Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Avalanche beacons; Transmitter-receiver systems

Systems used for searching for and/or finding of avalanche hidden people (direct rescue). These systems, denominated avalanche beacons, shall comprise a transmitter and a receiver part. The purpose of the standard is to have inter-operability of products from different manufacturers and reliability in operation.

Radijska oprema in sistemi (RES) - Javljalniki iz plazov (lavinske žolne) - Sprejemno-oddajni sistemi

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jun-1999
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Jul-1999
Due Date
01-Jul-1999
Completion Date
01-Jul-1999

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ETS 300 718:1999
01-julij-1999
Radijska oprema in sistemi (RES) - Javljalniki iz plazov (lavinske žolne) -
Sprejemno-oddajni sistemi
Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Avalanche beacons; Transmitter-receiver
systems
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETS 300 718 Edition 1
ICS:
13.200 3UHSUHþHYDQMHQHVUHþLQ Accident and disaster control
NDWDVWURI
33.060.20 Sprejemna in oddajna Receiving and transmitting
oprema equipment
SIST ETS 300 718:1999 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ETS 300 718:1999
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SIST ETS 300 718:1999
EUROPEAN ETS 300 718
TELECOMMUNICATION March 1997
STANDARD
Source: ETSI TC-RES Reference: DE/RES-08-0501
ICS: 33.020
Key words: Radio, safety, SAR, testing
Radio Equipment and Systems (RES);
Avalanche Beacons;
Transmitter-receiver systems
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETSI Secretariat
Postal address: F-06921 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX - FRANCE
Office address: 650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis - Valbonne - FRANCE
X.400: c=fr, a=atlas, p=etsi, s=secretariat - Internet: secretariat@etsi.fr
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 - Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16

Copyright Notification: No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission. The copyright and the

foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 1997. All rights reserved.
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Whilst every care has been taken in the preparation and publication of this document, errors in content,

typographical or otherwise, may occur. If you have comments concerning its accuracy, please write to

"ETSI Editing and Committee Support Dept." at the address shown on the title page.

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Contents

Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................7

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................7

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................9

2 Normative references..........................................................................................................................9

3 Definitions, abbreviations and symbols...............................................................................................9

3.1 Definitions ............................................................................................................................9

3.2 Abbreviations .....................................................................................................................10

3.3 Symbols .............................................................................................................................10

4 General..............................................................................................................................................10

4.1 Presentation of equipment for testing................................................................................10

4.2 Mechanical and electrical design.......................................................................................10

4.2.1 General..........................................................................................................10

4.2.2 Controls and indicators..................................................................................11

4.2.3 Switching over from transmit to receive ........................................................11

4.2.4 Battery type ...................................................................................................11

4.2.5 Operating time...............................................................................................11

4.2.6 Battery check.................................................................................................11

4.2.7 Carrying system.............................................................................................11

4.2.8 Frequencies and power.................................................................................11

4.2.9 Operating instructions ...................................................................................12

4.2.10 Equipment identification and short form operating instruction ......................12

4.3 Interpretation of the measurement results.........................................................................12

5 Test conditions, power sources and ambient temperatures .............................................................12

5.1 Normal and extreme test conditions ..................................................................................12

5.2 External test power source ................................................................................................13

5.3 Normal test conditions .......................................................................................................13

5.3.1 Normal temperature and humidity.................................................................13

5.3.2 Normal test voltage .......................................................................................13

5.4 Extreme test conditions .....................................................................................................13

5.4.1 Extreme temperatures...................................................................................13

5.4.2 Extreme test voltages....................................................................................13

5.4.3 Procedure for tests at extreme temperatures ...............................................13

5.4.3.1 Procedure for equipment designed for intermittent

operation..............................................................................14

6 General conditions ............................................................................................................................14

6.1 Normal test signals ............................................................................................................14

6.2 Test fixture .........................................................................................................................14

6.3 Test sites and general arrangements for radiated measurements....................................14

6.4 Measuring receiver ............................................................................................................14

7 Environmental tests...........................................................................................................................15

7.1 Procedure ..........................................................................................................................15

7.2 Drop test on hard surface ..................................................................................................15

7.2.1 Definition .......................................................................................................15

7.2.2 Method of measurement ...............................................................................15

7.3 Temperature tests..............................................................................................................15

7.3.1 General..........................................................................................................15

7.3.2 Dry heat cycle................................................................................................15

7.3.3 Low temperature cycle ..................................................................................16

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7.4 Immersion test................................................................................................................... 16

7.4.1 Method of measurement............................................................................... 16

7.4.2 Requirements ............................................................................................... 16

7.5 Solar radiation ................................................................................................................... 16

