Railway applications - Track - Restoration of rails by electric arc welding

The restoration referred to in this standard is limited to the head of the rail only.
This standard describes the approval systems for consumables and procedures used in manual metal arc and flux cored wire welding rail repair welding. The standard includes the quality-related tasks and responsibilities of personnel involved in the electric arc repair welding of rails. The standard applies to plain rail and switches and crossings manufactured from rail grade ranges of R200, R220, R260, R260Mn and R350HT in accordance with EN 13674-1.
The permitted welding processes are limited to Electric Arc (EA) in accordance with EN ISO 4063 and are by description Process No 111: MMA (Manual Metal Arc) and Process No 114: FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding) their applications are described.
This standard may be applied in situ, at line side or at out of track locations. The flash welded leg ends of austenitic manganese steel crossings are excluded from this standard.

Bahnanwendungen - Oberbau - Aufarbeitung von Schienen durch elektrisches Lichtbogenauftragsschweißen

Die Aufarbeitung, die in dieser Norm behandelt wird, beschränkt sich auf den Schienenkopf.
Diese Norm beschreibt ein Zulassungssystem für Verbrauchsstoffe und Verfahren bei der Ausführung von Reparaturschweißungen an Schienen mit Metall-Lichtbogenhandschweißung und Schmelz-Fülldrahtschweißungen. Diese Norm schließt die qualitätsbezogenen Aufgaben und Verantwortlichkeiten des Personals, die sich mit der elektrischen Lichtbogenreparaturschweißung an Schienen befassen, ein. Diese Norm gilt für Stahlsorten der Bereiche von R200, R220, R260, R260Mn und R350HT in Übereinstimmung mit EN 13674-1 für das Hauptgleis und Weichen und Kreuzungen.
Die zugelassenen Schweißverfahren und ihre Anwendungen sind begrenzt auf den elektrischen Lichtbogen (EA) in Übereinstimmung mit EN ISO 4063 und der dort beschriebenen Verfahrens-Nr. 111: MMA (Licht-bogenhandschweißen) und der Verfahrens-Nr. 114: FCAW (Metall-Lichtbogenschweißen mit Fülldraht-elektrode ohne Schutzgas).
Diese Norm kann an Arbeitsplätzen in oder außerhalb der Gleise angewendet werden. Das Lichtbogen-schweißen als Verbindungen zwischen austenitischen Mangan-Herzstücken wird in dieser Norm nicht behandelt.

Applications ferroviaires - Voie - Réparation des rails par soudure a l'arc électrique

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences de la réparation de rails par soudage à l’arc électrique
strictement limitée au champignon du rail.
La présente Norme européenne décrit, les procédures d’approbation relatives aux consommables et aux
modes opératoires, que la réparation des rails soit réalisée au moyen d’une électrode enrobée ou d’un fil
fourré. La norme définit également les missions et responsabilités du personnel impliqué dans la qualité des
réparations de rail par soudage à l’arc électrique. La norme s’applique aux rails de voie courante, aiguillages
et coeurs d’appareils de voie fabriqués à partir de rails Vignole neufs de masse supérieure ou égale à 46 kg/m
conformément à l’EN 13674-1 et de nuances d’acier R200, R220, R260, R260Mn et R350HT. Leurs
applications sont décrites.
Les procédés de soudage autorisés sont limités aux procédés de soudage à l’arc électrique conformément à
l’EN ISO 4063 et décrits par le Procédé n° 111 pour l’électrode enrobée et le Procédé n° 114 pour le fil fourré.
La présente norme peut être applicable in situ, en ou hors voie. Les antennes soudées par étincelage aux
coeurs d’appareils de voie en acier austénitique au manganèse sont incluses dans la présente norme, à
l’exception des zones situées à moins de 500 mm de l’acier au manganèse.

