Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 4: Selection of tests for interactions with blood (ISO 10993-4:2017)

ISO 10993-4:2017 specifies general requirements for evaluating the interactions of medical devices with blood.
It describes
a) a classification of medical devices that are intended for use in contact with blood, based on the intended use and duration of contact as defined in ISO 10993‑1,
b) the fundamental principles governing the evaluation of the interaction of devices with blood,
c) the rationale for structured selection of tests according to specific categories, together with the principles and scientific basis of these tests.
Detailed requirements for testing cannot be specified because of limitations in the knowledge and precision of tests for evaluating interactions of devices with blood. This document describes biological evaluation in general terms and may not necessarily provide sufficient guidance for test methods for a specific device.
The changes in this document do not indicate that testing conducted according to prior versions of this document is invalid. For marketed devices with a history of safe clinical use, additional testing according to this revision is not recommended.

Biologische Beurteilung von Medizinprodukten - Teil 4: Auswahl von Prüfungen zur Wechselwirkung mit Blut (ISO 10993-4:2017)

Évaluation biologique des dispositifs médicaux - Partie 4: Choix des essais pour les interactions avec le sang (ISO 10993-4:2017)

ISO 10993-4:2017 spécifie des exigences générales pour l'évaluation des interactions des dispositifs médicaux avec le sang.
Il décrit les éléments suivants:
a) une classification des dispositifs médicaux destinés à être en contact avec le sang lors de leur utilisation, classification fondée sur l'utilisation prévue et la durée du contact définies dans l'ISO 10993‑1;
b) les principes fondamentaux qui gouvernent l'évaluation de l'interaction des dispositifs avec le sang;
c) la justification du choix des essais retenus selon les catégories, ainsi que les principes et la base scientifique de ces essais.
Les exigences détaillées pour les essais ne peuvent pas être spécifiées en raison de limites de connaissance et de précision des essais relatifs à l'évaluation des interactions des dispositifs avec le sang. Le présent document décrit l'évaluation biologique en termes généraux et il se peut qu'il ne fournisse pas nécessairement des préconisations suffisantes concernant les méthodes d'essai relatives à un dispositif spécifique.
Les modifications apportées au présent document ne signifient pas que les essais réalisés selon les versions précédentes sont invalides. Pour les dispositifs commercialisés dont l'utilisation clinique sûre est établie, il n'est pas recommandé de réaliser des essais supplémentaires selon la présente révision.

Biološko ovrednotenje medicinskih pripomočkov - 4. del: Izbira preskusov za ugotavljanje interakcij s krvjo (ISO 10993-4:2017)

Standard ISO 10993-4:2017 določa splošne zahteve za ovrednotenje interakcij medicinskih pripomočkov s krvjo.
Opisuje:
a) razvrstitev medicinskih pripomočkov, namenjenih za uporabo v stiku s krvjo, na podlagi predvidene uporabe in trajanja stika, kot je opredeljeno v standardu ISO 10993 1;
b) temeljna načela za ovrednotenje interakcije pripomočkov s krvjo;
c) utemeljitev strukturirane izbire preskusov v skladu s posebnimi kategorijami skupaj z načeli in znanstveno osnovo teh preskusov.
Podrobnih zahtev za preskušanje ni mogoče določiti zaradi omejitev pri poznavanju in natančnosti preskusov za ovrednotenje interakcij pripomočkov s krvjo. Ta dokument opisuje biološko ovrednotenje s splošnimi izrazi in morda ne podaja zadostnih smernic za preskusne metode za določen pripomoček.
Spremembe v tem dokumentu ne pomenijo, da so preskusi, opravljeni v skladu s prejšnjimi različicami tega dokumenta, neveljavni. Za tržene pripomočke z zgodovino varne klinične uporabe dodatno preskušanje v skladu s to revizijo ni priporočeno.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Dec-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
07-Nov-2017
Due Date
12-Jan-2018
Completion Date
14-Dec-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
01-januar-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2009
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2017
%LRORãNRRYUHGQRWHQMHPHGLFLQVNLKSULSRPRþNRYGHO,]ELUDSUHVNXVRY]D
XJRWDYOMDQMHLQWHUDNFLMVNUYMR ,62

Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 4: Selection of tests for interactions with

blood (ISO 10993-4:2017)
Biologische Beurteilung von Medizinprodukten - Teil 4: Auswahl von Prüfungen zur
Wechselwirkung mit Blut (ISO 10993-4:2017)

Évaluation biologique des dispositifs médicaux - Partie 4: Choix des essais pour les

interactions avec le sang (ISO 10993-4:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 10993-4:2017
ICS:
11.100.20 %LRORãNRRYUHGQRWHQMH Biological evaluation of
PHGLFLQVNLKSULSRPRþNRY medical devices
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 11.100.20 Supersedes EN ISO 10993-4:2009, EN ISO 10993-
4:2017
English Version
Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 4: Selection
of tests for interactions with blood (ISO 10993-4:2017)

Évaluation biologique des dispositifs médicaux - Partie Biologische Beurteilung von Medizinprodukten - Teil 4:

4: Choix des essais pour les interactions avec le sang Auswahl von Prüfungen zur Wechselwirkung mit Blut

(ISO 10993-4:2017) (ISO 10993-4:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 October 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 10993-4:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 93/42/EEC [OJ L 169] aimed to be covered ...................................... 5

Annex ZB (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 90/385/EEC [OJ L 189] aimed to be covered .................................... 7

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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 10993-4:2017 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 194 “Biological and

clinical evaluation of medical devices” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and

has been taken over as EN ISO 10993-4:2017 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 206 “Biological and

clinical evaluation of medical devices” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 10993-4:2009 and EN ISO 10993-4:2017.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directives.

For relationship with EU Directives, see informative Annex ZA and Annex ZB, which is an integral part

of this document.

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. However, for any use of this standard ‘within the

meaning of Annex ZA’, the user should always check that any referenced document has not been

superseded and that its relevant contents can still be considered the generally acknowledged state-of-

art.

When an IEC or ISO standard is referred to in the ISO standard text, this shall be understood as a

normative reference to the corresponding EN standard, if available, and otherwise to the dated version

of the ISO or IEC standard, as listed below.

NOTE 1 The way in which these referenced documents are cited in normative requirements determines the

extent (in whole or in part) to which they apply.

Table — Correlations between undated normative references and dated EN and ISO standards

Normative references Equivalent dated standard
as listed in Clause 2 of
EN ISO or IEC
the ISO standard
ISO 10993-1 EN ISO 10993-1:2009 ISO 10993-1:2009
ISO 10993-12 EN ISO 10993-12:2012 ISO 10993-12:2012

NOTE 2 This part of EN ISO 10993 refers to ISO 10993 1 which itself refers to ISO 14971. In Europe, it should

be assumed that the reference to ISO 14971 is to EN ISO 14971:2012.
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 10993-4:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 10993-4:2017 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the essential
requirements of Directive 93/42/EEC [OJ L 169] aimed to be covered

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s joint standardization request

M/BC/CEN/89/9 concerning harmonized standards relating to horizontal aspects in the field of medical

devices to provide one voluntary means of conforming to essential requirements of Council Directive

93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices [OJ L 169].

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.

NOTE 1 Where a reference from a clause of this standard to the risk management process is made, the risk

management process needs to be in compliance with Directive 93/42/EEC as amended by 2007/47/EC. This

means that risks have to be reduced ‘as far as possible’, ‘to a minimum’, ‘to the lowest possible level’, ‘minimized’

or ‘removed’, according to the wording of the corresponding essential requirement.

NOTE 2 The manufacturer’s policy for determining acceptable risk must be in compliance with Essential

Requirements 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12 of the Directive.

NOTE 3 This Annex ZA is based on normative references according to the table of references in the European

foreword, replacing the references in the core text.

NOTE 4 When an Essential Requirement does not appear in Table ZA.1, it means that it is not addressed by this

European Standard.
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)

Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and Annex I of Directive

93/42/EEC [OJ L 169]
Essential Requirements Clause(s)/subclause(s) Remarks/Notes
of of this EN
Directive 93/42/EEC
ER 7.1 (first indent) is only partly
covered by ISO 10993-4, since the
standard does not provide
requirements on design and
manufacture. However, this
standard does provide a means to
7.1 (First indent) 6.1
evaluate the compatibility of
medical devices and materials
intended for use in medical devices
with blood. Other forms of toxicity
and flammability are not dealt with
in this standard.
ER 7.1 (second indent) is only
partly covered by ISO 10993-4,
since the standard does not provide
requirements on design and
manufacture. However, this
7.1 (Second indent) 6.1
standard does provide a means to
evaluate the compatibility of
medical devices and materials
intended for use in medical devices
with blood.

