Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content -- Design, implementation and maintenance of terminology management systems

This International Standard specifies criteria for designing, implementing and maintaining terminology management systems (TMSs). This International Standard provides information about the rationale for using a TMS, types of users and users' needs, steps in designing and implementing a TMS, as well as the tasks of organizing and managing a terminological data collection (TDC). It also provides guidelines for selecting and using data categories for managing terminology in various environments. This International Standard is intended for terminologists, software developers and others who are involved in the process of developing or acquiring a TMS.

Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du contenu -- Conception, mise en oeuvre et maintenance des systèmes de gestion de la terminologie

Sistemi za upravljanje terminologije, znanja in vsebine - Zasnova, implementacija in vzdrževanje sistemov za upravljanje s terminologijo

Ta mednarodni standard določa merila za zasnovo, implementacijo in vzdrževanje sistemov za upravljanje s terminologijo (TMS). Ta mednarodni standard zagotavlja informacije o utemeljitvi uporabe vrst uporabnikov TMS in njihovih potreb, korakov pri zasnovi in implementaciji TMS ter nalog pri organizaciji in vzdrževanju zbirk terminoloških podatkov (TDC). Prav tako zagotavlja smernice za izbiro in uporabo podatkovnih kategorij za upravljanje s terminologijo v različnih okoljih. Ta mednarodni standard je namenjen terminologom, razvijalcem programske opreme in drugim, ki so vključeni v postopek razvoja ali pridobivanja TMS.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
11-Jun-2013
Withdrawal Date
31-Jan-2021
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Jan-2021
Due Date
21-Feb-2021
Completion Date
01-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 26162:2013
01-julij-2013

Sistemi za upravljanje terminologije, znanja in vsebine - Zasnova, implementacija

in vzdrževanje sistemov za upravljanje s terminologijo

Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content -- Design, implementation and

maintenance of terminology management systems
Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du contenu --

Conception, mise en oeuvre et maintenance des systèmes de gestion de la terminologie

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 26162:2012
ICS:
01.020 7HUPLQRORJLMD QDþHODLQ Terminology (principles and
NRRUGLQDFLMD coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 26162:2013 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 26162:2013
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 26162
First edition
2012-08-15
Systems to manage terminology,
knowledge and content — Design,
implementation and maintenance of
terminology management systems
Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du
contenu — Conception, mise en œuvre et maintenance des systèmes
de gestion de la terminologie
Reference number
ISO 26162:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ vi

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vii

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

3.1  Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2  Data categories ...................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3  Data modelling ....................................................................................................................................... 5

3.4  Applications ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4  Terminology management system (TMS) ........................................................................................... 7

4.1  General description ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.2  Purchased or self-programmed TMS .................................................................................................. 8

4.3  Predefined or freely definable TMS ..................................................................................................... 8

4.4  Desktop, client-server or Web-based TMS ......................................................................................... 8

4.5  Stand-alone, integrated or combined TMS ......................................................................................... 8

4.6  Monolingual, bilingual or multilingual TMS ........................................................................................ 9

4.7  Database or structured text TMS ......................................................................................................... 9

4.8  Single-database or multiple-database TMS ........................................................................................ 9

5  Project phases ....................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1  Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2  Pre-feasibility study ............................................................................................................................ 10

5.3  Feasibility study .................................................................................................................................. 10

5.4  Use-case analysis ................................................................................................................................ 10

5.5  System requirements .......................................................................................................................... 10

5.6  Cost-effectiveness ............................................................................................................................... 11

5.7  System design ..................................................................................................................................... 11

5.8  System development ........................................................................................................................... 11

5.9  System deployment ............................................................................................................................. 11

5.10  System test .......................................................................................................................................... 12

5.11  TMS population, use, and maintenance ............................................................................................ 12

6  User-centred design ............................................................................................................................ 12

6.1  Basic procedures ................................................................................................................................ 12

6.2  Steps in a user-centred approach ..................................................................................................... 13

6.3  Identifying the users and their needs ................................................................................................ 13

6.4  Identifying the output products ......................................................................................................... 16

6.5  Performing a task analysis and preparing use cases ..................................................................... 16

6.6  Identifying and prioritizing requirements ......................................................................................... 18

