Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 22: Wheel tracking

This European Standard describes test methods for determining the susceptibility of bituminous materials to deform under load. The test is applicable to mixtures with upper sieve size less than or equal to 32 mm.
The tests are applicable to specimens that have either been manufactured in a laboratory or cut from a pavement; test specimens are held in a mould with their surface flush with the upper edge of the mould.
The susceptibility of bituminous materials to deform is assessed by the rut formed by repeated passes of a loaded wheel at constant temperature. Three alternative types of device can be used according to this standard: large-size devices, extra large-size devices and small-size devices. With large-size devices and extra large-size devices, the specimens are conditioned in air during testing. With small-size devices, specimens are conditioned, in either air or water.
NOTE   Large-size and extra large-size devices are not suitable for use with cylindrical cores.

Asphalt - Prüfverfahren für Heißasphalt - Teil 22: Spurbildungstest

Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung der Verformungsanfälligkeit von Asphalt bei Belastung. Das Verfahren ist auf Asphalt mit einem Größtkorn von maximal 32 mm anwendbar.
Die Prüfungen sind auf Probekörper anwendbar, die entweder in einem Labor hergestellt oder aus einer Fahr¬bahnbefestigung geschnitten wurden; die Probekörper werden so in Prüfformen gelegt, dass ihre Oberflächen mit der Oberkante der Form bündig abschließen.
Die Verformungsanfälligkeit von Asphalt wird anhand einer Spurrinne geprüft, die durch wiederholte Über¬gänge eines belasteten Rades bei konstanter Temperatur erzeugt wird. Nach dieser Norm können drei ver¬schiedene Prüfgeräte verwendet werden: das Gerät mit besonders großem Rad, das Gerät mit großem Rad und das Gerät mit kleinem Rad. Bei Verwendung der Geräte mit großem und besonders großem Rad werden die Probekörper während der Prüfung an der Luft klimatisiert. Bei Verwendung des Geräts mit kleinem Rad werden die Probekörper entweder im Wasser oder an der Luft klimatisiert.
ANMERKUNG   Die Geräte mit großem und besonders großem Rad sind nicht für die Prüfung von zylindrischen Bohr¬kernen geeignet.

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné a chaud - Partie 22: Essai d’orniérage

La présente norme décrit les procédures a suivre pour déterminer le comportement en déformation des matériaux bitumineux soumis a des charges roulantes. Cet essai s'applique aux mélanges dont les plus grandes dimensions granulaires sont inférieures ou égales a 32 mm.
Ces procédures peuvent etre effectuées sur des éprouvettes qui ont été fabriquées en laboratoire ou prélevées sur une chaussée ; les éprouvettes sont placées dans un moule, leur surface affleurant la partie supérieure du moule.
Le comportement en déformation des matériaux bitumineux est évalué par la profondeur de l'orniere qui se forme suite a des passages répétés d'une charge roulante a température constante. Trois types de dispositifs peuvent etre utilisés conformément a la présente norme : des dispositifs de grandes dimensions, des dispositifs extra-larges et des dispositifs de petites dimensions. Avec les dispositifs de grandes dimensions et les dispositifs extra-larges, les éprouvettes sont conditionnées a l'air pendant l'essai. Avec les dispositifs de petites dimensions, elles sont conditionnées soit a l'air, soit dans l'eau.
NOTE   Les dispositifs de grandes dimensions et les dispositifs extra-larges ne sont pas adaptés pour l’essai d’éprouvettes cylindriques.

Bitumenske zmesi - Preskusne metode za vroče asfaltne zmesi - 22. del: Preskus nastajanja kolesnic

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
17-Oct-2007
Withdrawal Date
10-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Mar-2020
Due Date
02-Apr-2020
Completion Date
11-Mar-2020

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 22: Wheel trackingMélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné a chaud - Partie 22: Essai d’orniérageAsphalt - Prüfverfahren für Heißasphalt - Teil 22: SpurbildungstestTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007SIST EN 12697-22:2004+A1:2007en,fr,de93.080.20Materiali za gradnjo cestRoad construction materialsICS:SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 12697-22:2004+A1:200701-november-2007
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 12697-22:2003+A1
July 2007 ICS 93.080.20 Supersedes EN 12697-22:2003English Version
Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 22: Wheel tracking

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 22: Essai d'orniérage

Asphalt - Prüfverfahren für Heißasphalt - Teil 22: Spurbildungstest This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 November 2003 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 16 May 2007.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels © 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007: E