Železniške naprave - Zgornji ustroj - Obnova tirnic z električnim obločnim varjenjem

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-May-2009
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Apr-2009
Due Date
26-Jun-2009
Completion Date
04-May-2009

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 15594:2009
English language
34 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.YDUMHQMHPBahnanwendungen - Oberbau - Aufarbeitung von Schienen durch elektrisches LichtbogenauftragsschweißenApplications ferroviaires - Voie - Réparation des rails par soudure a l'arc électriqueRailway applications - Track - Restoration of rails by electric arc welding45.080Rails and railway components25.160.01Varjenje, trdo in mehko spajkanje na splošnoWelding, brazing and soldering in generalICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15594:2009SIST EN 15594:2009en,fr,de01-junij-2009SIST EN 15594:2009SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 15594:2009

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 15594April 2009ICS 25.160.10; 93.100 English VersionRailway applications - Track - Restoration of rails by electric arcweldingApplications ferroviaires - Voie - Réparation des rails parsoudure à l'arc électriqueBahnanwendungen - Oberbau - Aufarbeiten von Schienendurch elektrisches LichtbogenauftragschweißenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 March 2009.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre:

Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels© 2009 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 15594:2009: ESIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................41Scope ......................................................................................................................................................52Normative references ............................................................................................................................53Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................64Consumable and WPS approval tests for MMA electrodes and FCAW wires .................................64.1General ....................................................................................................................................................64.2Consumable and WPS approval model ...............................................................................................64.3Information supplied by the manufacturer to the certifying body ....................................................74.4Batch testing by the manufacturer ......................................................................................................84.5Test requirements of this standard under the supervision of certifying body ...............................84.5.1List of tests .............................................................................................................................................84.5.2Information to be confirmed by the certifying body ..........................................................................94.5.3Statement on the general weldability ..................................................................................................94.6Laboratory tests .....................................................................................................................................94.6.1Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................94.6.2General requirements for laboratory tests ..........................................................................................94.6.3Description of the sample for laboratory test .................................................................................. 104.6.4Single bead on rail tests .................................................................................................................... 114.6.5Single layer deposit on rail tests ....................................................................................................... 124.6.6Multi-layer deposit on rail tests ......................................................................................................... 124.6.7Welder’s report from trials ................................................................................................................. 124.6.8Preparation, examination and testing of samples ........................................................................... 134.6.9Acceptance criteria ............................................................................................................................. 144.7Track trial tests ................................................................................................................................... 154.7.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 154.7.2Excavation detail for track trials ....................................................................................................... 154.7.3Track trial test categories .................................................................................................................. 164.7.4Test methods ....................................................................................................................................... 164.7.5Requirements for in-track test samples ........................................................................................... 164.7.6Acceptance criteria for track trial restoration .................................................................................. 164.7.7Inspection frequency .......................................................................................................................... 164.8Evaluation, reporting and decision following track trials............................................................... 174.8.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 174.8.2List of general information ................................................................................................................ 174.8.3Track trial tests inspection records .................................................................................................. 174.8.4Decision by approving RA on consumable and WPS ..................................................................... 174.9Validation of consumables ................................................................................................................ 175Approval of contractors ..................................................................................................................... 185.1Quality management systems ........................................................................................................... 185.2Inspection and testing ........................................................................................................................ 185.3Subcontracting .................................................................................................................................... 185.4Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 185.5Welding activities................................................................................................................................ 185.6Storage and handling of welding consumables .............................................................................. 185.7Care of the infrastructure ................................................................................................................... 185.8Welding procedure specifications .................................................................................................... 195.9Pre-heating of rails ............................................................................................................................. 195.10Welders ................................................................................................................................................ 19SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 3 5.11Welder records .................................................................................................................................... 195.12Supervision .......................................................................................................................................... 195.13Traceability ........................................................................................................................................... 195.14Audits .................................................................................................................................................... 205.15Training................................................................................................................................................. 205.16Documentation .................................................................................................................................... 206Personnel and qualification requirements ........................................................................................ 206.1Training and qualification requirements ........................................................................................... 206.2Diploma in electric arc welding of rails ............................................................................................. 206.3Permit to restore rails by electric arc welding ................................................................................. 217Repair applications ............................................................................................................................. 22Annex A (informative)

Track trials supplementary information ................................................................... 25Annex B (informative)

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) .................................................................. 26Annex C (informative)

Diploma in electric arc restoration welding of rails ................................................ 28Annex D (normative)

Permit to restore rail by electric arc welding............................................................. 29Annex E (informative)