6.7  Conducting a competitive evaluation ................................................................................................ 19

6.8  Designing and evaluating a prototype .............................................................................................. 19

6.9  Adjusting the design to user feedback ............................................................................................. 19

6.10  Performing a beta assessment .......................................................................................................... 19

7  Terminological data categories ......................................................................................................... 19

7.1  Introduction to data categories .......................................................................................................... 19

7.2  Principles for selecting and using data categories ......................................................................... 20

7.3  Types of data categories .................................................................................................................... 23

7.4  Data entry structures .......................................................................................................................... 26

7.5  Selecting data categories ................................................................................................................... 26

7.6  Translation-specific data categories ................................................................................................. 27

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)

7.7  Prescriptive data categories ...............................................................................................................27

7.8  Workflow-related data categories ......................................................................................................27

7.9  Standardized data category names and data category concepts ..................................................27

8  Data modelling .....................................................................................................................................28

8.1  The terminological metamodel ...........................................................................................................28

8.2  Data modelling for concept orientation .............................................................................................29

8.3  Application-oriented approaches .......................................................................................................32

8.4  Data modelling examples ....................................................................................................................33

8.5  Accounting for legacy data .................................................................................................................39

9  Implementing the TMS ........................................................................................................................40

10  Deploying the TMS...............................................................................................................................41

10.1  Deployment activities ..........................................................................................................................41

10.2  Preparing documentation, help, and educational materials ...........................................................41

10.3  Providing support and maintenance .................................................................................................42

10.4  Meeting stakeholder dependencies ...................................................................................................42

10.5  Announcing and promoting the TMS .................................................................................................42

10.6  Delivering the TMS...............................................................................................................................42

10.7  Providing training ................................................................................................................................42

10.8  Measuring user satisfaction ...............................................................................................................42

11  User interfaces .....................................................................................................................................43

11.1  Designing the user interface ..............................................................................................................43

11.2  Displaying terminological data categories .......................................................................................43

11.3  Displaying and arranging terminological entries .............................................................................44

12  Inputting and editing data ...................................................................................................................47

12.1  Manually inputting data .......................................................................................................................47

12.2  Importing data ......................................................................................................................................51

12.3  Editing data ..........................................................................................................................................52

12.4  Validating data .....................................................................................................................................52

12.5  Automatically generating or modifying data ....................................................................................53

12.6  Adding cross-references ....................................................................................................................53

12.7  Adding multimedia files ......................................................................................................................53

13  Search functions ..................................................................................................................................54

13.1  Database search features ...................................................................................................................54

13.2  Searching for a term ............................................................................................................................55

13.3  Searching by concept number or characteristics ............................................................................55

13.4  Complex filtering and searching ........................................................................................................56

13.5  Searching in text fields .......................................................................................................................56

13.6  Brow sing ...............................................................................................................................................56

14  Data output ...........................................................................................................................................56

14.1  Types of data output ...........................................................................................................................56

14.2  Displaying search results ...................................................................................................................56

14.3  Sorting ..................................................................................................................................................57

14.4  Printouts ...............................................................................................................................................58

14.5  Exporting the data to a file ..................................................................................................................61

14.6  Exporting data for other applications ................................................................................................61

15  Organizing and administering the TMS .............................................................................................61

15.1  Creating a management plan ..............................................................................................................61

15.2  Importance of data flow management ...............................................................................................62

15.3  Changing the data model ....................................................................................................................62

15.4  Providing for data security .................................................................................................................62

15.5  Controlling access ...............................................................................................................................63

15.6  Supporting an interchange format .....................................................................................................63

15.7  Staffing the TMS ...................................................................................................................................64

15.8  Controlling costs and managing resources .....................................................................................64

Annex A (informative) Case studies: Data categories and data modelling .................................................66

iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 69

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 26162 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 3, Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content.

vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)
Introduction

Terminological data are collected, managed and stored in a wide variety of terminology management

systems (TMSs). TMSs employ a variety of database management systems, ranging from personal computer

applications for individual users to client server applications or Web-based applications operated by major

companies and governmental agencies. Terminological data collections (TDCs) are based on various kinds of

data models and consist of different sets of data categories (Data Category Selections, DCSs). To facilitate

co-operation and to prevent duplication of work, it is important to develop standards and guidelines for

creating and using TDCs as well as for sharing and exchanging data.

