Wind energy generation systems - Part 12-1: Power performance measurement of electricity producing wind turbines (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

This part of IEC 61400 specifies a procedure for measuring the power performance
characteristics of a single wind turbine and applies to the testing of wind turbines of all types
and sizes connected to the electrical power network. In addition, this document defines a
procedure to be used to determine the power performance characteristics of small wind turbines
(as defined in IEC 61400-2) when connected to either the electric power network or a battery
bank. The procedure can be used for performance evaluation of specific wind turbines at
specific locations, but equally the methodology can be used to make generic comparisons
between different wind turbine models or different wind turbine settings when site-specific
conditions and data filtering influences are taken into account.
Considerations which can be of relevance to the assessment of uncertainty of power
performance tests on multiple turbines are presented in Annex R on an informative basis.
This document defines a measurement methodology that requires the measured power curve
and derived energy production figures to be supplemented by an assessment of uncertainty
sources and their combined effects. Uncertainty sources of wind measurements are assessed
from procedures described in the relevant wind measurement equipment standards while
uncertainty of the power curve and annual energy production are assessed by procedures in
this document.

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 12-1: Messung des Leistungsverhaltens von Windenergieanlagen (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 12-1: Mesures de performance de puissance des éoliennes de production d'électricité (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

L'IEC 61400-12-1:2022 spécifie une procédure de mesure des caractéristiques de performance de puissance d'une éolienne simple et s'applique aux essais d'éoliennes, de tous types et de toutes tailles, raccordées au réseau électrique. En outre, le présent document définit une procédure à utiliser pour déterminer les caractéristiques de performance de puissance des petits aérogénérateurs (comme cela est défini dans l'IEC 61400-2) raccordés soit au réseau électrique, soit à un banc de batteries. Le présent document définit une méthodologie de mesure qui exige que les valeurs de la courbe de puissance mesurée et de la production d'énergie déduite soient complétées par une évaluation des sources d'incertitude et de leurs effets associés. La présente troisième édition de l’IEC 61400-12-1 fait partie d'une révision structurelle qui annule et remplace les normes de performance IEC 61400-12-1:2017 et IEC 61400‑12‑2:2013. Cette révision structurelle ne contient aucune modification technique par rapport à l'IEC 61400‑12-1:2017 et l'IEC 61400-12‑2:2013. Toutefois, les parties relatives aux mesurages du vent, au mesurage de l'étalonnage du site et à l'évaluation des obstacles et du terrain ont été extraites vers des normes distinctes.

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 12-1. del: Preskušanje zmogljivosti vetrnih turbin za proizvodnjo električne energije (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Oct-2022
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Oct-2022
Due Date
24-Dec-2022
Completion Date
26-Oct-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
01-december-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 61400-12-1:2017
SIST EN 61400-12-1:2017/AC:2020
SIST EN 61400-12-1:2017/AC:2020
SIST EN 61400-12-1:2017/AC:2021
Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 12-1. del: Preskušanje zmogljivosti
vetrnih turbin za proizvodnjo električne energije (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)
Wind energy generation systems - Part 12-1: Power performance measurement of
electricity producing wind turbines (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)
Windenergieanlagen - Teil 12-1: Messung des Leistungsverhaltens von
Windenergieanlagen (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 12-1: Mesures de performance de

puissance des éoliennes de production d'électricité (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
ICS:
27.180 Vetrne elektrarne Wind turbine energy systems
SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 61400-12-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM October 2022
ICS 27.180 Supersedes EN 61400-12-1:2017;
EN 61400-12-1:2017/AC:2019-12;
EN 61400-12-1:2017/AC:2020-04;
EN 61400-12-1:2017/AC:2021-06
English Version
Wind energy generation systems - Part 12-1: Power
performance measurements of electricity producing wind
turbines
(IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 12-1: Windenergieanlagen - Teil 12-1: Messung des

Mesurages de performance de puissance des éoliennes de Leistungsverhaltens von Windenergieanlagen

production d'électricité (IEC 61400-12-1:2022)
(IEC 61400-12-1:2022)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2022-10-10. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Türkiye and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022 E
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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 88/822/CDV, future edition 3 of IEC 61400-12-1, prepared by IEC/TC 88 "Wind

energy generation systems" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2023-07-10