7.5.1 Method of measurement............................................................................... 16

7.5.2 Requirements ............................................................................................... 16

7.6 Tensile test........................................................................................................................ 16

7.6.1 Method of measurement............................................................................... 16

7.6.2 Requirements ............................................................................................... 16

8 Methods of measurement and limits for transmitter parameters...................................................... 17

8.1 Modulation and carrier keying ........................................................................................... 17

8.2 Frequency error................................................................................................................. 17

8.2.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 17

8.2.2 Method of measurement............................................................................... 17

8.2.3 Limits ............................................................................................................ 17

8.3 Output field strength (H-field) ............................................................................................ 18

8.3.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 18

8.3.2 Method of measurement............................................................................... 18

8.3.3 Limits ............................................................................................................ 18

8.4 Spurious emissions ........................................................................................................... 18

8.4.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 18

8.4.2 H-field strength ............................................................................................. 18

8.4.2.1 Method of measurement (< 30 MHz) .................................. 18

8.4.2.2 Limits................................................................................... 19

8.4.3 Effective radiated power ............................................................................... 19

8.4.3.1 Method of measurement (≥ 30 MHz) .................................. 19

8.4.3.2 Limits................................................................................... 20

9 Methods of measurement and limits for receiver parameters .......................................................... 20

9.1 Receiver sensitivity............................................................................................................ 20

9.1.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 20

9.1.2 Method of measurement............................................................................... 20

9.1.3 Limits ............................................................................................................ 21

9.2 Changes in the received signal ......................................................................................... 21

9.2.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 21

9.2.2 Requirement ................................................................................................. 21

10 Measurement uncertainty ................................................................................................................. 21

Annex A (normative): Radiated measurements.................................................................................... 22

A.1 Test sites and general arrangements for measurements involving the use of radiated fields ......... 22

A.1.1 Outdoor test site................................................................................................................ 22

A.1.1.1 Test support for body worn equipment ......................................................... 22

A.1.1.2 Standard position.......................................................................................... 23

A.1.2 Test antenna ..................................................................................................................... 23

A.1.2.1 Below 30 MHz............................................................................................... 23

A.1.2.2 Above 30 MHz .............................................................................................. 23

A.1.3 Substitution antenna.......................................................................................................... 23

A.1.4 Optional additional indoor site ........................................................................................... 24

A.2 Guidance on the use of radiation test sites ...................................................................................... 25

A.2.1 Measuring distance ........................................................................................................... 25

A.2.2 Test antenna ..................................................................................................................... 25

A.2.3 Substitution antenna.......................................................................................................... 25

A.2.4 Artificial antenna................................................................................................................ 25

A.2.5 Auxiliary cables ................................................................................................................. 25

A.3 Further optional alternative indoor test site using an anechoic chamber ......................................... 25

A.3.1 Example of the construction of a shielded anechoic chamber.......................................... 26

A.3.2 Influence of parasitic reflections in anechoic chambers.................................................... 26

A.3.3 Calibration of the shielded RF anechoic chamber ............................................................ 26

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Annex B (normative): Spurious limits, H-field at 10 m distances ..........................................................29

Annex C (normative): Simulated solar radiation source ........................................................................30

Annex D (informative): E-fields in the near field at low frequencies........................................................31

History..........................................................................................................................................................33

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Foreword

This European Telecommunication Standard (ETS) has been produced by the Radio Equipment and

Systems (RES) Technical Committee of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

Transposition dates
Date of adoption: 21 February 1997
Date of latest announcement of this ETS (doa): 30 June 1997
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this ETS (dop/e): 31 December 1997
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 31 December 1997
Introduction

There are currently two frequency allocations for the radio location of avalanche victims:

- 2 275 Hz; and
- 457 kHz.

It is expected that the allocation at 2 275 Hz will be removed after a transition period. This ETS therefore

covers dual-frequency equipment and equipment intended to operate on 457 kHz only.

It is the purpose of this ETS to ensure the practical interoperability and reliability of products from different

manufacturers.
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1 Scope

This European Telecommunication Standard (ETS) standard covers requirements for avalanche beacons.

Avalanche beacons are radio location systems used for searching for and/or finding avalanche victims, for

the purpose of direct rescue.
These systems comprise a transmitter as well as a receiver part.
This ETS distinguishes between two types of beacons:
- type 1: single frequency beacons (457 kHz);

- type 2: double frequency beacons (2 275 Hz and 457 kHz) temporary type, compatible to

beacons with frequency 2 275 Hz.
2 Normative references

This ETS incorporates by dated and undated reference, provisions from other publications. These

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed

hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications

apply to this ETS only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest

edition of the publication referred to applies.
[1] ETR 028: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Uncertainties in the
measurement of mobile radio equipment characteristics".
[2] CISPR 16-1: "Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring
apparatus and methods; Part 1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring
apparatus".
[3] Radio Regulations (1994).
3 Definitions, abbreviations and symbols
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this ETS, the following definitions apply:

artificial antenna: A tuned reduced-radiating dummy load equal to the nominal impedance specified by

the applicant.

conducted measurements: Measurements which are made using a direct connection to the equipment

under test.