ISO/TC 37 has published the following standards in order to facilitate the exchange of terminological data and

to create an integrated approach to be used in analysing an existing TDC and in designing new ones: ISO 704,

ISO 12620, ISO 16642.

Having some acquaintance with these documents before reading this International Standard would be

beneficial.

This International Standard gives guidance on choosing the relevant data categories, as well as designing and

implementing a data model and a user interface for a TMS, taking into account the intended user group. The

guidelines described in this International Standard are indispensable for the successful development of a TMS

and for avoiding costly errors. This International Standard may be used for choosing the appropriate TMS for

a certain purpose.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26162:2012(E)
Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content —
Design, implementation and maintenance of terminology
management systems
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies criteria for designing, implementing and maintaining terminology

management systems (TMSs).

This International Standard provides information about the rationale for using a TMS, types of users and

users' needs, steps in designing and implementing a TMS, as well as the tasks of organizing and managing a

terminological data collection (TDC). It also provides guidelines for selecting and using data categories for

managing terminology in various environments.

This International Standard is intended for terminologists, software developers and others who are involved in

the process of developing or acquiring a TMS.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 12620, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data categories and

management of a Data Category Registry for language resources
ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminology markup framework

ISO 30042, Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content — TermBase eXchange (TBX)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 Resources
3.1.1
terminological resource
terminological data collection
TDC
text or data resource consisting of terminological entries (3.1.4)
NOTE Adapted from ISO 24613:2008.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)
3.1.2
terminology management system
TMS

software tool specifically designed for collecting, maintaining, and accessing terminological data

3.1.3
terminological database
TDB
termbase
database comprising a terminological resource (3.1.1)
3.1.4
terminological entry

part of a terminological resource (3.1.1) that contains the terminological data related to one concept

NOTE Adapted from ISO 1087-2, 2.22. The abbreviated term has been added.
3.1.5
concept orientation

principle applied to terminology management whereby a terminological entry (3.1.4) describes one and only

one concept or two or more quasi-equivalent concepts (3.1.7)

NOTE A concept-oriented entry can contain multiple terms, which are therefore considered semantically equivalent.

3.1.6
equivalent concept

concept in one language that comprises the same characteristics as that covered by a given concept in

another language
3.1.7
quasi-equivalent concept
nearly equivalent concept

concept in one language that shares most but not all characteristics with a concept in another language, but

that is nevertheless used as an equivalent for that concept in some contexts
3.1.8
entailed term

term used in a text field such as the /definition/ or /context/ that designates a concept that is defined in another

terminological entry (3.1.4) in the same terminological resource (3.1.1)
3.1.9
doublette
terminological entry (3.1.4) that describes the same concept as another entry

NOTE Doublettes are normally detected by TMS by identifying two terms having the same form; however, doublettes

are determined based on identical concepts, not on identical terms. Doublettes should not be confused with homographs.

3.1.10
concept system
set of concepts structured according to the relationships among them
[ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.11]
3.1.11
concept diagram
graphic representation of a concept system (3.1.10)
[ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.12]
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)
3.1.12
legacy data

terminological data that are available in an existing file or database, and that are considered for importation

into a TMS (3.1.2)

NOTE Legacy data may be in the form of previously used databases, word-processing files, comma-delimited text

files, SGML, HTML, or XML files, and the like. Conversion of such data to a format that will be compatible with a new TMS

can pose serious challenges.
3.1.13
term
word, or several words, that denote a concept
EXAMPLES “Olympics” and “special Olympics” are two terms in the field of sports.

NOTE 1 When the word or words can denote more than one concept, each word/concept pair is a separate term. For

example, “port” (shelter for boats) and “port” (computer connection point) are two different terms.