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2025-10-10

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 61400-12-1:2017 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61400-12-1:2022 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.
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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60688 - Electrical measuring transducers for EN 60688 -
converting AC and DC electrical quantities
to analogue or digital signals
IEC 61400-2 - Wind turbines - Part 2: Small wind turbines EN 61400-2 -
IEC 61400-12-2 - Wind energy generation systems - Part 12- EN IEC 61400-12-2 -
2: Power performance of electricity
producing wind turbines based on nacelle
anemometry
IEC 61400-12-3 - Wind energy generation systems - Part 12- EN IEC 61400-12-3 -
3: Power performance - Measurement
based site calibration
IEC 61400-12-5 - Wind energy generation systems - Part 12- EN IEC 61400-12-5 -
5: Power performance - Assessment of
obstacles and terrain
IEC 61400-50-1 - Wind energy generation systems - Part 50- EN IEC 61400-50-1 -
1: Wind Measurement - Application of
Meteorological Mast, Nacelle and Spinner
Mounted Instruments
IEC 61400-50-2 - Wind energy generation systems - Part 50- EN IEC 61400-50-2 -
2: Wind measurement - Application of
ground-mounted remote sensing
technology
IEC 61869-1 - Instrument transformers - Part 1: General EN 61869-1 -
requirements
IEC 61869-2 - Instrument transformers - Part 2: Additional EN 61869-2 -
requirements for current transformers
IEC 61869-3 - Instrument transformers - Part 3: Additional EN 61869-3 -
requirements for inductive voltage
transformers
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: FprEN IEC 61400-50-1:2022.
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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022 (E)
ISO 2533 - Standard Atmosphere - -
ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 2008 Uncertainty of measurement - Part 3: - -
Guide to the expression of uncertainty in
measurement (GUM:1995)
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
IEC 61400-12-1
Edition 3.0 2022-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 12-1: Power performance measurements of electricity producing wind
turbines
Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne –
Partie 12-1: Mesurages de performance de puissance des éoliennes de
production d'électricité
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-5621-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
– 2 – IEC 61400-12-1:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 13

4 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms ........................................................................... 16

5 Power performance method overview ............................................................................ 23

6 Preparation for performance test ................................................................................... 26

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

6.2 Wind turbine and electrical connection .................................................................. 26

6.3 Test site ................................................................................................................ 27

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

6.3.2 Location of the wind measurement equipment ............................................... 27

6.3.3 Measurement sector ...................................................................................... 27

6.3.4 Correction factors and uncertainty due to flow distortion originating from

topography .................................................................................................... 28

7 Test equipment .............................................................................................................. 28

7.1 Electric power ....................................................................................................... 28

7.2 Wind speed ........................................................................................................... 29

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

7.2.2 General requirements for meteorological mast mounted anemometers .......... 30

7.2.3 Top-mounted anemometers ........................................................................... 30

7.2.4 Side-mounted anemometers .......................................................................... 31

7.2.5 Remote sensing device (RSD) ....................................................................... 31

7.2.6 Rotor equivalent wind speed measurement .................................................... 31

7.2.7 Hub height wind speed measurement ............................................................ 32

7.2.8 Wind shear measurements ............................................................................ 32

7.3 Wind direction ....................................................................................................... 34

7.4 Air density............................................................................................................. 34

7.5 Rotational speed and pitch angle .......................................................................... 35

7.6 Blade condition ..................................................................................................... 35

7.7 Wind turbine control system .................................................................................. 35

7.8 Data acquisition system ........................................................................................ 35

8 Measurement procedure ................................................................................................ 36

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

8.2 Wind turbine operation .......................................................................................... 36

8.3 Data collection ...................................................................................................... 36

8.4 Data rejection ....................................................................................................... 36

8.5 Database .............................................................................................................. 37

9 Derived results .............................................................................................................. 37

9.1 Data normalization ................................................................................................ 37

9.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

9.1.2 Correction for meteorological mast flow distortion of side-mounted

anemometer .................................................................................................. 38

9.1.3 Wind shear correction (when REWS measurements available) ...................... 38

9.1.4 Wind veer correction ...................................................................................... 41

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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
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9.1.5 Air density normalization................................................................................ 41