Track components ...................................................................................................... 30Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC ........................................................................................ 31WARNING — Other requirements and other EC Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of this standard. ....................................................................................................... 33Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 34 SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 15594:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2009. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. The purpose of this standard is to unify the restoration of rail electric arc welding across Europe. The standard provides control systems for the approval and qualification of welding processes, welding procedures, welding consumables, contractors and welders for the successful delivery of welds into track. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of the EU Directive 2008/57/EC. For relationship with the EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Introduction Restoration of rails by electric arc welding is a special process requiring the co-ordination of welding and grinding activities to establish confidence and reliability of the weld deposit and safety of the line. Controls must be in place from the design phase through to inspection. Incorrect selection of materials, consumables or procedure may result in serious track welding failure. The correct application of the approved processes and the types of repairs permitted to be carried out on various rail components will be strictly adhered to. Only consumables approved by the method described in this standard are to be used. The tasks and responsibilities of personnel involved in restoration e.g. planning, executing, supervising and inspection will be clearly defined. SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies restoration by electric arc welding and is limited to the head of the rails only. This European Standard describes the approval systems for consumables and procedures used in manual metal arc and flux cored metal deposit rail repair welding. The standard includes the quality-related tasks and responsibilities of personnel involved in the electric arc repair welding of rails. The standard applies to plain rail and switches and crossings manufactured from new vignole railway rails R200, R220, R260, R260Mn, R260Cr and R350HT grade rails of 46 kg/m and above as contained in EN 13674-1 and EN 13674-2. The permitted welding processes are limited to Electric Arc (EA) in accordance with EN ISO 4063 and are by description Process No 111: MMA (Manual Metal Arc) and Process No 114: FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding). This European Standard may be applied in situ, at line side or at out of track locations. The flash welded leg ends of austenitic manganese steel crossings are included in this standard, except when located within 500 mm of manganese crossings. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 287-1, Qualification test of welders – Fusion welding – Part 1: Steels EN 571-1, Non destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 1: General principles EN 1290, Non-destructive examination of welds – Magnetic particle examination of welds EN 13674-1, Railway applications – Track – Rail – Part 1: Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above EN 13674-2, Railway applications - Track - Rail - Part 2: Switch and crossing rails used in conjunction with Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above EN ISO 544, Welding consumables – Technical delivery conditions for welding filler materials – Type of product, dimensions, tolerances and markings (ISO 544:2003) EN ISO 3580, Welding consumables – Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of creep-resisting steels – Classification (ISO 3580:2004) EN ISO 4063, Welding and allied processes – Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers

(ISO 4063:1998) EN ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials – Brinell hardness test – Part 1: Test method (ISO 6506-1:2005) EN ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials – Vickers hardness test – Part 1: Test method (ISO 6507-1:2005) EN ISO 14341, Welding consumables – Wire electrodes and deposits for gas shielded metal arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steels – Classification (ISO 14341:2002) EN ISO 15613, Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials – Qualification based on pre-production welding test (ISO 15613:2004) UIC 714, Classification of lines for the purpose of track maintenance SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 6 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 Railway Authority (RA) either the railway regulator or the owner of a railway infrastructure or the custodian with a delegated responsibility for a railway infrastructure 3.2 contractor and sub-contractor company approved by a railway authority to carry out the restoration of rails by electric arc welding on that particular infrastructure

NOTE This may include staff from within the RA. 3.3 preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS) tentative welding procedure specification, which is assumed to be adequate by the manufacturer, but which has not been approved. Welding of test pieces needed for approval of a welding procedure specification has to be carried out on the basis of a preliminary welding procedure specification 3.4 weld procedure specification (WPS) procedure approved to European standards and agreed by the RA for use on the railway infrastructure 3.5 training establishment welder training organisation or centre approved by the railway authority or alternatively a welder training organisation or centre approved by and belonging to a railway authority 4 Consumable and WPS approval tests for MMA electrodes and FCAW wires 4.1 General The approval of consumables and the related WPS is broadly in line with the requirements of EN ISO 15613, but owing to the special nature of the repair weld in terms of rail steel grade and use, e.g. rolling contact fatigue, the approval process shall follow this standard. 4.2 Consumable and WPS approval model The following flow chart describes how a consumable and its related WPS shall be approved. WPS approval shall follow the principle of EN ISO 15613 approval by a pre-production test. SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 7

Consumable Certification body Classification according to EN ISO 3580/EN ISO 14341 EN 15594 pWPS (checked by the approving RA)

pWPS becomes WPS Track trials (see note 1) Decision

(see note 2) Other RAs (see note 3) Results Preliminary acceptance by the approving RA