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................6 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................6 4 Symbols and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................................8 5 Principle..................................................................................................................................................9 6 Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................9 6.1 Large size devices.................................................................................................................................9 6.2 Extra large Devices..............................................................................................................................10 6.3 Small size devices...............................................................................................................................11 6.4 Small-size devices for use with cores...............................................................................................12 7 Sampling and sample preparation.....................................................................................................13 7.1 Sampling and manufacture.................................................................................................................13 7.2 Thickness and surface regularity.......................................................................................................15 7.3 Transport and storage of unmounted specimens............................................................................15 7.4 Sample preparation.............................................................................................................................15 8 Procedure for carrying out a single measurement..........................................................................16 8.1 Large size devices...............................................................................................................................16 8.2 Extra-large size device........................................................................................................................17 8.3 Small size devices...............................................................................................................................17 9 Calculation and expression of results...............................................................................................18 9.1 Large size devices...............................................................................................................................18 9.2 Extra-large size device........................................................................................................................19 9.3 Small size devices...............................................................................................................................20 10 Test report............................................................................................................................................22 10.1 Obligatory information........................................................................................................................22 10.2 Complementary information...............................................................................................................24 11 Precision...............................................................................................................................................24 11.1 General..................................................................................................................................................24 11.2 Laboratory prepared samples, proportional rut depth, large size devices...................................24 11.3 Samples cored from a pavement and laboratory prepared samples, wheel-tracking rate, small-size devices, conditioning in air..............................................................................................24 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................29

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227 “Road materials”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2008 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2008. This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2007-05-16. This document supersedes EN 12697-22:2003. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags ! ". This European Standard is one of a series of standards as listed below: EN 12697-1, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 1: Soluble binder content EN 12697-2, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 2: Determination of particle size distribution EN 12697-3, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 3: Bitumen recovery: Rotary evaporator EN 12697-4, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 4: Bitumen recovery: Fractionating column EN 12697-5, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 5: Determination of the maximum density EN 12697-6, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 6: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens EN 12697-7, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 7: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens by gamma rays EN 12697-8, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 8: Determination of void characteristics of bituminous specimens EN 12697-9, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 9: Determination of the reference density EN 12697-10, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 10: Compactibility EN 12697-11, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 11: Determination of the affinity between aggregates and bitumen EN 12697-12, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 12: Determination of the water sensitivity of bituminous specimens EN 12697-13, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 13: Temperature measurement EN 12697-14, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 14: Water content

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 4 EN 12697-15, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 15: Determination of the segregation sensitivity EN 12697-16, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 16: Abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-17, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 17: Particle loss of porous asphalt specimen EN 12697-18, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 18: Binder drainage EN 12697-19, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 19: Permeability of specimen EN 12697-20, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 20: Indentation using cube or Marshall specimen EN 12697-21, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 21: Indentation using plate specimens EN 12697-22, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 22: Wheel tracking EN 12697-23, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 23: Determination of the indirect tensile strength of bituminous specimens EN 12697-24, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 24: Resistance to fatigue EN 12697-25, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 25: Cyclic compression test EN 12697-26, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 26: Stiffness EN 12697-27, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 27: Sampling EN 12697-28, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 28: Preparation of samples for determining binder content, water content and grading EN 12697-29, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 29: Determination of the dimensions of a bituminous specimen EN 12697-30, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 30: Specimen preparation by impact compactor EN 12697-31, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 31: Specimen preparation by gyratory compactor EN 12697-32, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 32: Laboratory compaction of bituminous mixtures by vibratory compactor EN 12697-33, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 33: Specimen prepared by roller compactor EN 12697-34, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 34: Marshall test EN 12697-35, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 35: Laboratory mixing EN 12697-36, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 36: Determination of the thickness of a bituminous pavement EN 12697-37, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 37: Hot sand test for the adhesivity of binder on pre-coated chippings for HRA