9.1.6 Turbulence normalization ............................................................................... 42

9.2 Determination of the measured power curve ......................................................... 42

9.3 Annual energy production (AEP) ........................................................................... 43

9.4 Power coefficient .................................................................................................. 45

10 Reporting format ............................................................................................................ 45

Annex A (normative) Assessment of obstacles ..................................................................... 53

Annex B (normative) Assessment of terrain at the test site .................................................. 54

Annex C (normative) Site calibration procedure ................................................................... 55

Annex D (normative) Evaluation of uncertainty in measurement ........................................... 56

Annex E (informative) Theoretical basis for determining the uncertainty of

measurement using the method of bins ................................................................................. 59

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 59

E.2 Combining uncertainties ........................................................................................ 60

E.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 60

E.2.2 Expanded uncertainty .................................................................................... 62

E.2.3 Basis for the uncertainty assessment ............................................................. 62

E.3 Category A uncertainties ....................................................................................... 67

E.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 67

E.3.2 Category A uncertainty in electric power ........................................................ 67

E.3.3 Category A uncertainties in the site calibration .............................................. 67

E.4 Category B uncertainties: Introduction and data acquisition system ...................... 67

E.4.1 Category B uncertainties: Introduction ........................................................... 67

E.4.2 Category B uncertainties: Data acquisition system ......................................... 68

E.5 Category B uncertainties: Power output ................................................................ 68

E.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 68

E.5.2 Category B uncertainties: Power output – Current transformers ..................... 69

E.5.3 Category B uncertainties: Power output – Voltage transformers ..................... 69

E.5.4 Category B uncertainties: Power output – Power transducer or other

power measurement device ........................................................................... 70

E.5.5 Category B uncertainties: Power output – Data acquisition ............................ 70

E.6 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Introduction and sensors ........................ 71

E.6.1 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Introduction ..................................... 71

E.6.2 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Hardware ........................................ 71

E.6.3 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Meteorological mast mounted

sensors.......................................................................................................... 71

E.7 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD ....................................................... 73

E.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

E.7.2 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD – Calibration ........................... 73

E.7.3 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD – In-situ check......................... 74

E.7.4 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD – Classification ....................... 74

E.7.5 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD – Mounting .............................. 74

E.7.6 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD – Flow variation ....................... 74

E.7.7 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – RSD – Monitoring test ..................... 75

E.8 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – REWS .................................................... 75

E.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 75

E.8.2 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – REWS – Wind speed

measurement over whole rotor ....................................................................... 75

E.8.3 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – REWS – Wind veer .......................... 76

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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
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E.9 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain ................................................... 77

E.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 77

E.9.2 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Pre-calibration .................. 77

E.9.3 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Post-calibration ................ 78

E.9.4 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Classification .................... 78

E.9.5 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Mounting .......................... 78

E.9.6 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Data acquisition ............... 78

E.9.7 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Lightning finial .................. 79

E.9.8 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Change in correction

between adjacent bins ................................................................................... 79

E.9.9 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Removal of WD

sensor ........................................................................................................... 79

E.9.10 Category B uncertainties: Wind speed – Terrain – Seasonal variation ............ 79

E.10 Category B uncertainties: Air density .................................................................... 79

E.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 79

E.10.2 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Temperature – Introduction ............... 80

E.10.3 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Temperature – Calibration ................. 81

E.10.4 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Temperature – Radiation

shielding ........................................................................................................ 81

E.10.5 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Temperature – Mounting ................... 81

E.10.6 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Temperature – Data acquisition......... 81

E.10.7 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Pressure – Introduction ..................... 81

E.10.8 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Pressure – Calibration ....................... 82

E.10.9 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Pressure – Mounting ......................... 83

E.10.10 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Pressure – Data acquisition .............. 83

E.10.11 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Relative humidity – Introduction ........ 83

E.10.12 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Relative humidity – Calibration .......... 84

E.10.13 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Relative humidity – Mounting ............ 84

E.10.14 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Relative humidity – Data

acquisition ..................................................................................................... 84

E.10.15 Category B uncertainties: Air density – Correction ......................................... 85

E.11 Category B uncertainties: Method ......................................................................... 85

E.11.1 General ......................................................................................................... 85

E.11.2 Category B uncertainties: Method – Wind conditions ..................................... 85

E.11.3 Category B uncertainties: Method – Seasonal effects .................................... 90