E-field: The electric component of the field measured as voltage per unit length.

H-field: The magnetic component of the field measured as current per unit length.

H-field test antenna: An electrically screened loop or equivalent antenna, with which the magnetic

component of the field can be measured.

identification system: Equipment consisting of a transmitter(s), receiver(s) (or a combination of the two)

and an antenna(e) to identify a transponder.

integral antenna: An antenna designed as an indispensable part of the equipment, with or without the

use of an antenna connector.
portable station: Equipment intended to be carried.
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radiated measurements: Measurements which involve the absolute measurement of a radiated field.

S/N ratio: The ratio, expressed in decibels, between the wanted signal and the noise floor.

type 1: An avalanche beacon intended to operate on 457 kHz only.
type 2: An avalanche beacon intended to operate on both 2 275 Hz and 457 kHz.
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this ETS, the following abbreviation applies:
RF Radio Frequency
3.3 Symbols
For the purposes of this ETS, the following symbols apply:
A1A Class of emission (Radio Regulations [3], Article 4, Regulations 270-273)
E Electrical field strength
Eo Reference electrical field strength, (see annex A)
f Frequency
H Magnetic field strength
Ho Reference magnetic field strength, (see annex A)
N Newton
P Power
R Distance
Ro Reference distance, (see annex A)
t Time
Z Wave impedance
λ Wavelength (see annex A)
4 General
4.1 Presentation of equipment for testing

Each equipment submitted for conformance testing shall fulfil the requirements of this ETS on all

frequencies over which it is intended to operate.
The applicant shall supply all relevant ancillary equipment needed for testing.
The applicant should also supply an operating manual for the device(s).
4.2 Mechanical and electrical design
4.2.1 General

The equipment shall be designed, constructed and manufactured in accordance with good engineering

practice, and with the aim of minimizing harmful interference to other equipment and services.

Transmitter and receiver shall be combined in one unit and be capable of being attached to the user's

clothing.

The equipment shall be portable and capable of being used for rescue operations, caused by avalanche,

between persons that are in snowy, arctic areas or in similar areas.
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The equipment shall in one unit comprise at least:
- an transmitter/receiver including antenna and battery;
- a control unit including an on/off switch; and
- an internal loudspeaker and/or earphone.
The equipment with battery shall not weigh more than 200 g.
4.2.2 Controls and indicators
The equipment shall have the following controls:

- on/off switch for the equipment with a visual indication that the equipment is switched on;

- an audio-frequency power volume control;
- a sensitivity control; and
- battery indicator.
4.2.3 Switching over from transmit to receive

The equipment shall permit reliable and fast switchover from transmit to the receive mode, without danger

of unintentionally turning off the device.
The transmit mode shall include a safety feature against involuntary turn off.
4.2.4 Battery type
The equipment shall use a widely obtained battery type.
4.2.5 Operating time

The equipment equipped with a new set of batteries recommended by the manufacturer shall be capable

to operate for a minimum of 200 hours of continuous transmission during normal temperature conditions,

see subclause 5.3.1.
4.2.6 Battery check
The equipment shall include a battery check feature.
4.2.7 Carrying system

The equipment shall include a carrying system that gives the possibility for easy operation and safety

placing. The carrying system can be a part of the equipment or an accessory device. The carrying system

shall have a joint tensile strength of at least 50 N.
4.2.8 Frequencies and power

The equipment shall operate on the following nominal frequencies in the transmit as well as in the receive

mode:
- type 1: f = 457 kHz;
- type 2: f = 2 275 Hz and f = 457 kHz.
After switch on the equipment shall be operational within 5 seconds.
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4.2.9 Operating instructions

Operating instructions shall be delivered with every equipment. They shall cover the following subjects:

a) a statement on avalanche danger;

b) instruction for checking the battery, transmitter and receiver performance and range;

c) instructions for turning on the transmitter and strapping the beacon to the body;

d) instructions for changing to the receive mode and the search strategy (coarse search and fine

search);

e) instructions for changing back to the transmit mode, in particular in the case of secondary

avalanche;
f) a statement on the temperature sensitivity of essential parts;
g) a statement on the battery lifetime;
h) device-specific measures on a tour.
4.2.10 Equipment identification and short form operating instruction

The equipment shall be marked in a visible place. This marking shall be legible, tamper-proof and durable.