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 5 EN 12697-38, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 38: Common equipment and calibration EN 12697-39, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 39: Binder content by ignition EN 12697-40, Bituminous mixtures — Requirements — In situ drainability EN 12697-41, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 41: Resistance to deicing fluids EN 12697-42, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 42: Amount of coarse foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt EN 12697-43, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 43: Resistance to fuel !deleted text" For the small-size device, the use of a wheel fitted with a solid rubber tyre is specified. Depending on the result of on-going research, the use of a steel wheel may be accepted. This document includes a bibliography. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard describes test methods for determining the susceptibility of bituminous materials to deform under load. The test is applicable to mixtures with upper sieve size less than or equal to 32 mm. The tests are applicable to specimens that have either been manufactured in a laboratory or cut from a pavement; test specimens are held in a mould with their surface flush with the upper edge of the mould. The susceptibility of bituminous materials to deform is assessed by the rut formed by repeated passes of a loaded wheel at constant temperature. Three alternative types of device can be used according to this standard: large-size devices, extra large-size devices and small-size devices. With large-size devices and extra large-size devices, the specimens are conditioned in air during testing. With small-size devices, specimens are conditioned, in either air or water. NOTE Large-size and extra large-size devices are not suitable for use with cylindrical cores. 2 Normative references This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments). !EN 12697-6:2003+A1", Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 6: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens. EN 12697-7, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 7: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens by gamma rays. EN 12697-27, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 27: Sampling. !EN 12697-32:2003+A1", Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 32: Laboratory compaction of bituminous mixtures by vibratory compactor. !EN 12697-33:2003+A1, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 33: Specimen preparation by roller compactor." !EN 12697-35:2004+A1", Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 35: Laboratory mixing. ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanised or thermoplastic — Determination of hardness (hardness between 10 IRHD and 100 IRHD). ISO 7619, Rubber — Determination of indentation hardness by means of pocket hardness meters. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 nominal thickness for laboratory prepared specimens, target thickness, in millimetres, to which the specimens are to be prepared

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 7 3.2 rut depth reduction in the thickness of a test specimen, in millimetres, caused by repeated passes of a loaded wheel 3.3 test surface surface of the test specimen on which the loaded wheel runs 3.4 single test result value obtained by applying this European Standard, once, to a single test portion 3.5 test portion for this test, a test portion to represent one material shall consist of a set of: Table 1 — Minimum set of specimen Device Minimum set of test specimen Large or extra-large size device 2 Small size model A testing in air 6 Small size model B testing in air 2 Small size model B testing in water 2 3.6 tyre track impression of the tyre on a flat surface when a vertical load is applied 3.7 load cycle two passes (outward and return) of the loaded wheel

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 8 4 Symbols and abbreviated terms Table 2 — Symbols and abbreviated terms Symbol Definition Unit mij local distance between a reference plane and the j specified location of the upper face of the test piece at the time of the i measurement sequence (large device) NOTE j varies between 1 and 15. mm m0j initial measurement at the j location — Pi measured proportional rut depth calculated as the average depth of a rut at the i measurement sequence measured at predetermined points or the average of predetermined stretch (large size device) or the average of predetermined cross-sections (extra-large device) as a proportion of the thickness of the test specimen % h specimen thickness equal to the thickness of the course or courses of the test piece in which a rut can form mm WTR wheel-tracking rate calculated as the average rate at which the rut depth increases with time under repeated passes of a loaded wheel of a small size device model A in air mm/h WTSW wheel-tracking slope, calculated as the average rate at which the rut depth increases with repeated passes of a loaded wheel of a small size device model B in water mm/103 load cyclesWTSAIR wheel-tracking slope, calculated as the average rate at which the rut depth increases with repeated passes of a loaded wheel of a small size device model B in air mm/103 load cyclesw width of the tyre applying the load mm N number of cycles — P average value of Pi obtained on two or more specimens — PLD average value of Pi obtained on two or more specimens using large size device % PXL average value of Pi obtained on two or more specimens using extra-large size device % TR mean rate of increase of track depth !µm/cycle" TRm mean value of the determinations of TR !µm/cycle" PRDW proportional rut depth for the material under test at N cycles using a small size device in water % RDW rut depth for the material under test at N cycles using a small size device in water mm PRDAIR proportional rut depth for the material under test at N cycles using a small size device in air % RDAIR rut depth for the material under test at N cycles using a small size device in air mm L load applied N t15 time for rut depth to reach 15 mm min

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 9 Table 2 (continued) Symbol Definition Unit ri change in vertical displacement from the initial value, r0, to the i relevant reading mm n total number of readings taken at 5 min., excluding the initial reading. — d5 000, d10 000 rut depth after 5 000 load cycles and 10 000 load cycles. respectively mm

