Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geothermal testing - Determination of thermal conductivity of soil and rock using a borehole heat exchanger (ISO 17628:2015)

A standard on geothermal testing methods is necessary because of the rapidly growing market in Europe of heat exchangers installation. Geothermal heat exchangers are used for heating and cooling and may be used in warmer and cooler areas throughout Europe. The use of geothermal energy leads to a reduction of coal and oil and therefore also of CO2 emissions. The drilling, installation of geothermal heat exchangers and testing for geothermal conductivity has to be determined by a standardised testing procedure.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Geothermische Versuche - Bestimmung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit von Boden und Fels unter Anwendung von Erdwärmesonden (ISO 17628:2015)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais géothermiques - Détermination de la conductivité thermique de sol et roche dans les sondes géothermiques (ISO 17628:2015)

L'ISO 17628:2015 spécifie les exigences relatives à l'essai de réponse géothermique. Cet essai comprend la détermination in situ de la conductivité thermique dans un sol et une roche saturés et non saturés à l'aide d'une sonde géothermique. Pour cet essai, des liquides caloporteurs ne subissant pas de changements de phase sont utilisés.
La conductivité thermique est un paramètre important utilisé dans la conception des systèmes de stockage et d'échange thermiques.
Un essai de réponse géothermique mesure la réponse en température au forçage thermique d'une sonde géothermique ou l'extraction d'énergie thermique d'un forage. La réponse en température est liée aux paramètres thermiques du sol et du forage tels que la conductivité thermique et la résistance du forage ; elle est donc utilisée pour obtenir des estimations de ces paramètres importants.
L'ISO 17628:2015 s'applique aux sondes géothermiques installées dans des forages verticaux ou inclinés d'une profondeur courante allant jusqu'à 400 m, par exemple, et d'un diamètre allant jusqu'à 200 mm.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Geotermalno preskušanje - Ugotavljanje toplotne prevodnosti zemlje in skal z uporabo vrtine toplote (ISO 17628:2015)

Standard, ki ureja geotermalne preskusne metode, je potreben zaradi hitro rastočega trga toplotnih izmenjevalnikov v Evropi. Geotermalni toplotni izmenjevalniki se uporabljajo za ogrevanje in hlajenje in se lahko uporabljajo v toplejših in hladnejših območjih v Evropi. Uporaba geotermalne energije zmanjšuje uporabo premoga in nafte ter posledično emisij CO2. Vrtanje, namestitev geotermalnih izmenjevalnikov toplote in preskušanje geotermalne prevodnosti mora biti določeno s standardiziranim preskusnim postopkom.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
17-Oct-2013
Publication Date
22-Sep-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Aug-2015
Due Date
11-Oct-2015
Completion Date
23-Sep-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
01-oktober-2015
*HRWHKQLþQRSUHLVNRYDQMHLQSUHVNXãDQMH*HRWHUPDOQRSUHVNXãDQMH
8JRWDYOMDQMHWRSORWQHSUHYRGQRVWL]HPOMHLQVNDO]XSRUDERYUWLQHWRSORWH ,62


Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geothermal testing - Determination of thermal

conductivity of soil and rock using a borehole heat exchanger (ISO 17628:2015)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Geothermische Versuche - Bestimmung
der Wärmeleitfähigkeit von Boden und Fels unter Anwendung von Erdwärmesonden
(ISO 17628:2015)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais géothermiques - Détermination de la

conductivité thermique de sol et roche dans les sondes géothermiques (ISO
17628:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17628:2015
ICS:
27.190 Biološki viri in drugi Biological sources and
alternativni viri energije alternative sources of energy
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 17628:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 17628
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2015
ICS 93.020; 13.080.20
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geothermal testing -
Determination of thermal conductivity of soil and rock using a
borehole heat exchanger (ISO 17628:2015)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

géothermiques - Détermination de la conductivité thermique Geothermische Versuche - Bestimmung der

des sols et des roches dans les sondes géothermiques Wärmeleitfähigkeit von Boden und Fels unter Anwendung

(ISO 17628:2015) von Erdwärmesonden (ISO 17628:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 April 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17628:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
EN ISO 17628:2015 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword .............................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
EN ISO 17628:2015 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 17628:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical

Investigation and Testing”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI, in collaboration with Technical Committee

ISO/TC 182 "Geotechnics".