Trial terminated No Yes

NOTE 1 These track trials are undertaken by the approving RA. NOTE 2 The approving RA shall issue an approval certificate upon successful outcome of track trial. NOTE 3 Other RAs may require further tests to verify suitability for special service/operational conditions or deposition techniques. 4.3 Information supplied by the manufacturer to the certifying body  Toxicity threshold levels; SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 8  Rail steel grades in accordance with EN 13674-1;  MMA electrode classification in accordance with EN ISO 3580;  Wire electrodes classification in accordance with EN ISO 14341;  Chemical analysis and batch analysis;  Storage requirements with manufacturers recommendations;  Current range/voltage range/polarity;  Availability of vacuum sealed MMA electrodes;  Dimensions, length and diameter;  FCAW spool size/weight availability;  Drying requirements;  Description of marking system;  Optimum deposition technique. 4.4 Batch testing by the manufacturer The batch testing criteria are:  concentricity and dimensions;  chemical composition;  consumable performance e.g. wire behaviour. 4.5 Test requirements of this standard under the supervision of certifying body 4.5.1 List of tests The following tests shall be supervised by the certifying body:  Mechanical tests;  Chemical analysis of undiluted weld metal with batch verification;  Hardness;  Weld integrity (lab conditions);  Crack free;  Defect level;  Porosity;  Craters; SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 9  Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) requirements;  Welding parameters. 4.5.2 Information to be confirmed by the certifying body The certifying body shall confirm the following:  marking/branding before and after drying;  compliance with this standard;  complete results of laboratory tests. 4.5.3 Statement on the general weldability The certifying body shall issue a statement on the general weldability as follows:  bead shape;  cratering;  spatter;  slag characteristics;  strike and re-strike capability;  other relevant information. These checks are carried out on one bead, one layer and five layers. The one bead test checks for cracking after grinding. The single layer test checks the behaviour of weld deposit on rail steel. The five-layer test checks the behaviour of weld metal on weld metal. In single and five-layer deposits macro, micro and hardness HV tests are employed. The five-layer test is finish ground and ultrasonic testing applied. 4.6 Laboratory tests 4.6.1 Purpose The purpose of the laboratory tests is to prove the suitability of the consumable to successfully repair appropriate grades of rail steel. 4.6.2 General requirements for laboratory tests The following deposits are required for laboratory tests.  single bead on rail: one sample required;  single layer on rail: one sample required; SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 10  multi-layers on rail: one sample required

Deposits shall be subjected to magnetic particle inspection (MT) in accordance with EN 1290 or dye penetrant inspection (PT) in accordance with EN 571-1. 4.6.3 Description of the sample for laboratory test Figures 1 and 2 describe the requirements of sample size, excavation details and preheat measurement positions. Pre-heat point A shall be 75 mm from the end of the excavation on the running surface. Pre-heat point B shall be at the full railhead flange height. Length of the sample C shall be 600 mm minimum.

Figure 1 — Position of preheat measurement and sample size The transverse excavation for trials shall be 100 % of the railhead width. SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 11