5 Principle The susceptibility of a bituminous material to deform is assessed by measuring the rut depth formed by repeated passes of a loaded wheel at a fixed temperature. 6 Apparatus 6.1 Large size devices 6.1.1 Device simulating a rolling load which shall include: 6.1.1.1 Wheel fitted with a 400 × 8 pneumatic tyre without tread pattern and having a track width of (80 ± 5) mm. The pneumatic tyre pressure shall be (600 ± 30) kPa. NOTE The Trelleborg T522 BV Extra or Special 6-ply type pneumatic tyre is suitable for this test. 6.1.1.2 The travel of pneumatic tyre relative to the specimen shall be (410 ± 5) mm. 6.1.1.3 The frequency of travel (outward and return) shall be (1,0 ± 0,1) Hz. 6.1.1.4 The rolling load applied to the test specimen shall be (5 000 ± 50) N at the centre of the test specimen, measured at least when the device is static. 6.1.1.5 The centre line of the tyre track shall be not more than 5 mm from the theoretical centre of the test specimen. 6.1.1.6 The angle of skew shall be (0,0 ± 0,5)°. 6.1.2 Mould(s) Mould(s) of internal dimensions (500 × 180 × 50) mm or (500 × 180 × 100) mm, all dimensions ± 2 mm, capable of withstanding the test conditions without distortion. 6.1.3 Depth gauge Depth gauge to measure local deformation, mij, to within ± 0,2 mm and with a square or circular measurement area of between 5 mm2 and 10 mm2. A contact-free sensor can be used if it leads to the same result. 6.1.4 Ventilated enclosure Ventilated enclosure with a set temperature that is regulated by a probe installed within the test specimen such that the temperature within the specimen is maintained at ± 2 °C of that set (see Figure 1).

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 10 6.1.5 Temperature sensors Temperature sensor(s) suitable for installation within a compacted bituminous test specimen and for the measurement of air temperature. 6.1.6 Temperature monitoring indicator Temperature monitoring indicator to record the temperature within the test specimen, as shown in Figure 1. 6.1.7 Steel supporting plate Steel supporting plate with a surface unevenness of less than 1 mm when checked with a steel rule across the diagonals and of a thickness such that the deflection under test conditions of this European Standard shall not exceed 0,5 mm. 6.1.8 Non-stick chemical Non-stick chemical, such as glycerized sodium oleate. 6.2 Extra large Devices 6.2.1 Device simulating a rolling load which shall include: 6.2.1.1 General Wheel fitted with a 6.00-R9 pneumatic tyre without tread pattern and having a track width of (110 ± 5) mm. 6.2.1.2 The travel of pneumatic tyre relative to the specimen shall be (700 ± 5) mm. 6.2.1.3 The time of travel (outward and return) shall be (2,5 ± 0,5) s. 6.2.1.4 The rolling load applied to the test specimen shall be (10 000 ± 100) N at the centre of the test specimen, measured at least when the device is static. 6.2.1.5 The centre line of the tyre track shall be not more than 20 mm from the theoretical centre of the test specimen. 6.2.1.6 The angle of skew shall be (0,0 ± 0,5)°. 6.2.2 Moulds Mould(s) of internal dimensions (700 × 500) mm, all dimensions ± 5 mm, capable of withstanding the test conditions without distortion. The height of mould corresponds to the nominal thickness of the test specimen at the ends. The height of side edges correspond to the nominal thickness or exceed it by a maximum of 20 mm. 6.2.3 Depth gauge

Laser sensors to measure local deformation to within ± 0,2 mm. Laser sensors shall be capable to measure rut depth with interval maximum 2 mm at least in 3 cross-sections as indicated Figure 2. 6.2.4 Ventilated enclosure Ventilated enclosure with a set temperature that is regulated by a probe installed within the test specimen such that the temperature within the specimen is maintained at ± 3 °C of that set (see Figure 2).