General Note: Presumption of conformity depends on also complying with all relevant

clauses/subclauses of ISO 10993-1.

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this European

Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Users of this

standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the products falling within the scope of this

standard.
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)
Annex ZB
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the essential
requirements of Directive 90/385/EEC [OJ L 189] aimed to be covered

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s joint standardization request

M/BC/CEN/89/9 concerning harmonized standards relating to horizontal aspects in the field of medical

devices to provide one voluntary means of conforming to essential requirements of Council Directive

90/385/EEC of 20 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to active

implantable medical devices [OJ L 189].

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZB.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.

NOTE 1 Where a reference from a clause of this standard to the risk management process is made, the risk

management process needs to be in compliance with Directive 90/385/EEC as amended by 2007/47/EC. This

means that risks have to be reduced ‘as far as possible’, ‘to a minimum’, ‘to the lowest possible level’, ‘minimized’

or ‘removed’, according to the wording of the corresponding essential requirement.

NOTE 2 The manufacturer’s policy for determining acceptable risk must be in compliance with Essential

Requirements 1, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10 of the Directive.

NOTE 3 This Annex ZB is based on normative references according to the table of references in the European

foreword, replacing the references in the core text.

NOTE 4 When an Essential Requirement does not appear in Table ZB.1, it means that it is not addressed by this

European Standard.
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
EN ISO 10993-4:2017 (E)

Table ZB.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and Annex I of Directive

90/385/EEC [OJ L 189]
Essential Requirements of Clause(s)/subclause(s) Remarks/Notes
Directive 90/385/EEC of this EN
ER 9 (first indent) is only partly
covered by ISO 10993-4, since the
standard does not provide
requirements on design and
manufacture. However, this part of
ISO 10993 does specify test
9 (first indent) 6.1
methods for the assessment of the
compatibility of medical devices
and materials intended for use in
medical devices with blood. Other
forms of toxicity are not dealt with
in this standard.
ER 9 (second indent) is only partly
covered by ISO 10993-4, since the
standard does not provide
requirements on design and
manufacture. However, this
9 (second indent) 6.1
standard does provide a means to
evaluate the compatibility of
medical devices and materials
intended for use in medical devices
with blood.

General Note: Presumption of conformity depends on also complying with all relevant

clauses/subclauses of ISO 10993-1.

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this European

Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Users of this

standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the products falling within the scope of this

standard.
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10993-4
Third edition
2017-04
Biological evaluation of medical
devices —
Part 4:
Selection of tests for interactions
with blood
Évaluation biologique des dispositifs médicaux —
Partie 4: Choix des essais pour les interactions avec le sang
Reference number
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Types of devices in contact with blood (as categorized in ISO 10993-1) ..................................................5

5.1 Non-blood-contact devices ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 External communicating devices ............................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 External communicating devices that serve as an indirect blood path ............................ 5

5.2.3 External communicating devices directly contacting circulating blood .......................... 5

5.3 Implant devices ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Characterization of blood interactions ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Categories of tests and blood interactions ...................................................................................................................12

6.2.1 Recommended tests for interactions of devices with blood ...................................................12

6.2.2 Non-contact devices ...................................................................................................................................................13

6.2.3 External communicating devices and implant devices................................................................13

6.2.4 Limitations .........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Types of tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.1 In vitro tests .......................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.2 Ex vivo tests .......................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3.3 In vivo tests ........................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Preclinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices and prostheses .........................16

Annex B (informative) Recommended laboratory tests — Principles, scientific basis

and interpretation ...........................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex C (informative) Thrombosis — Methods for in vivo testing ....................................................................................32

Annex D (informative) Haematology/haemolysis — Methods for testing — Evaluation of

haemolytic properties of medical devices and medical device materials .............................................39

Annex E (informative) Complement — Methods for testing .....................................................................................................46