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by January 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17628:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17628:2015 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17628
First edition
2015-07-15
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Geothermal testing
— Determination of thermal
conductivity of soil and rock using a
borehole heat exchanger
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais géothermiques —
Détermination de la conductivité thermique des sols et des roches
dans les sondes géothermiques
Reference number
ISO 17628:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Installation of borehole heat exchangers ................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Drilling rigs and ancillary equipment ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Requirements for the drilling rigs and equipment ............................................................................. 4

5.2 Borehole heat exchangers, filling, and annular space filling materials .................................................. 5

5.2.1 Borehole heat exchanger material .................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Heat transfer fluid of the borehole heat exchanger tubes ............................................................ 5

5.2.3 Annular space filling material .............................................................................................................................. 5

5.3 General requirements prior to installation .................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.1 Requirements on the drilling and installation site ............................................................................. 6

5.3.2 Selection of drilling techniques and installation methods .......................................................... 6

5.3.3 Preliminary information needed before starting drilling and installation .................. .. 6

5.3.4 Environmental requirements ............................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.5 Safety requirements ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Execution...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.1 Drilling ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.2 Installation of borehole heat exchangers ................................................................................................... 8

5.4.3 Annular space filling ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.4 Functional testing ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.5 Site reinstatement .................. .................................................... ..................................................................................12

6 Geothermal response testing ...............................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Test equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Test results...............................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Evaluation of the test results ...................................................................................................................................................15

7 Report ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.1 Field report .............................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.1.1 Record of the installation of the heat exchanger tubes ...............................................................17

7.1.2 Annular space filling record ................................................................................................................................17

7.1.3 Checking record .............................................................................................................................................................18

7.1.4 Record of measured values and test results ..........................................................................................18

7.1.5 Record of evaluated test results .......................................................................................................................18

7.2 Report of the results ........................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Example of a form for the preliminary information on the intended

installation of heat exchanger .............................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Field reports ..................................................................................................................................................................22

Annex C (informative) Example of the graphical presentation of the installed borehole heat

exchanger and the geology along the borehole .................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO 17628 was prepared by European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee

CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical investigation and testing, in collaboration with ISO Technical Committee

ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, Subcommittee SC 1, in accordance with the agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17628:2015(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geothermal
testing — Determination of thermal conductivity of soil
and rock using a borehole heat exchanger
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies requirements for the Geothermal Response Test (GRT). This test

comprises the in situ determination of the thermal conductivity in saturated and unsaturated soil and

rock in a heat exchanger installed in a borehole. For this test, liquid heat transfer media not subjected to

phase changes are used.

The thermal conductivity is an important parameter used in the design of thermal storage and thermal

exchange systems.

A Geothermal Response Test measures the temperature response to a thermal energy forcing of a

borehole heat exchanger (BHE) or the extraction of thermal energy from a borehole. The temperature

response is related to the thermal parameters of the ground and borehole filling material, such as

thermal conductivity and borehole resistivity, and is therefore used to obtain estimated or derived

values of these parameters.

This International Standard applies to heat exchangers installed in vertical or inclined boreholes with

length up to e.g. 400 m and with a diameter of up to 200 mm.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of rock — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling methods and groundwater measurements —

Part 1: Technical principles for execution

EN 16228-1, Drilling and foundation equipment - Safety - Part 1: Common requirements

EN 16228-2, Drilling and foundation equipment - Safety - Part 2: Mobile drill rigs for civil and geotechnical

engineering, quarrying and mining
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 22475-1 and the following apply.