NOTE 2 In terminology theory, terms denote concepts in specific subject fields, and words from the general lexicon are

not considered to be terms. In a TDC, however, words from the general lexicon are sometimes recorded in terminological

entries, where they are still referred to as “terms”.
3.2 Data categories
3.2.1
data category
result of the specification of a data field
[ISO 1087-2:2000, 6.14]
3.2.2
data element
unit of data that, in a certain context, is considered indivisible
[ISO 1087-2:2000, 6.11]
3.2.3
data granularity
degree of precision of data

NOTE For example, the set of individual data categories (3.2.1) /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and

/grammatical number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

3.2.4
data elementarity
principle whereby a single data field shall contain only one item of information

NOTE For example, including both a full form and an abbreviation in the same field would be a violation of the

principle of data elementarity.
3.2.5
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms in a terminological entry (3.1.4) can be described by using the same set of data

categories (3.2.1)
3.2.6
Data Category Registry
DCR

set of standardized data categories (3.2.1) to be used as a reference for the definition of linguistic annotation

schemes or any other formats in the domain of language resources
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.2.1]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)

NOTE The ISO/TC 37 DCR contains data category specifications (3.2.7), which include historical, descriptive, and

administrative information and other metadata.
3.2.7
data category specification
set of attributes used to fully describe a given data category (3.2.1)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.2.2]
NOTE The abbreviation DCS refers to Data Category Selection (3.2.8).
3.2.8
Data Category Selection
DCS
set of data categories (3.2.1) selected from the Data Category Registry (3.2.6)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.2.3]
3.2.9
complex data category
data category (3.2.1) that has a conceptual domain (3.2.11)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.7]
3.2.10
open data category

complex data category (3.2.9) whose conceptual domain (3.2.11) is not restricted to an enumerated set of

values
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.8]
3.2.11
conceptual domain
set of valid value meanings (3.2.14)
NOTE 1 Based on ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.3.6.

NOTE 2 The value meanings in a conceptual domain may be enumerated, further specified by additional constraints or

expressed via a description. For instance, the data category (3.2.1) /term/ is described by its definition and thus

constrained from properly containing, for example, contextual information or grammatical information, but it would be

impossible to enumerate all values associated with this data category.
3.2.12
closed data category

complex data category (3.2.9) whose conceptual domain (3.2.11) is restricted to a set of identified simple

data categories (3.2.13)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.13]
3.2.13
simple data category
data category (3.2.1) with no conceptual domain (3.2.11)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.12]
3.2.14
value meaning
meaning or semantic content of a value
[ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.3.39]
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162:2013
ISO 26162:2012(E)

NOTE ISO/TC 37 treats enumerated values as simple data categories, that is, as data categories in their own right.

The meaning of a value is always viewed in the context of the overall value domain and the closed data category with

which it is associated, and
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 26162
First edition
2012-08-15
Systems to manage terminology,
knowledge and content — Design,
implementation and maintenance of
terminology management systems
Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du
contenu — Conception, mise en œuvre et maintenance des systèmes
de gestion de la terminologie
Reference number
ISO 26162:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 26162:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 26162:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ vi

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vii

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

3.1  Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2  Data categories ...................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3  Data modelling ....................................................................................................................................... 5

3.4  Applications ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4  Terminology management system (TMS) ........................................................................................... 7

4.1  General description ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.2  Purchased or self-programmed TMS .................................................................................................. 8

4.3  Predefined or freely definable TMS ..................................................................................................... 8

4.4  Desktop, client-server or Web-based TMS ......................................................................................... 8

4.5  Stand-alone, integrated or combined TMS ......................................................................................... 8

4.6  Monolingual, bilingual or multilingual TMS ........................................................................................ 9

4.7  Database or structured text TMS ......................................................................................................... 9

4.8  Single-database or multiple-database TMS ........................................................................................ 9

5  Project phases ....................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1  Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2  Pre-feasibility study ............................................................................................................................ 10

5.3  Feasibility study .................................................................................................................................. 10

5.4  Use-case analysis ................................................................................................................................ 10

5.5  System requirements .......................................................................................................................... 10

5.6  Cost-effectiveness ............................................................................................................................... 11

5.7  System design ..................................................................................................................................... 11

5.8  System development ........................................................................................................................... 11

5.9  System deployment ............................................................................................................................. 11

5.10  System test .......................................................................................................................................... 12

5.11  TMS population, use, and maintenance ............................................................................................ 12

6  User-centred design ............................................................................................................................ 12

6.1  Basic procedures ................................................................................................................................ 12