Key D depth of excavation S ≥ 5D L + 2S ≥ 200 mm Figure 2 — Excavation The dimension D shall be such that the surface of the final layer is level with the surface of the parent rail. 4.6.4 Single bead on rail tests 4.6.4.1 Purpose This test is used to demonstrate the consumable’s compatibility with welding of rail steel before carrying out further detailed tests. This deposition is without any excavation. 4.6.4.2 Description The sample shall be a minimum length of 600 mm in an appropriate grade of rail steel. The sample shall be lightly ground on the running surface to give a clean oxide-free finish. The sample shall be preheated in accordance with the pWPS and the position of pre-heat measurement in accordance with 4.6.3. For MMA only the deposit shall be made to maximum electrode recovery using the manufacturer’s parameters. 4.6.4.3 Deposit examination and assessment The deposit shall be cleaned removing all slag and spatter. Initially, the deposit shall be examined visually in the as-welded condition. Following visual examination the bead shall be ground until 0,5 mm – 0,8 mm remains above the rail surface. Following grinding the deposit shall be examined using visual and MT or PT methods. The deposit shall be assessed in accordance with 4.6.9. If the weld deposit fails MT or PT examination the test shall be terminated. The approval of this consumable for welding this grade shall be declined. SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 12 4.6.5 Single layer deposit on rail tests 4.6.5.1 Purpose The purpose of this test is to establish the effects of rail dilution on a single layer and to check the integrity of the deposit. 4.6.5.2 Description The sample shall be a minimum length of 600 mm long in an appropriate grade of steel. The rail shall be prepared in accordance with 4.6.3. For MMA only the length of the preparation shall be designed to use the full length of the electrode minus 80 mm. This length can be derived from the single bead deposit on rail. 4.6.5.3 Deposit examination and assessment The deposit shall be cleaned removing all slag and spatter and the surface checked using MT or PT methods. The deposit shall be sectioned, prepared and subjected to hardness testing and metallography in accordance with 4.6.8. All results shall be assessed in accordance with 4.6.9. If the weld deposit fails MT or PT examination the test shall be terminated. On completion, the rail shall be ground to rail head profile. 4.6.6 Multi-layer deposit on rail tests 4.6.6.1 Purpose The purpose of this test is to determine the integrity of the multi-layer weld metal on rail. 4.6.6.2 Description The sample shall be a minimum length of 600 mm long in an appropriate grade of steel. The rail shall be prepared in accordance with 4.6.3. For MMA the length of the preparation shall be designed to use the full length of the electrode minus 80 mm. This length can be derived from the single bead deposit on rail. On completion, the rail shall be ground to rail head profile and shall contain a minimum of five layers. 4.6.6.3 Deposit examination and assessment The deposit shall be cleaned removing all slag and spatter and the surface checked using MT or PT methods. The deposit shall be sectioned, prepared and subjected to hardness testing and metallography. All results shall be assessed in accordance with 4.6.9. In the event of MT or PT rejection the test shall be terminated. 4.6.7 Welder’s report from trials The following shall be recorded by the welder:  electrode running characteristics;  strike and re-strike capabilities;  fume levels; SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 13  slag and spatter detachability;  craters. 4.6.8 Preparation, examination and testing of samples 4.6.8.1 Number of cut specimens for examination There shall be one group of samples for single layer and one group for multi-layer weld deposits. Figure 3 shows the position of sections (thick lines) and location of hardness tests (stars). Arrows denote examination faces for macro/micro examinations.

Key 1 Length 100 mm minimum (there shall be 10 mm minimum of unwelded rail before bead start point). Depth shall be depth of excavation + 10 mm 2 Width shall be 20mm minimum. Depth shall be depth of excavation + 20 mm 3 Length 100 mm minimum (there shall be 10 mm minimum of unwelded rail after bead finish point). Depth shall be depth of excavation + 10 mm A Example of deposition technique Figure 3 — Positions of sections and location of hardness tests 4.6.8.2 Hardness testing of weld deposit and parent rail This applies to single layer and multi-layer deposits.  Surface hardness testing Test shall employ 3 x HBW 2,5/187,5 in weld deposit in accordance with EN ISO 6506-1. Sample 2 of Figure 3 denotes the position of HBW testing. The spacing of hardness impressions shall be 10 mm centres. Hardness shall be taken as an average of the three indentations.  Sub-surface hardness testing Sub-surface hardness testing shall be carried out on multi-layer deposits only, using the Vickers hardness testing method and HV10 load in accordance with EN ISO 6507-1. Impressions are to be taken along a line commencing 3 mm below the running surface on the central vertical axis of the rail and the hardness traverse shall continue into the unaffected parent rail. Spacing shall be 1,5 mm centres. The measurements obtained shall be recorded in graphical and numerical form. For this test it is permitted to use sample 2. SIST EN 15594:2009

EN 15594:2009 (E) 14 Figure 4 shows position of sub-surface hardness testing.

Figure 4 — Position of sub-surface hardness testing 4.6.8.3 Macro and Micro examination In preparation for examination, the sample shall be polished and then etched with a Nital-type solution, (2 % or 4 % nitric acid in alcohol). Other etching methods shall not be employed. 4.6.9 Acceptance criteria 4.6.9.1 Hardness Acceptance criteria for hardness are shown in Table 1. Table 1 — Hardness requirements for surface and sub-surface hardness testing Grade Position Single layer Multi-layer R200, R220, R260, R260Mn, R320Cr surface 380 max. HBW 290 HBW – 340 HBW sub-surface not applicable 400 HV10 max. R350HT surface 400 max. HBW 340 HBW – 390 HBW sub-surface not applicable 400 HV10 max.

SIST EN 15594:2009
EN 15594:2009 (E) 15 The same
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.