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 11 6.2.5 Temperature sensors Temperature sensor(s) suitable for installation within a compacted bituminous test specimen and for the measurement of air temperature. 6.2.6 Temperature monitoring indicator Temperature monitoring indicator to record the temperature within the test specimen, as shown in Figure 2. 6.3 Small size devices 6.3.1 Wheel-tracking apparatus 6.3.1.1 General Wheel-tracking apparatus consisting of a loaded wheel that bears on a sample held securely on a table. The table beneath the wheel or the wheel above the table moves to and from and a device provided monitors the rate at which a rut develops in the surface of the test specimen. Vertical play in the loaded wheel mechanism shall be less than 0,25 mm. The apparatus shall include: 6.3.1.2 Tyre of outside diameter between 200 mm and 205 mm fitted to the wheel. The tyre shall be treadless and have a rectangular cross profile with a width of (w ± 1) mm where w = (50 ± 5) mm. The tyre thickness shall be (20 ± 2) mm. The tyre shall be of solid rubber with a hardness number of !(80 ± 5) IRHD units" when measured in accordance with ISO 7619 and ISO 48. The hardness may be confirmed according to ISO 48. 6.3.1.3 Means of applying a load to the wheel: The wheel load under standard test conditions shall be Nw±1050700, measured at the level of the top of the test specimen and normal to the plane of the sample table. NOTE This loading may conveniently be achieved by the use of a weighted cantilever arm. 6.3.1.4 Sample table, constructed so as to enable a 200 mm minimum diameter core specimen or rectangular laboratory-prepared test specimen to be held firmly in place with its upper surface horizontal and in the required tracking plane and with its centre positioned to ensure symmetrical tracking motion. 6.3.1.5 Wheel-tracking machine, constructed so as to enable the test specimen in its cradle to be moved backwards and forwards under the loaded wheel in a fixed horizontal plane or the loaded wheel to be moved backwards and forwards on the fixed specimen. The centre-line of the tyre track shall be not more than 5 mm from the theoretical centre of the specimen. The centre of the contact area of the tyre shall describe simple harmonic motion with respect to the centre of the top surface of the test specimen with a total distance of travel of (230 ± 10) mm and a frequency of (26,5 ± 1,0) load cycles per 60 s for the test device. NOTE This form of motion is most readily achieved by a reciprocating drive from a flywheel but alternative drive mechanisms are satisfactory as long as the motion conforms with the above requirements. 6.3.1.6 Carriage and frame of steel with minimum inside dimensions of 260 mm × 300 mm. Vertical play in the carriage shall be less than 0,25 mm when measured at the four corners of the carriage with the carriage being subjected to the operating load, and the thickness of its bottom plate will be not less than 8 mm. 6.3.1.7 Device to measure the vertical position of the loaded wheel to ± 0,2 mm with a range of not less than 20,0 mm.

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 12 6.3.2 Means for temperature control Means for temperature control such that the temperature of the test specimen during testing is uniform and maintained constant at the specified temperature ± 1 °C. NOTE A constant temperature room enclosing the machine or a water bath are two methods of meeting this requirement. 6.3.3 Straightedge Straightedge, at least 300 mm long. 6.3.4 Callipers Callipers capable of measuring the thickness of a test specimen to an accuracy of ± 1 mm. Talc or steatite 6.4 Small-size devices for use with cores 6.4.1 General The equipment listed in 6.3.1 to 6.3.4 with the apparatus listed in 6.4.2 to 6.4.7. 6.4.2 Abrasive disc circular saw Abrasive disc circular saw capable of cutting through !200 mm diameter cores" of compacted bituminous mixtures to provide a nominally ridge-free surface. 6.4.3 Core clamping assembly Core clamping assembly comprising two steel, glass or other suitable stiff plates, and clamping blocks for holding the prepared core in place whilst it is bedded in the holding medium. NOTE The clamping blocks can be of any material strong enough to support the mass of the loaded wheel and have a central hole capable of accommodating cores with diameters close to 200 mm. 6.4.4 Cleansing solvent Cleansing solvent, e. g. mixture of 90 % acetone and 10 % kerosene by volume, for cleaning the rubber tyre after use. 6.4.5 Holding medium Holding medium, e.g. plaster of Paris or a polyester resin and hardener. 6.4.6 Containers Containers for mixing the holding medium (disposable paper cups are suitable). 6.4.7 Spirit level Spirit level, at least 100 mm long.

EN 12697-22:2003+A1:2007 (E) 13 7 Sampling and sample preparation 7.1 Sampling and manufacture 7.1.1 Laboratory prepared samples 7.1.1.1 Manufacture The component materials shall either be  Laboratory produced bituminous mixtures, mixed in accordance with !EN 12697-35:2004+A1" or  Plant produced bituminous mixtures, sampled in accordance with EN 12697-27. !The test specimens shall be compacted in their moulds in accordance with

EN 12697-33:2003+A1 or EN 12697-32:2003+A1. The bulk density shall be measured either by dimensions in accordance with EN 12697-6:2003+A1 or, after extracting the sample from the mould, by one of the other methods in accordance with EN 12697-6:2003+A1 or EN 12697-7." The bulk density of the two (or six) specimens used to measure the rut depth or the wheel-tracking rate of a given mixture shall not deviate by more than ± 1 % of the mean bulk density. 7.1.1.2 Nominal thickness For large size devices and without specific requirement, the thickness of the specimen shall be:  50 mm for mixtures intended to be used in layers less than or equal to 50 mm;  100 mm for mixtures intended to be used in layers greater than 50 mm. For extra-large size devices and without specific requirement, the thickness of the specimen shall be 60 mm. For large and extra-large size devices and if the thickness is to be specified, it shall be:  30 mm; or  50 mm; or  60 mm; or  75 mm; or 100 mm. NOTE In the case of mixtures that are designed to be laid at a range of thickness, the thickness of the specimen should be th

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