6.2  Steps in a user-centred approach ..................................................................................................... 13

6.3  Identifying the users and their needs ................................................................................................ 13

6.4  Identifying the output products ......................................................................................................... 16

6.5  Performing a task analysis and preparing use cases ..................................................................... 16

6.6  Identifying and prioritizing requirements ......................................................................................... 18

6.7  Conducting a competitive evaluation ................................................................................................ 19

6.8  Designing and evaluating a prototype .............................................................................................. 19

6.9  Adjusting the design to user feedback ............................................................................................. 19

6.10  Performing a beta assessment .......................................................................................................... 19

7  Terminological data categories ......................................................................................................... 19

7.1  Introduction to data categories .......................................................................................................... 19

7.2  Principles for selecting and using data categories ......................................................................... 20

7.3  Types of data categories .................................................................................................................... 23

7.4  Data entry structures .......................................................................................................................... 26

7.5  Selecting data categories ................................................................................................................... 26

7.6  Translation-specific data categories ................................................................................................. 27

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 26162:2012(E)

7.7  Prescriptive data categories ...............................................................................................................27

7.8  Workflow-related data categories ......................................................................................................27

7.9  Standardized data category names and data category concepts ..................................................27

8  Data modelling .....................................................................................................................................28

8.1  The terminological metamodel ...........................................................................................................28

8.2  Data modelling for concept orientation .............................................................................................29

8.3  Application-oriented approaches .......................................................................................................32

8.4  Data modelling examples ....................................................................................................................33

8.5  Accounting for legacy data .................................................................................................................39

9  Implementing the TMS ........................................................................................................................40

10  Deploying the TMS...............................................................................................................................41

10.1  Deployment activities ..........................................................................................................................41

10.2  Preparing documentation, help, and educational materials ...........................................................41

10.3  Providing support and maintenance .................................................................................................42

10.4  Meeting stakeholder dependencies ...................................................................................................42

10.5  Announcing and promoting the TMS .................................................................................................42

10.6  Delivering the TMS...............................................................................................................................42

10.7  Providing training ................................................................................................................................42

10.8  Measuring user satisfaction ...............................................................................................................42

11  User interfaces .....................................................................................................................................43

11.1  Designing the user interface ..............................................................................................................43

11.2  Displaying terminological data categories .......................................................................................43

11.3  Displaying and arranging terminological entries .............................................................................44

12  Inputting and editing data ...................................................................................................................47

12.1  Manually inputting data .......................................................................................................................47

12.2  Importing data ......................................................................................................................................51

12.3  Editing data ..........................................................................................................................................52

12.4  Validating data .....................................................................................................................................52

12.5  Automatically generating or modifying data ....................................................................................53

12.6  Adding cross-references ....................................................................................................................53

12.7  Adding multimedia files ......................................................................................................................53

13  Search functions ..................................................................................................................................54

13.1  Database search features ...................................................................................................................54

13.2  Searching for a term ............................................................................................................................55

13.3  Searching by concept number or characteristics ............................................................................55

13.4  Complex filtering and searching ........................................................................................................56

13.5  Searching in text fields .......................................................................................................................56

13.6  Brow sing ...............................................................................................................................................56

14  Data output ...........................................................................................................................................56

14.1  Types of data output ...........................................................................................................................56

14.2  Displaying search results ...................................................................................................................56

14.3  Sorting ..................................................................................................................................................57

14.4  Printouts ...............................................................................................................................................58

14.5  Exporting the data to a file ..................................................................................................................61

14.6  Exporting data for other applications ................................................................................................61

15  Organizing and administering the TMS .............................................................................................61

15.1  Creating a management plan ..............................................................................................................61

15.2  Importance of data flow management ...............................................................................................62

15.3  Changing the data model ....................................................................................................................62

15.4  Providing for data security .................................................................................................................62

15.5  Controlling access ...............................................................................................................................63

15.6  Supporting an interchange format .....................................................................................................63

15.7  Staffing the TMS ...................................................................................................................................64

15.8  Controlling costs and managing resources .....................................................................................64

Annex A (informative) Case studies: Data categories and data modelling .................................................66

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ISO 26162:2012(E)

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 69

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ISO 26162:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 26162 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 3, Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content.

vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 26162:2012(E)
Introduction

Terminological data are collected, managed and stored in a wide variety of terminology management

systems (TMSs). TMSs employ a variety of database management systems, ranging from personal computer

applications for individual users to client server applications or Web-based applications operated by major

companies and governmental agencies. Terminological data collections (TDCs) are based on various kinds of

data models and consist of different sets of data categories (Data Category Selections, DCSs). To facilitate

co-operation and to prevent duplication of work, it is important to develop standards and guidelines for

creating and using TDCs as well as for sharing and exchanging data.