3.1
borehole heat exchanger
BHE

one or two U-tubes or one coaxial tube in a borehole through which the exchanger fluid circulates

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1 and Figure 2.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
a) single U-tube
b) double U-tube c) coaxial tube
Key
r borehole radius λ thermal conductivity of the annular space filling
1 F
r inner radius λ thermal conductivity of the inner borehole tube
i w
r outer radius λ thermal conductivity of the outer borehole tube
a s
r inner radius of the outer tube λ thermal conductivity of the ground
o E
r outer radius of the outer tube B tube spacing
Figure 1 — Cross-section of examples of borehole heat exchanger tubes
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
Key
1 heat exchanger outlet
2 heat exchanger inlet
3 borehole wall
4 annular space filling
5 connection
6 ground level
Figure 2 — Example of a borehole heat exchanger including annular space filling
3.2
geothermal response test
test to obtain the thermal conductivity
4 Symbols and abbreviations
Table 1 — List of symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Designation Unit
A total cross sectional area of a conducting surface m
B tube spacing m
H length of the borehole heat exchanger m
k slope
m mass of a substance kg
ρc volume related thermal capacity J/m /K
Q heat supply W
r borehole radius m
r inner radius m
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbol Designation Unit
r outer radius m
r inner radius of the outer tube m
r outer radius of the outer tube m
Re Reynold’s number
R borehole resistance
T temperature °C
T undisturbed ground temperature °C
T fluid temperature at time t °C
t minimum test duration
x thickness of the conducting surface separating two different temperatures m
λ thermal conductivity W/m/K
λ thermal conductivity of the ground W/m/K
λ effective thermal conductivity W/m/K
eff
λ estimated thermal conductivity W/m/K
est
λ thermal conductivity of the annular space filling W/m/K
λ thermal conductivity of the outer borehole tube W/m/K
λ thermal conductivity of the inner borehole tube W/m/K
5 Installation of borehole heat exchangers
5.1 Drilling rigs and ancillary equipment
5.1.1 General

The drilling equipment selected shall be of the appropriate size and type in order to produce the

required quality.
5.1.2 Requirements for the drilling rigs and equipment

Drilling rigs with appropriate stability, power, and equipment such as drill rods, casing, core barrels,

and bits shall be selected in order that the required depth and stability of the borehole can be achieved.

The drilling rig and equipment shall allow all drilling functions to be adjusted accurately.

When specified, the following drilling parameters should be measured and recorded against depth:

a) penetration rate (m/min);
b) drilled length (m);
c) flushing medium recovery rate (l/min);
d) azimuth and inclination (degree);
e) borehole diameter (mm);
f) casing and casing length (m);
g) flush medium.
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
5.2 Borehole heat exchangers, filling, and annular space filling materials
5.2.1 Borehole heat exchanger material

The material of the borehole heat exchanger tubes and bottom concerning the following shall be selected

related to the purpose and the design:
a) quality;
b) durability;
c) corrosion;
d) thermal resistance;
e) impact resistance;
f) hydraulic resistance;
g) compressive strength;
h) resistance to deformation;
i) safety, related to contamination of the ground and ground water;
j) dimensions (diameter, wall thickness, and distance).

Plastic tubes shall have the quality of at least PE 100 black pipe for non-potable underground use and should

be made of the same material as the borehole heat exchanger which will be installed for the later BHE-array.

Tube spacers shall be attached to U-tubes in order to avoid thermal shortcuts. The minimum spacer

distance shall be at least 2 m.

Beginning at the bottom of the borehole heat exchanger, the tubes shall possess length marks every

meter in numerical order starting at zero and increasing to the end of the tubes to check the installed

length at all times.
5.2.2 Heat transfer fluid of the borehole heat exchanger tubes

The heat transfer fluid of the borehole heat exchanger tubes shall fulfil the requirements of the test

design and the environmental regulations.

Water or de-ionized water should be used because of its good hydrodynamic properties and it does not

endanger the ground and the groundwater, if a leakage of the borehole heat exchanger occurs.

The specific thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid shall be known.

The use of antifreeze additives shall be justified. If used, the annular space filling has to be adapted to

freezing and thawing conditions in order to avoid cracks.

The design shall take into account the minimum temperature of the heat transfer fluid.

