Paints and varnishes - Determination of hiding power - Part 3: Determination of hiding power of paints for masonry and concrete (ISO 6504-3:2019)

EN-ISO 6504-3 specifies methods for determining the hiding power given by paint coats of white or light colours of tristimulus values Y and Y10 greater than 25, applied to a black and white chart, or to a colourless transparent foil. In the latter case the tristimulus values Y and Y10 are measured over black and white panels. Subsequently, the hiding power is calculated from these tristimulus values. This document also specifies a simple method for calculating the spreading rate for paints with a volatile matter content with low evaporation speed, e.g. coatings for interior walls and ceilings as specified in EN 13300.

Beschichtungsstoffe - Bestimmung des Deckvermögens - Teil 3: Bestimmung des Deckvermögens von Beschichtungen für mineralische Untergründe und Beton (ISO 6504-3:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zum Bestimmen des Deckvermögens von weißen oder hellen pigmentierten Beschichtungen [im Folgenden auf Deutsch kurz Beschichtungen genannt] mit den Farbwerten Y und Y10 größer als 25 fest, die auf schwarzweiße Kontrollkarten oder farblose, transparente Folie aufgetragen werden. Im letzteren Fall werden die Farbwerte Y und Y10 über schwarzweißen Platten gemessen. Anschließend wird das Deckvermögen aus diesen Farbwerten berechnet.
Dieses Dokument legt außerdem ein einfaches Verfahren zum Berechnen der Ergiebigkeit von Beschichtungsstoffen mit flüchtigen Anteilen mit geringer Verdunstungsgeschwindigkeit fest, z. B. Beschichtungen für Innenwände und Decken, wie in EN 13300 festgelegt.

Peintures et vernis - Détermination du pouvoir masquant - Partie 3: Détermination du pouvoir masquant pour des peintures bâtiments et béton (ISO 6504-3:2019)

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes de détermination du pouvoir masquant de couches de peinture blanche ou de peinture claire dont les valeurs du tristimulus Y et Y10 sont supérieures à 25, appliquées sur une carte à contraste de noir et de blanc, ou sur une feuille transparente et incolore. Dans ce dernier cas, les valeurs du tristimulus Y et Y10 sont mesurées sur des plaques noires et blanches. Ensuite, le pouvoir masquant est calculé à partir de ces valeurs du tristimulus.
Le présent document spécifie également une méthode simple pour calculer le rendement surfacique de peintures ayant une teneur en matières volatiles à vitesse d'évaporation lente, par exemple de revêtements pour murs et plafonds intérieurs comme spécifié dans l'EN 13300.

Barve in laki - Ugotavljanje kritnosti - 3. del: Ugotavljanje kritnosti barv za mineralne podlage in beton (ISO 6504-3:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Nov-2018
Publication Date
09-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Jan-2020
Due Date
09-Mar-2020
Completion Date
10-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
01-april-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2007
Barve in laki - Ugotavljanje kritnosti - 3. del: Ugotavljanje kritnosti barv za
mineralne podlage in beton (ISO 6504-3:2019)

Paints and varnishes - Determination of hiding power - Part 3: Determination of hiding

power of paints for masonry and concrete (ISO 6504-3:2019)
Beschichtungsstoffe - Bestimmung des Deckvermögens - Teil 3: Bestimmung des

Deckvermögens von Beschichtungen für mineralische Untergründe und Beton (ISO 6504

-3:2019)

Peintures et vernis - Détermination du pouvoir masquant - Partie 3: Détermination du

pouvoir masquant pour des peintures bâtiments et béton (ISO 6504-3:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 6504-3:2019
ICS:
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
EN ISO 6504-3
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 87.040 Supersedes EN ISO 6504-3:2007
English Version
Paints and varnishes - Determination of hiding power -
Part 3: Determination of hiding power of paints for
masonry, concrete and interior use (ISO 6504-3:2019)