E.11.4 Category B uncertainties: Method – Turbulence normalization (or the

lack thereof) .................................................................................................. 91

E.11.5 Category B uncertainties: Method – Cold climate ........................................... 91

E.12 Category B uncertainties: Wind direction ............................................................... 92

E.12.1 General ......................................................................................................... 92

E.12.2 Category B uncertainties: Wind direction – Vane or sonic .............................. 92

E.12.3 Category B uncertainties: Wind direction – RSD ............................................ 93

E.13 Combining uncertainties ........................................................................................ 94

E.13.1 General ......................................................................................................... 94

E.13.2 Combining Category B uncertainties in electric power (u ) .......................... 95

P,i

E.13.3 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement (u ) ..................... 95

V,i
E.13.4 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement from cup or

sonic (u ) .................................................................................................. 95

VS,i
E.13.5 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement from RSD

(u ) ........................................................................................................... 96

VR,i
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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
IEC 61400-12-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
E.13.6 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement from REWS

u ..................................................................................................... 96

VREWS,i
E.13.7 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement for REWS for
either a meteorological mast significantly above hub height or an RSD

with a lower-than-hub-height meteorological mast ......................................... 97

E.13.8 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement for REWS for
a hub height meteorological mast plus RSD for shear using an absolute

wind speed .................................................................................................... 99

E.13.9 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement for REWS for
hub height meteorological mast RSD for shear using a relative wind

speed .......................................................................................................... 101

E.13.10 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement from REWS
due to wind veer across the whole rotor u .............................. 103
VREWS,veer,i
E.13.11 Combining uncertainties in the wind speed measurement from flow

distortion due to site calibration u .......................................................... 107

VT,i

E.13.12 Combining uncertainties for the temperature measurement u ................... 108

T,i

E.13.13 Combining uncertainties for the pressure measurement u ........................ 108

B,i

E.13.14 Combining uncertainties for the humidity measurement u ...................... 109

RH,i

E.13.15 Combining uncertainties for the method related components u ................ 110

M,i
E.13.16 Combining uncertainties for the wind direction measurement with wind

vane or sonic anemometer u ................................................................ 110

WV,i
E.13.17 Combining uncertainties for the wind direction measurement with RSD

u .......................................................................................................... 111

WR,i

E.13.18 Combined category B uncertainties.............................................................. 111

E.13.19 Combined standard uncertainty – Power curve ............................................ 111

E.13.20 Combined standard uncertainty – Energy production ................................... 111

E.14 Relevance of uncertainty components under specified conditions ....................... 112

E.15 Reference tables ................................................................................................. 112

Annex F (normative) Wind tunnel calibration procedure for anemometers .......................... 116

Annex G (normative) Mounting of instruments on the meteorological mast ......................... 117

Annex H (normative) Power performance testing of small wind turbines ............................. 118

H.1 General ............................................................................................................... 118

H.2 Wind turbine system definition and installation .................................................... 118

H.3 Meteorological mast location ............................................................................... 119

H.4 Test equipment ................................................................................................... 119

H.5 Measurement procedure ..................................................................................... 120

H.6 Derived results .................................................................................................... 121

H.7 Reporting ............................................................................................................ 121

H.8 Assessment of influence of wind turbines and obstacles at the test site .............. 121

H.9 Assessment of terrain at test site ........................................................................ 121

H.10 Site calibration procedure (refer to IEC 61400-12-3) ........................................... 122

Annex I (normative) Classification of cup and sonic anemometry ....................................... 123

Annex J (normative) Assessment of cup and sonic anemometry ........................................ 124

Annex K (normative) In-situ comparison of anemometers ................................................... 125

Annex L (normative) The application of remote sensing technology ................................... 126

L.1 General ............................................................................................................... 126

L.2 Classification requirements specific to power performance tests ......................... 127

L.3 Verification requirements specific to power performance tests ............................ 127

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SIST EN IEC 61400-12-1:2022
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L.4 Uncertainty evaluation specific to power performance tests ................................ 127

L.5 Additional checks specific to power performance tests ........................................ 128

L.5.1 Monitoring the performance of the remote sensing device at the

application site ............................................................................................ 128

L.5.2 Identification of malfunctioning of the remote sensing device
...

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