Railway applications - Suspension components - Helical suspension springs, steel

This standard gives guidance for: - design, - specification of technical and quality requirements, - the approval procedure and quality surveillance of production methods, - the examinations and tests to be carried out, - the delivery conditions.

Bahnanwendungen - Federungselemente - Schraubendruckfedern aus Stahl

Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Schraubendruckfedern als Federelemente von Schienenfahrzeugen.
Sie gilt insbesonders für zylindrische Druckfedern aus runden Stahl-Stäben mit konstantem Durchmesser und konstanter Federsteigung.
Sie gilt ebenfalls für Schraubendruckfedern mit anderen Formen (z. B. konisch und/oder nicht konstanter Steigung der Windung und/oder Stäben mit anderen Querschnitten, usw.).
Diese Europäische Norm gibt Anleitung zu folgenden Gebieten:
3 Konstruktion;
3 Spezifikation technischer und qualitativer Anforderungen;
3 Genehmigungsverfahren und Qualitätssicherung von Fertigungsverfahren;
3 auszuführende Prüfungen und Versuche;
Lieferbedingungen.

Applications ferroviaires - Eléments de suspension - Ressorts de compression hélicoidaux, en acier

La présente norme donne des directives pour: - la conception, - la définition des exigences techniques et qualitatives, - la procédure d'homologation et surveillance de la qualité des méthodes de production, - les vérifications et essais a effectuer, - les conditions de livraison.

Železniške naprave – Vzmetenje – Vijačna, tlačna vzmet iz jekla

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-May-2004
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Jun-2004
Due Date
01-Jun-2004
Completion Date
01-Jun-2004

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Bahnanwendungen - Federungselemente - Schraubendruckfedern aus StahlApplications ferroviaires - Eléments de suspension - Ressorts de compression hélicoidaux, en acierRailway applications - Suspension components - Helical suspension springs, steel45.060.01Železniška vozila na splošnoRailway rolling stock in general21.160VzmetiSpringsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13298:2003SIST EN 13298:2004en01-junij-2004SIST EN 13298:2004SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 13298:2004

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 13298March 2003ICS 21.160; 45.060.01English versionRailway applications - Suspension components - Helicalsuspension springs, steelApplications ferroviaires - Eléments de suspension -Ressorts de compression hélicoïdaux, en acierBahnanwendungen - Federungselemente - Schrauben-Druckfedern aus StahlThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 November 2002.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UnitedKingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2003 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 13298:2003 ESIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)2ContentspageForeword......................................................................................................................................................................41Scope..............................................................................................................................................................52Normative references....................................................................................................................................53Terms, symbols, units and their abbreviations..........................................................................................63.1Terms..............................................................................................................................................................63.2Symbols, units and their abbreviations.......................................................................................................73.3Definition of the geometrical characteristics..............................................................................................94Classification of the product......................................................................................................................105Requirements...............................................................................................................................................105.1Service conditions.......................................................................................................................................105.2Functional requirements.............................................................................................................................105.3Essential requirements...............................................................................................................................166Product specification..................................................................................................................................176.1Technical specification...............................................................................................................................176.2Design characteristics.................................................................................................................................186.3Material..........................................................................................................................................................196.4Mechanical characteristics of the spring..................................................................................................206.5Surface protection.......................................................................................................................................217Test methods................................................................................................................................................217.1General..........................................................................................................................................................217.2Axial force-deflection testing......................................................................................................................217.3Transverse stiffness test.............................................................................................................................227.4Test of free transverse deflection..............................................................................................................247.5Test of geometrical characteristics...........................................................................................................247.6Test of general and essential requirements..............................................................................................257.7Mechanical requirements............................................................................................................................267.8Surface protection.......................................................................................................................................268Quality of the product..................................................................................................................................278.1General..........................................................................................................................................................278.2Product qualification procedures and samples........................................................................................278.3Control and monitoring of production quality..........................................................................................288.4Final acceptance requirements..................................................................................................................298.5Non conformity.............................................................................................................................................309Marking.........................................................................................................................................................3110Packaging.....................................................................................................................................................31Annex A (normative)

Helical cylindrical compression springs with constant inclination, formed fromcylindrical steel bars and featuring formed and ground ends................................................................32A.1Object............................................................................................................................................................32A.2Inner and outer diameters...........................................................................................................................32A.3Ends of the spring.......................................................................................................................................33A.4Contact line...................................................................................................................................................33A.5Geometrical tolerances...............................................................................................................................33A.6Distance between the coils.........................................................................................................................35Annex B (normative)

Materials for hot formed and treated helical suspension springs..................................38B.1General..........................................................................................................................................................38B.2Material for helical suspension springs, steel..........................................................................................38SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)3Annex C (normative)

Repeatability of prestressing by means of shot peening................................................39C.1Object............................................................................................................................................................39C.2Check of the intensity..................................................................................................................................39C.3Check of the covering.................................................................................................................................42Annex D (normative)

Examination for inclusions.................................................................................................43D.1Object............................................................................................................................................................43D.2Test methods................................................................................................................................................43Annex E (normative)