Peintures et vernis - Détermination du pouvoir Beschichtungsstoffe - Bestimmung des Deckvermögens

masquant - Partie 3: Détermination du pouvoir - Teil 3: Bestimmung des Deckvermögens von

masquant pour des peintures bâtiments, béton et Beschichtungen für mineralische Untergründe und

utilisation en intérieur (ISO 6504-3:2019) Beton (ISO 6504-3:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 22 October 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 6504-3:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
EN ISO 6504-3:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
EN ISO 6504-3:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 6504-3:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35 "Paints

and varnishes" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 139 “Paints and varnishes” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 6504-3:2007.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 6504-3:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 6504-3:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 6504-3
Third edition
2019-11
Paints and varnishes — Determination
of hiding power —
Part 3:
Determination of hiding power of
paints for masonry, concrete and
interior use
Peintures et vernis — Détermination du pouvoir masquant —
Partie 3: Détermination du pouvoir masquant pour des peintures
bâtiments, béton et utilisation en intérieur
Reference number
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8 Procedure and calculation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.1 Preparation of substrate ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.1.1 Method A (foil) ...................................................................... ............................................................................................. 7

8.1.2 Method B and Method C (black and white charts) ............................................................................. 7

8.2 Preparation of coated foils or black and white charts .......................................................................................... 7

8.3 Determination of the spreading rate of the test specimen ............................................................................... 7

8.3.1 Calculation of the surface mass density ....................................................................................................... 7

8.3.2 Determination of the density ................................................................................................................................ 9

8.3.3 Determination of the non-volatile matter .................................................................................................. 9

8.3.4 Calculation of the theoretical dry- or wet-film thickness (method A,

method B and method C) .......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.5 Calculation 1 – Determination of the theoretical spreading rate by
calculation from the non-volatile matter content determined in
accordance with ISO 3251 and the density of the coating material (see

ISO 3233-3) (method A and method B) ....................................................................................................10

8.3.6 Calculation 2 – Determination of the theoretical spreading rate calculated
with the different coated masses on the two charts (method C), the
density of the coating material according to ISO 2811 (all parts) and the

coated area .........................................................................................................................................................................12

8.4 Measurement of tristimulus value Y and calculation of the hiding power H ......................13

10 10

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.2 Method A (foil) ...................................................................... ..........................................................................................13

8.4.3 Method B (black and white charts) ...............................................................................................................13

8.4.4 Method C (black and white charts) ...............................................................................................................13

8.5 Graphical method for determination of the hiding power at a given spreading rate

(method C) ...............................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.5.2 Determination by graphical method ............................................................................................................14

8.5.3 Determination by calculation with a known slope ..........................................................................16

9 Designation of the test result ...............................................................................................................................................................17

10 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Details on interlaboratory comparison ............................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee

SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 6504-3:2006), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the title and Scope have been restricted to paints for masonry and concrete;
— a definition for light-coloured paint has been added;

— a new method (method C), which is suitable for waterborne coating materials only, has been

introduced;

— the determination of the mass per unit area of the dry coating and the determination of the practical

spreading rate have been deleted (ISO 3233-3 can be used instead);

— the reference to a fixed spreading rate has been deleted from the foreword, scope and test report (it

had already been deleted from the procedure in the previous edition);

— the historic precision values for methods A and B have been deleted from the normative part and

information on a new interlaboratory comparison on method C has been added in an informative

annex, i.e. Annex A;
— the normative references have been updated.
A list of all parts in the ISO 6504 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
Introduction

Two techniques are available for substrate preparation and measurement when determining the hiding

power of paints for masonry and concrete:

a) application to colourless, transparent foil, the coated foil being subsequently placed in turn over

black and white panels;
b) direct application to black and white charts.

The spreading rate is important for the determination of the hiding power ratio. The spreading rate can

be either determined according to ISO 3233-3 or according to another simplified method described in

the standards applicable to coating materials for interior walls and ceilings as specified in EN 13300.

Because different operators using the same draw-down device will obtain coatings differing

significantly in thickness, an absolute method for the determination of opacity is described in this

document. Collaborative trials between groups of experts from a number of countries have shown

that reproducible results can be obtained by determination of the hiding power corresponding to a

precisely specified spreading rate by interpolation between measurements at two or more measured

coating thicknesses nearby and enclosing the specified spreading rate. The interested parties might

agree on the specified spreading rate.