5.2.3 Annular space filling material

The annular space filling material shall provide the thermal transport from the ground to the borehole

heat exchanger and vice versa. It shall seal the borehole to the ground level to prevent contaminants

from entering and aquifers that might have been penetrated. The filling material shall ensure a durable,

physically and chemically stable incorporation of the borehole heat exchanger in the ground. It shall be

suited for all the respective deployment temperatures.

The filling material shall be selected according to expected thermal conductivity of the surrounding

ground and ground water.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)

Thermally improved filling materials with a thermal conductivity of > 2 W/mK should be used.

The material shall be chemically harmless for the environment and health.
5.3 General requirements prior to installation
5.3.1 Requirements on the drilling and installation site

Drilling points shall be marked on the site before drilling commences. Their location and elevation shall

be surveyed correctly and in accordance with site conditions and entered in a site plan on completion

of the installation.

Drilling and installation sites shall be investigated with respect to relevant hazards, underground

utilities, former or current underground mining activities, natural cavities, and unexpected, unexploded

ordnance and, if necessary, appropriate actions have to be taken. Installation locations on contaminated

ground have to be dealt with by special procedures.

The environmental impact of drilling and installation shall be considered. Special principles have to

be applied in
— water supply areas,
— areas with artesian or confined groundwater conditions,
— areas with multiple aquifers, and
— grounds with swellable or collapsible rocks or soils.

The distance to existing buildings should be at least 2 m; the stability may not be jeopardized.

5.3.2 Selection of drilling techniques and installation methods

The techniques and methods for drilling and installation shall be selected according to the purpose of

the borehole heat exchanger in relation to the expected geological and hydrogeological conditions.

If installation in unstable ground is necessary, stable or stabilized boreholes are required using casings

or suitable flushing media.

Sampling techniques, sample transportation, and storage procedures shall be selected according to

ISO 22475-1 on the basis of the required sample quality class.

The knowledge of the geological and hydrogeological conditions is necessary for the interpretation of

the results of the Geothermal response test and for the selection of the annular space filling material.

5.3.3 Preliminary information needed before starting drilling and installation

The following preliminary information shall be available before starting drilling and installation:

a) location of the planned borehole heat exchanger;
b) requirements on numbering of boreholes;
c) identification and planned depths of boreholes based on the outline design;
d) orientation, inclination, and acceptable deviations in boreholes;

e) installation plan of the borehole heat exchanger including the annular space filling;

f) tolerances of borehole depth and installation length;
g) expected geology and hydrogeology;
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17628:2015
ISO 17628:2015(E)
h) space requirements, accessibility of the drilling site, transport routes;

i) environmental and safety risks associated with, e.g. flushing media or additives intended to be used

as well as regulations for their use;

j) possible risks, e.g. underground and overhead services, traffic, unexpected and unexploded

ordnance, contamination;
k) preparation of the disposal of drilling mud and cuttings;
l) supply of auxiliary materials, water and energy;
m) sampling method and sampling category intended;
n) sample handling, storage, and transport intended according to ISO 22475-1;
o) requirements concerning planned measurements in the borehole heat exchanger;
p) required accuracy and uncertainty of measurements;
q) frequency of measurements;
r) in situ tests intended;
s) site reinstatement;
t) environmental care;
u) emergency arrangements;
v) clarification of necessary permissions;
w) name of contact person;
x) planned flow of information.
5.3.4 Environmental requirements

Regarding nuisance and environmental protection, for each particular situation, the respective national

standards, specifications or statutory requirements or respective international standards shall be applied.

5.3.5 Safety requirements

Regarding safety on the site and safety of the working practices, the respective national standards,

specifications or statutory requirements or respective international standards shall be applied.

Drill rigs shall be in accordance with EN 16228-1 and EN 16228-2.

Every borehole shall be fenced or temporarily capped in a safe manner until the installation has been finished.

5.4 Execution
5.4.1 Drilling

The drilling methods have to be selected according to the expected geology and hydrogeology. In the

case th
...

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