ISO/TC 37 has published the following standards in order to facilitate the exchange of terminological data and

to create an integrated approach to be used in analysing an existing TDC and in designing new ones: ISO 704,

ISO 12620, ISO 16642.

Having some acquaintance with these documents before reading this International Standard would be

beneficial.

This International Standard gives guidance on choosing the relevant data categories, as well as designing and

implementing a data model and a user interface for a TMS, taking into account the intended user group. The

guidelines described in this International Standard are indispensable for the successful development of a TMS

and for avoiding costly errors. This International Standard may be used for choosing the appropriate TMS for

a certain purpose.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26162:2012(E)
Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content —
Design, implementation and maintenance of terminology
management systems
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies criteria for designing, implementing and maintaining terminology

management systems (TMSs).

This International Standard provides information about the rationale for using a TMS, types of users and

users' needs, steps in designing and implementing a TMS, as well as the tasks of organizing and managing a

terminological data collection (TDC). It also provides guidelines for selecting and using data categories for

managing terminology in various environments.

This International Standard is intended for terminologists, software developers and others who are involved in

the process of developing or acquiring a TMS.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 12620, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data categories and

management of a Data Category Registry for language resources
ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminology markup framework

ISO 30042, Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content — TermBase eXchange (TBX)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 Resources
3.1.1
terminological resource
terminological data collection
TDC
text or data resource consisting of terminological entries (3.1.4)
NOTE Adapted from ISO 24613:2008.
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ISO 26162:2012(E)
3.1.2
terminology management system
TMS

software tool specifically designed for collecting, maintaining, and accessing terminological data

3.1.3
terminological database
TDB
termbase
database comprising a terminological resource (3.1.1)
3.1.4
terminological entry

part of a terminological resource (3.1.1) that contains the terminological data related to one concept

NOTE Adapted from ISO 1087-2, 2.22. The abbreviated term has been added.
3.1.5
concept orientation

principle applied to terminology management whereby a terminological entry (3.1.4) describes one and only

one concept or two or more quasi-equivalent concepts (3.1.7)

NOTE A concept-oriented entry can contain multiple terms, which are therefore considered semantically equivalent.

3.1.6
equivalent concept

concept in one language that comprises the same characteristics as that covered by a given concept in

another language
3.1.7
quasi-equivalent concept
nearly equivalent concept

concept in one language that shares most but not all characteristics with a concept in another language, but

that is nevertheless used as an equivalent for that concept in some contexts
3.1.8
entailed term

term used in a text field such as the /definition/ or /context/ that designates a concept that is defined in another

terminological entry (3.1.4) in the same terminological resource (3.1.1)
3.1.9
doublette
terminological entry (3.1.4) that describes the same concept as another entry

NOTE Doublettes are normally detected by TMS by identifying two terms having the same form; however, doublettes

are determined based on identical concepts, not on identical terms. Doublettes should not be confused with homographs.

3.1.10
concept system
set of concepts structured according to the relationships among them
[ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.11]
3.1.11
concept diagram
graphic representation of a concept system (3.1.10)
[ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.12]
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ISO 26162:2012(E)
3.1.12
legacy data

terminological data that are available in an existing file or database, and that are considered for importation

into a TMS (3.1.2)

NOTE Legacy data may be in the form of previously used databases, word-processing files, comma-delimited text

files, SGML, HTML, or XML files, and the like. Conversion of such data to a format that will be compatible with a new TMS

can pose serious challenges.
3.1.13
term
word, or several words, that denote a concept
EXAMPLES “Olympics” and “special Olympics” are two terms in the field of sports.