The methods are based on the observation that hiding power is an approximately linear function of

reciprocal spreading rate, over a restricted coating thickness range which also corresponds to that used

for normal application of white or light-coloured paints. It is thus possible to interpolate graphically

or by computation, with satisfactory accuracy, between results obtained with coatings of different

thicknesses.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
Paints and varnishes — Determination of hiding power —
Part 3:
Determination of hiding power of paints for masonry,
concrete and interior use
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for determining the hiding power given by paint coats of white or

light colours of tristimulus values Y and Y greater than 25, applied to a black and white chart, or to a

colourless transparent foil. In the latter case the tristimulus values Y and Y are measured over black

and white panels. Subsequently, the hiding power is calculated from these tristimulus values.

This document also specifies a simple method for calculating the spreading rate for paints with

a volatile matter content with low evaporation speed, e.g. coatings for interior walls and ceilings as

specified in EN 13300.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1513, Paints and varnishes — Examination and preparation of test samples
ISO 2811 (all parts), Paints and varnishes — Determination of density

ISO 3251, Paints, varnishes and plastics — Determination of non-volatile-matter content

ISO 3233-3:2015, Paints and varnishes — Determination of the percentage volume of non-volatile matter —

Part 3: Determination by calculation from the non-volatile-matter content determined in accordance with

ISO 3251, the density of the coating material and the density of the solvent in the coating material

ISO 15528, Paints, varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes — Sampling

EN 13300, Paints and varnishes — Water-borne coating materials and coating systems for interior walls

and ceilings — Classification
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
light-coloured paint

coating with tristimulus values Y and Y greater than 25, measured with a spectrophotometer on a

black and white substrate
[SOURCE: ISO 6504-1:2019, 3.1]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
3.2
spreading rate

surface area that can be covered by a given quantity of coating material to give a dried film of requisite

thickness
2 2
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in m /l or m /kg.

Note 2 to entry: See also application rate, practical spreading rate and theoretical spreading rate.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.238]
3.3
practical spreading rate

spreading rate (3.2) which is obtained in practice on the particular substrate being coated

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.203]
3.4
theoretical spreading rate
spreading rate (3.2) calculated solely from the volume of non-volatile matter
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.256]
3.5
hiding power

ability of a coating to obliterate the colour or colour differences of the substrate

Note 1 to entry: The use of the German expressions “Deckkraft” und “Deckfähigkeit” should be avoided.

Note 2 to entry: The term “coverage” is ambiguous because it is used in some instances to refer to hiding power and

in others to mean spreading rate. The more precise terms hiding power and spreading rate should always be used.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.138]
3.6
tristimulus values (of a colour stimulus)

amounts of the three reference stimuli, in a given trichromatic system, required to match the colour of

the stimulus considered

Note 1 to entry: In the CIE standard colorimetric systems, the tristimulus values are represented by the symbols

X, Y, Z and X , Y , Z .
10 10 10
[SOURCE: ISO 11664-2:2007, 3.14]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
A dry area of the coated charts of the area cut out in each case
A dry area of the coated foils of the part cut out in each case
A dry area of the part of the foil or charts cut out in each case
A wet area of the coated charts
H hiding power
H hiding power of the coated chart
10c
H hiding power of the coated foil
10f
H hiding power for the chart with the low coating thickness
10cl
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
H hiding power for the chart with the high coating thickness
10ch
slope of the straight line
m mean value of the mass of the coated charts
m mean value of the mass of the coated foils
m mean value of the mass of the uncoated foils
m mass of the uncoated chart
m mass of the wet coated chart
m mass of the high wet-film thickness on the chart
wch
m mass of the low wet-film thickness on the chart
wcl
interception of the Y-axis at the point zero of the X-axis, P(0,n)
NV non-volatile matter content of the coating material
NV the non-volatile-matter content of the wet coating
ρ surface mass density of the dry coating on the charts
ρ surface mass density of the dry coating on the foils

ρ surface mass density of the dry coating on the foils or charts or wet coating on the charts