Annex F (informative) Less common laboratory tests ....................................................................................................................49

Annex G (informative) Tests which are not recommended ........................................................................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 194, Biological and clinical evaluation of

medical devices.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 10993-4:2002), which has been

technically revised.
It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 10993-4:2002/Amd 1:2006.
The following changes were made:
a) some definitions have been revised and new definitions have been added;

b) Tables 1 and 2 have been consolidated into a single new Table 1 with test categories and headers

reorganized to emphasize and include material and mechanical-induced haemolysis testing and in

vitro and in vivo testing for assessment of risk for thrombosis;

c) Tables 3 and 4 have been consolidated into a single new Table 2 with a simplified list of suggested

and most common tests;

d) Annex B has been updated to cover only the most common practiced tests for assessing blood

interactions;

e) Annex C has been added to cover the topic of in vivo thrombosis and methods for testing;

f) Annex D, which was Annex C in the previous edition, has been updated and now includes added

information on mechanically-induced haemolysis;

g) Annex E has been added to cover the topic of complement testing and best test method practices;

h) Annexes F and G have been added to present the less common tests used to assess interactions with

blood and the tests that are not recommended for preclinical assessment of medical device blood

interaction, respectively. Many of these methods were previously included in Annex B;

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
i) subtle language refinements can be found throughout the revised document;

j) the Bibliography has been reorganized by common subjects of interest and updated with additional

and more current references.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
Introduction

The selection and design of test methods for the interactions of medical devices with blood should take

into consideration device design, materials, clinical utility, usage environment and risk benefit. This

level of specificity can only be covered in vertical standards.

The initial source for developing this document was the publication, Guidelines for blood/material

[14]

interactions, Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute chapters 9 and 10. This

[15]
publication was subsequently revised .
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
Biological evaluation of medical devices —
Part 4:
Selection of tests for interactions with blood
1 Scope

This document specifies general requirements for evaluating the interactions of medical devices

with blood.
It describes

a) a classification of medical devices that are intended for use in contact with blood, based on the

intended use and duration of contact as defined in ISO 10993-1,

b) the fundamental principles governing the evaluation of the interaction of devices with blood,

c) the rationale for structured selection of tests according to specific categories, together with the

principles and scientific basis of these tests.

Detailed requirements for testing cannot be specified because of limitations in the knowledge and

precision of tests for evaluating interactions of devices with blood. This document describes biological

evaluation in general terms and may not necessarily provide sufficient guidance for test methods for a

specific device.

The changes in this document do not indicate that testing conducted according to prior versions of

this document is invalid. For marketed devices with a history of safe clinical use, additional testing

according to this revision is not recommended.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10993-1, Biological evaluation of medical devices — Part 1: Evaluation and testing within a risk

management process

ISO 10993-12, Biological evaluation of medical devices — Part 12: Sample preparation and reference

materials
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10993-1, ISO 10993-12 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 10993-4:2018
ISO 10993-4:2017(E)
3.1
anticoagulant
agent which prevents or delays blood coagulation
EXAMPLE Heparin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium citrate.
3.2
blood/device interaction
interaction between blood or a blood component and a device
3.3
coagulation

phenomenon that results from activation of the clotting (coagulation) factor cascade

Note 1 to entry: Factors of the coagulation cascade and fibrinolytic systems can be measured following exposure

to devices either in vitro or in vivo.
3.4
complement system

part of the innate immune system consisting of over 30 distinct plasma proteins, including enzymes,

cofactors, and cellular receptors which may be involved in the promotion of thrombosis

Note 1 to entry: Effector molecules produced from complement components are possible components in the

phenomena of inflammation, phagocytosis and cell lysis. Complement activation related to immunotoxicity,

hypersensitivity and generation of anaphylatoxins is not covered in this document. (See ISO/TR 10993-20.)

Note 2 to entry: The focus in this document is complement activation as it can promote and accelerate haemolysis,

platelet and leukocyte activation and thrombosis on device material surfaces. (See also Annex E on complement

activation.)
3.5
direct blood contact

term used when the device or device material comes into physical contact with blood or blood

constituents
3.6
embolization
process whereby a blood thrombus, or foreign object, is carried in
...

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