The marking shall include:
- the name of the manufacturer or his trade mark;
- the type designation.

A short form of the operating instructions shall be printed onto the case. The printing shall be clearly

visible and abrasion proof. Also, the proper positioning of the batteries shall be indicated.

4.3 Interpretation of the measurement results

The interpretation of the results recorded in the appropriate test report for the measurements described in

this ETS shall be as follows:

- the measured value related to the corresponding limit shall be used to decide whether an

equipment meets the requirements of this ETS;

- the measurement uncertainty value for the measurement of each parameter shall be separately

included in the test report;

- the recorded value of the measurement uncertainly shall be, for each measurement, equal to or

lower than the figures in the table of measurement uncertainty in clause 10.
5 Test conditions, power sources and ambient temperatures
5.1 Normal and extreme test conditions

Type testing shall be made under normal test conditions, and also, where stated, under extreme test

conditions.

The test conditions and procedures shall be as specified in subclauses 5.2 to 5.4.

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5.2 External test power source

During type tests, the power source of the equipment shall be replaced by an external test power source

capable of producing normal and extreme test voltages as specified in subclauses 5.3.2. and 5.4.2. The

internal impedance of the external test power source shall be low enough for its effect on the test results

to be negligible. For the purpose of the tests, the voltage of the external test power source shall be

measured at the input terminals of the equipment.

The battery shall be removed and the external test power source shall be suitably de-coupled and applied

as close to the equipment battery terminals as practicable. For radiated measurements fully charged

internal batteries should be used. The batteries used should be as supplied or recommended by the

applicant.

During tests the external test power source voltages shall be within a tolerance ±1 % relative to the

voltage at the beginning of each test.
5.3 Normal test conditions
5.3.1 Normal temperature and humidity

The normal temperature and humidity conditions for tests shall be any convenient combination of

temperature and humidity within the following ranges:
- temperature: +15 °C to +35 °C;
- relative humidity: 20 % to 75 %.

When it is impracticable to carry out tests under these conditions, a note to this effect, stating the ambient

temperature and relative humidity during the tests, shall be added to the test report.

5.3.2 Normal test voltage

The normal test voltage shall be declared by the applicant. The values shall be stated in the test report.

5.4 Extreme test conditions
5.4.1 Extreme temperatures
The extreme test temperatures shall be -30 °C to +45 °C.
5.4.2 Extreme test voltages
The extreme test voltages shall be declared by the applicant.
5.4.3 Procedure for tests at extreme temperatures

Before measurements are made the equipment shall have reached thermal balance in the test chamber.

The equipment shall be switched off during the temperature stabilizing period.

In the case of equipment containing temperature stabilization circuits designed to operate continuously,

the temperature stabilization circuits shall be switched on for 15 minutes after thermal balance has been

obtained, and the equipment shall then meet the specified requirements.

If the thermal balance is not checked by measurements, a temperature stabilizing period of at least one

hour, or such period as may be decided by the accredited test laboratory, shall be allowed. The sequence

of measurements shall be chosen, and the humidity content in the test chamber shall be controlled so that

excessive condensation does not occur.
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5.4.3.1 Procedure for equipment designed for intermittent operation
The test procedure shall be as follows:

- before tests at the upper extreme temperature the equipment shall be placed in the test chamber

and left until thermal balance is attained in the oven. The equipment shall then be switched on in

the transmit position condition for a period of one minute, followed by a period in the off or standby

mode for four minutes;

- for tests at the lower extreme temperature, the equipment shall be left in the test chamber until

thermal balance is attained, then switched to the standby or receive condition for one minute.

6 General conditions
6.1 Normal test signals

Tests on the transmitter shall be performed with the equipment switched on in the transmit condition.

For tests on the receiver, the test signal shall be an A1A signal modulated as indicated in subclause 8.1.

6.2 Test fixture

A test fixture shall be supplied by the applicant to enable extreme temperature measurements to be

made, where applicable. The test fixture shall couple to the generated electromagnetic field from the

equipment under test without disturbing the operation of the said device. The test fixture shall be provided

with a 50 Ω standard connector, where the generated field can be sampled.

The test laboratory shall calibrate the test fixture by carrying out the required field measurements at

normal temperatures at the prescribed test site and then by repeating the same measurements on the

equipment under test using the test fixture for all identified frequency components.

The test fixture is only required for extreme temperature measurements and shall be calibrated only with

the equipment under test.
6.3 Test sites and general arrangements for radiated measurements
For guida
...

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