NOTE 1 When the word or words can denote more than one concept, each word/concept pair is a separate term. For

example, “port” (shelter for boats) and “port” (computer connection point) are two different terms.

NOTE 2 In terminology theory, terms denote concepts in specific subject fields, and words from the general lexicon are

not considered to be terms. In a TDC, however, words from the general lexicon are sometimes recorded in terminological

entries, where they are still referred to as “terms”.
3.2 Data categories
3.2.1
data category
result of the specification of a data field
[ISO 1087-2:2000, 6.14]
3.2.2
data element
unit of data that, in a certain context, is considered indivisible
[ISO 1087-2:2000, 6.11]
3.2.3
data granularity
degree of precision of data

NOTE For example, the set of individual data categories (3.2.1) /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and

/grammatical number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

3.2.4
data elementarity
principle whereby a single data field shall contain only one item of information

NOTE For example, including both a full form and an abbreviation in the same field would be a violation of the

principle of data elementarity.
3.2.5
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms in a terminological entry (3.1.4) can be described by using the same set of data

categories (3.2.1)
3.2.6
Data Category Registry
DCR

set of standardized data categories (3.2.1) to be used as a reference for the definition of linguistic annotation

schemes or any other formats in the domain of language resources
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.2.1]
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ISO 26162:2012(E)

NOTE The ISO/TC 37 DCR contains data category specifications (3.2.7), which include historical, descriptive, and

administrative information and other metadata.
3.2.7
data category specification
set of attributes used to fully describe a given data category (3.2.1)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.2.2]
NOTE The abbreviation DCS refers to Data Category Selection (3.2.8).
3.2.8
Data Category Selection
DCS
set of data categories (3.2.1) selected from the Data Category Registry (3.2.6)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.2.3]
3.2.9
complex data category
data category (3.2.1) that has a conceptual domain (3.2.11)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.7]
3.2.10
open data category

complex data category (3.2.9) whose conceptual domain (3.2.11) is not restricted to an enumerated set of

values
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.8]
3.2.11
conceptual domain
set of valid value meanings (3.2.14)
NOTE 1 Based on ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.3.6.

NOTE 2 The value meanings in a conceptual domain may be enumerated, further specified by additional constraints or

expressed via a description. For instance, the data category (3.2.1) /term/ is described by its definition and thus

constrained from properly containing, for example, contextual information or grammatical information, but it would be

impossible to enumerate all values associated with this data category.
3.2.12
closed data category

complex data category (3.2.9) whose conceptual domain (3.2.11) is restricted to a set of identified simple

data categories (3.2.13)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.13]
3.2.13
simple data category
data category (3.2.1) with no conceptual domain (3.2.11)
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.1.12]
3.2.14
value meaning
meaning or semantic content of a value
[ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.3.39]
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ISO 26162:2012(E)

NOTE ISO/TC 37 treats enumerated values as simple data categories, that is, as data categories in their own right.

The meaning of a value is always viewed in the context of the overall value domain and the closed data category with

which it is associated, and is not just a property of the domain value itself.
3.2.15
value domain
set of permissible values (3.2.16)
[ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.3.38]
3.2.16
permissible value

expression of a value meaning (3.2.14) allowed in a specific value domain (3.2.15)

[ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.3.28]
3.2.17
thematic domain

class of applications identified by the similarity of the data structures they need to manipulate

[ISO 12620:2009, 3.4.3]
EXAMPLES Terminology, lexicography, morphosyntactic annotation.
3.2.18
thematic domain profile
profile

representation within a data category specification (3.2.7) of the thematic domain (3.2.17) with which a

data category (3.2.1) is associated
[ISO 12620:2009, 3.4.4]

NOTE A data category may have several thematic domain profiles, indicating that it is used by several thematic

domains.
3.3 Data modelling
3.3.1
data model

graphical and/or lexical representation of data, specifying their properties, structure and inter-relationships

[ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.2.7]
3.3.2
data modelling

process of structuring and organizing data, typically for implementation in a database management system

3.3.3
data modelling variance

variation in the assignment of data categories (3.2.1) to data models as a result of differences in philosophy

with respect to the ordering of information in the terminological entry (3.1.4)
3.3.4
metamodel
data mod
...

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