]
Essential Requirements of Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) Remarks/Notes
Directive 2006/42/EC of this EN
1.1.2. Principles of safety
integration 4
1.1.3. Materials and products 4.7.3
1.1.6 .Ergonomics 4.3.8, 4.5.1, 4.9
1.2.1. Safety and reliability of
control systems 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.4
1.2.2. Control devices 4.3.3, 4.3.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
1.2.5. Selection of control or
operating modes 4.8
1.3.2. Risk of break-up during
operation 4.4.1, 4.7.3
1.6.1. Machinery maintenance 4.3.5
1.6.2. Access to operating
positions and servicing points 4.3.5
1.7.1.1. Information and
information devices 4.8.3
1.7.1.2. Warning devices 4.7.1.1
1.7.4.2. Contents of the
instructions 10
3.3.1. Control devices 4.3.2, 4.3.4, 4.3.6, 4.3.7
3.3.5. Control circuit failure 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
EN ISO 5010:2019 (E)
3.4.5. Means of access 4.3.7, 4.4.1 c)

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this

European Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union. Users of this standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official

Journal of the European Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the

scope of this standard.
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5010
Fourth edition
2019-11
Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled
machines — Steering requirements
Engins de terrassement — Engins équipés de pneumatiques —
Systèmes de direction
Reference number
ISO 5010:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Required steering systems ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 All steering systems ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.4 Tests with all steering systems ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.5 Primary steering system ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.6 Secondary steering system ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Powered steering system ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.8 Steering systems with principal and alternative steering control elements ..................................... 8

4.9 Ergonomic requirements ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Steering test course ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Machine specifications for test ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Wheel circle test procedure ...................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Steering tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 Tests with primary steering system ..................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Tests with secondary steering system .............................................................................................................................12

8.3 Steering test with alternative steering control elements ................................................................................14

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Instruction handbook ....................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2.1 Machines equipped with powered steering system .......................................................................16

10.2.2 Machines equipped with secondary steering system ...................................................................17

10.2.3 Machines equipped with steering systems with alternative steering

control element with a controlled or limited speed range .......................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery,

Subcommittee SC 2, Safety requirements and human factors.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 5010:2007), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the title has been changed to “Wheeled machines” to include machines with drums and crawler

wheel assemblies;

— requirements have been provided for earth-moving machinery (EMM) with a maximum machine

speed <20 km/h.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organisations, market surveillance etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e. g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);

— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or

type-B standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of

the other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of

this type-C standard.

As functional safety of steering system is not covered in this document, guidance for functional safety

of steering systems can be found in the following standards: ISO 15998, ISO/TS 15998-2, ISO 13849-1,

1) 2) 3)
ISO 19014-1, ISO 19014-2 , ISO 19014-3, ISO 19014-4 and ISO/TS 19014-5 .
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-2:2019.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-4:2019.
3) Under preparation.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5010:2019(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled machines — Steering
requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies steering system tests and performance criteria for evaluating the steering

capability of wheeled, ride-on earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165:2012. Wheeled machines

include machines equipped with wheels, one or more drums or crawler wheel assemblies.

This document deals with the following significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

relevant to wheeled machines, when used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are

reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer:
— mechanical hazards;
— ergonomic hazards;
— hazards due to maintenance;
— hazards due to the control system;
— hazards related to travelling function.
Functional safety of the steering system is not covered in this document.

This document is not applicable to wheeled machines manufactured before the date of its publication.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3450:2011, Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled or high-speed rubber-tracked machines —

Performance requirements and test procedures for brake systems

ISO 6016:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Methods of measuring the masses of whole machines, their

equipment and components

ISO 7457:1997, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of turning dimensions of wheeled machines

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 10968:— , Earth-moving machinery — Operator’s controls

ISO 18752:2014, Rubber hoses and hose assemblies — Wire- or textile-reinforced single-pressure types for

hydraulic applications — Specification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100 and the following apply.

4) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 10968:2019.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
steering system

system including all machine elements between the operator and the ground-contacting wheels (3.2),

drums or crawler wheel assemblies (3.3) participating in steering the machine
3.1.1
manual steering system

steering system (3.1) depending exclusively on the muscular power of the operator to affect steering of

the machine
3.1.2
powered steering system

steering system (3.1) employing auxiliary power sources to supplement or replace the muscular power

of the operator to affect steering of the machine
3.1.3
primary steering system

steering system (3.1) used to steer the machine when the steering system functions as intended

3.1.4
secondary steering system

steering system (3.1) used to steer the machine in the event of a loss of the primary steering power

source (3.5.1)
3.2
wheel

circular structure able to rotate on an axle, either directly or with the use of bearings, with the external

part in contact with the ground
3.3
crawler wheel assembly
crawler system used in place of a wheel (3.2) on a single axle
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: Machines with crawler wheel assemblies are steered using techniques common to rubber-tyred

machines, for example Ackermann steering, articulated steering.
3.4
wheeled machine
machine on wheels (3.2), drums or crawler wheel assemblies (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
Key
1 drum
2 crawler wheel assembly
Figure 1 — Wheeled machine with drum and crawler wheel assemblies
3.5 steering power sources
3.5.1
primary steering power source

means for providing power to effect steering in a powered steering system (3.1.2)

EXAMPLE Hydraulic pump, air compressor, electric generator.
3.5.2
secondary steering power source

means for providing power to the secondary steering system (3.1.4) in the event of primary steering

power source failure (3.5.3)
EXAMPLE Hydraulic pump, air compressor, accumulator, battery.