ρ surface mass density of the coat with the high wet-film thickness on the chart
Awch
ρ surface mass density of the coat with the low wet-film thickness on the chart
Awcl
ρ density of the coating material
theoretical spreading rate
stAm
s given theoretical spreading rate
tAVg
s theoretical spreading rate for the chart with the high coating thickness
tAVh
s theoretical spreading rate for the chart with the low coating thickness
tAVl

s theoretical spreading rate of the dry coating on the charts relative to the mass

tcm

s theoretical spreading rate of the dry coating on the charts relative to the volume

tcV

s theoretical spreading rate of the dry coating on the foils relative to the mass

tfm

s theoretical spreading rate of the dry coating on the foils relative to the volume

tfV
t theoretical dry-film thickness
t theoretical dry film thickness of the coating on charts
t theoretical dry film thickness of the coating on foils
t theoretical dry film thickness of the coating on foils or charts
t theoretical wet-film thickness
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SIST EN ISO 6504-3:2020
ISO 6504-3:2019(E)
t theoretical low wet-film thickness
t theoretical high wet-film thickness
mean value of the tristimulus value measured over the black areas
10b

mean value of the tristimulus value measured over the black areas of the high coating

10bh
thickness

mean value of the tristimulus value measured over the black areas of the low coating

10bl
thickness
mean value of the tristimulus value measured over the white areas
10w

mean value of the tristimulus value measured over the white areas of the high coating

10wh
thickness

Y mean value of the tristimulus value measured over the white areas of the low coating

10wl
thickness

X, Y, Z tristimulus values of test stimulus calculated using the colour-matching functions of the

CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system (also known as the CIE 2° standard colorimetric

system) [See ISO 11664-4:2007, Clause 3]

X , Y , Z tristimulus values of a specific white colour stimulus calculated using the colour-match-

10 10 10
ing functions of the CIE 1964 standard colorimetric system

Where tristimulus values are calculated using the colour-matching functions of the CIE 1964 standard

colorimetric system (also known as the CIE 10° standard colorimetric system), a subscript 10 shall be

added to all the above symbols (See ISO 11664-4:2007, Clause 3).
5 Principle

For method A, coated transparent foils are fixed over a black and white panel. The spreading rate is

calculated from the measurements of the surface mass density and the theoretical dry-film thickness.

The tristimulus values Y of the coated foils are measured over the black and white areas. The hiding

power is calculated as a quotient of these values as a percentage for each coated foil.

For method B, black and white charts are coated and dried (or stoved). The spreading rate is calculated

from the measurements of the surface mass density and the theoretical dry-film thickness. The

tristimulus values Y of each coated chart are measured over the black and white areas. The hiding

power is calculated as a quotient of these values as a percentage for each coated chart.

For method C, black and white charts are coated. The spreading rate is calculated from the

measurements of the coated area (whole charts), of the density of the coating material and the mass

difference of the uncoated and coated charts. Then the coating is dried. The tristimulus values Y of

each coated chart are measured over the black and white areas. The hiding power is calculated as a

quotient of these values as a percentage for each coated chart.
6 Apparatus
Ordinary laboratory apparatus and glassware, together with the following:
6.1 Substrate, conforming to the requirements of 8.1.1 or 8.1.2.
6.2 Three colourless transparent foils (method A), untreated.
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ISO 6504-3:2019(E)

6.3 Three black and white charts (method B) and two or four (see 6.4) black and white charts

(method C), all the same size and measuring at least 100 mm × 200 mm, printed and varnished to give

adjacent black and white areas readily wetted by, but impervious to, solvent- or water-based paints.

The black and white areas shall have dimensions bigger than the measurement area of the

spectrophotometer. The tristimulus value Y of the white areas of the charts shall be 80 ± 2 when

measured using a spectrophotometer or spectrophotometer complying with 6.5, and that of the black

area shall not be greater than 5, unless otherwise agreed.

To avoid errors due to variation from one batch of charts to another, the charts used for the test shall

come from the same batch.

If the chart is a metal plate, both the black and the white areas shall be coated on the back and edges

with black paint or adhesive tape to exclude light reflected from the back.
Ensure that only black and white charts without optical brighteners are used.

6.4 Film applicators, selected to give a range of films of uniform wet film thickness.

For method C, the film applicators need to be of slightly different sizes, i.e. max. 50 µm difference in size

in order to give suitable coating thicknesses, allowing the assumption of linearity in spreading rate for

the calculation. The gap of the applicators depends on the type of coating material and its viscosity.

The application of uniform films is facilitated by the use of automatic applicators, wh

...

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