Note 1 to entry: It is assumed that not more than one failure will occur at the same time.

3.5.3
primary steering power source failure
complete and instantaneous loss of the primary steering power source (3.5.1)
3.6
steering control element

control element used by the operator to transmit the steering command for the desired direction or to

control the relative speed of the left-hand and right-hand sides of the drive system

EXAMPLE Steering wheel (3.2), lever controls, joystick controls, pushbutton/touch pad controls and foot

pedal controls.

Note 1 to entry: For a machine that has equal alternative operator’s position both at the left-hand and right-hand

sides of the machine equipped with a conventional steering wheel at each position (e. g. some types of rollers),

these two steering wheels are considered as one steering element.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
3.6.1
principal steering control element

steering control element (3.6) at the operator’s positions that is primarily used to fulfil the primary

steering and, if applicable, the secondary steering
3.6.2
alternative steering control element

additional steering control element (3.6) that can be used instead of the principal steering control element

(3.6.1) to fulfil primary steering
3.7
steering effort

necessary force exerted by the operator on the steering control element (3.6) in order to steer the machine

3.8
steering angle

total displacement angle between the front wheels (3.2) and the rear wheels as they move about one or

more vertical steering axes from their normal straight-ahead condition to a turned condition

Note 1 to entry: The steering angle for multiple-axle machines is determined between the wheels at the farthest

forward and farthest rearward axles.

Note 2 to entry: Ackermann steering inherently has a greater steering angle on the side of the machine toward

the inside of the turn as compared to the wheels on the outside of the turn. Therefore, where Ackermann steering

is involved, the location of the steering angle measurement also needs to be specified.

Note 3 to entry: A steering angle accomplished by a combination of geometries incorporating Ackermann steering

is included, and also requires the location of the steering angle measurement to be specified.

3.9
width over wheels

distance on Y coordinate between two Y planes passing through the farthest points of the machine on

both sides of the zero Y plane measured at the location of the wheels (3.2)
3.10
outer wheel clearance diameter

diameter of the circular path described by the outermost point of the loaded (lower) section of the

wheel (3.2) located on the vertical diameter of the outermost wheel when the machine is executing its

sharpest practical turn under the conditions described in ISO 7457:1997, Clause 7

3.11
wheel circle
outer wheel clearance diameter (3.10) determined in accordance with Clause 7
3.12
maximum machine speed
maximum speed determined in accordance with ISO 6014

[SOURCE: ISO 3450:2011, 3.12, modified — The words ", or equivalent" have been removed.]

4 General requirements
4.1 General

Earth-moving machinery shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this

clause, unless modified by requirements of the relevant specific part of the standard series. In addition,

the machine shall be designed according to the principles of ISO 12100:2010 for hazards relevant but

not significant which are not dealt with by this document.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5010:2020
ISO 5010:2019(E)
4.2 Required steering systems
4.2.1 All machines shall have a primary steering system.

4.2.2 Machines with a maximum machine speed ≥20 km/h shall have a secondary steering system.

This does not apply to machines equipped with a manual steering system as the primary steering system.

4.3 All steering systems

4.3.1 The steering control element shall continue to be the steering control means for the operator

in case of primary steering power source failure. If multiple steering control elements are provided, see

requirements in 4.8.

4.3.2 When the steering control element is released, the selected wheel circle shall remain constant or

become larger during travel in the forward direction.
NOTE For more information on primary steering control requirements see 8.1.2.

4.3.3 The steering system shall be designed so that the movement of the steering control element is

consistent with its effect. If control operation is not obvious, an operational sign shall be provided (e.g.

using symbols). Operation of the steering control element shall be in accordance with ISO 10968:— and,

as applicable, with the normal functioning of the machine.

4.3.4 During machine operation, no uncontrolled steering movement shall occur due to the operation

of the steering control element.

4.3.5 Steering system reliability shall be enhanced by the selection and design of components arranged

so that inspection and maintenance can be readily performed.

4.3.6 Steering system disturbances shall meet the conditions given in 4.3.6.1 and 4.3.6.2.

4.3.6.1 Steering system disturbances due to other machine functions shall be minimized by appropriate

arrangement and geometry. Examples of influences to be minimized are:
— axle oscillations, and
— braking torque at the wheels.

4.3.6.2 Steering system disturbances due to the influences of external forces on the machine within

the applications for which the machine is designed (e.g. articulated machine na
...

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