Magnetic detection of surface imperfections of helical springs formed fromcylindrical steel bars...................................................................................................................................45E.1Object............................................................................................................................................................45E.2Methods........................................................................................................................................................45E.3Special precautions.....................................................................................................................................45Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................46SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)4ForewordThis document (EN 13298:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 "Railway Applications"the secretariat of which is held by DIN.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text orby endorsement, at the latest by September 2003, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at thelatest by September 2003.In this European Standard the annexes A to E are normative.The preparation of this European Standard started in early 1992 with the aim to integrate the existing documentssuch as UIC 822 (International Union of Railways) and internal documents of various railway companies into aconcise standard.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the followingcountries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)51 ScopeThis European Standard is applicable to helical steel suspension springs used in the suspension of rail vehicles.It deals specially with cylindrical compression springs made from round section steel bars of constant diameter andwith constant inclination of coiling.It deals also with helical springs with different shapes (e.g. conical and/or inclination of coiling not constant and/orsteel bar with other cross sections, etc.).This standard gives guidance for:¾ design;¾ specification of technical and quality requirements;¾ the approval procedure and quality assurance of production methods;¾ the examinations and tests to be carried out;¾ the delivery conditions.2 Normative referencesThis European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. Fordated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this EuropeanStandard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of thepublication referred to applies (including amendments).EN 473, Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of NDT personnel – General principles.EN 10002-1, Metallic materials – Tensile testing – Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature.EN 10045-1, Metallic materials – Charpy impact test – Part 1: Test methods.EN 10083-1, Quenched and tempered steels – Part 1: Technical delivery conditions of special steels.EN 10228-1, Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Part 1: Magnetic particle inspection.prEN 10089:1998, Hot-rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs – Technical delivery conditions.EN ISO 2162-1:1996, Technical product documentation – Springs – Part 1: Simplified representation (ISO 2162-1:1993).EN ISO 2162-2:1996, Technical product documentation – Springs – Part 2: Presentation of data for cylindricalhelical compression springs (ISO 2162-2:1996).EN ISO 2162-3, Technical product documentation – Springs – Part: 3 Vocabulary (ISO 2162-3:1996).EN ISO 4288, Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) – Surface texture: Profile method - Rules and proceduresfor the assessment of surface texture (ISO 4288:1996).EN ISO 10289, Methods for corrosion testing of metallic and other inorganic coatings on metallic substrates –Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subjected to corrosion tests (ISO 10289:1999).SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)6EN ISO 14284, Steel and iron – Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemicalcomposition (ISO 14284:1996).ISO 4967:1998, Steel – Determination of content of non-metallic inclusions – Micrographic method using standarddiagrams.ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres – Salt spray tests.ISO/TR 10108, Steel – Conversion of hardness values to tensile strength values.ISO 10209-1, Technical product documentation – Vocabulary – Part 1: Terms relating to technical drawings:general and types of drawings (ISO 10209-1:1992).EURONORM 103, Iron and steel - Macrographic determination of the ferritic or austenitic grain size of steels.EURONORM 104, Determination of the decarburization depth of unalloyed and low-alloy structural steels.UIC 515-4, Passenger rolling stock - Trailer bogies - Running gear - Bogie frame structure strength test1).DIN 50 602:1985, Metallographic examination; microscopic examination of special steels using standard diagramsto assess the content of non-metallic inclusions.2)NF A 04-106:1984, Iron and steel – Methods of determination of content of non metallic inclusions in wrought steel– Part II: Micrographic method using standard diagrams.3)SS 11 11 16: 1987, Steel – Method for assessment of the content of non-metallic inclusions – Microscopic method– Jernkontoret's inclusion chart II for the assessment of non-metallic inclusions.4)3 Terms, symbols, units and their abbreviations3.1 TermsFor the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 2162-3 and the followingapply.3.1.1springterm "helical suspension spring, steel" refers to the finished product. For simplification purposes, in the text of thepresent standard, the term "spring" is used for all types of helical compression springs, made from steel,independent of their category3.1.2transverse deflection (bowing)natural transverse movement of the axis of the spring under an axial force, while the top and the bottom surface ofthe spring remain parallel and the spring is free to move laterally. The transverse force FC is the force required tomove the spring back to the initial centred position

1)Can be obtained from: UIC Direction Générale, 16 rue Jean Rey, F-75015 Paris.2)Can be purchased from: Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstr. 6, 10772 D-Berlin.3)Can be purchased from: Association

de normalisation (AFNOR), 11, av. Francis de Pressensé, F-93571 Aint-Denis La Plaine CEDEX.4)Can be purchased from: SIS-Standardiseringen i Sverige, box 64 55, S-11 3 82 Stockholm.SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)73.1.3clearance factorclearance between the active coils with reference to the wire diameter on a cylindrical helical spring with constantinclination, made with circular wire and featuring closed and ground ends3.1.4decarburizationloss of carbon on the metal surface during the hot forming of the spring3.1.5space requirementsvolume occupied by the spring under its various operational conditions3.1.6creeploss of the spring length under a defined static or dynamic force in a defined time3.1.7contact lineline located between each end coil and the adjacent active coil of the cylindrical helical spring with constantinclination, made with circular wire and featuring closed and ground ends (form D according to ISO 2162-2), in theloaded condition3.1.8active coilcomplete spiral turn of the wire with constant diameter, which remains without contact with adjacent coils within theentire working envelope of the spring3.2 Symbols, units and their abbreviationsThe majority of the symbols, used in this standard and described in Table 1, are in accordance withEN ISO 2162-2.SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)8Table 1 — Symbols and their definitionNoSymbolUnitDescription1A%Elongation at rupture2AR%Allowable deviation of axial stiffness3dmmDiameter of the steel bar4DmmMean diameter of the winding (average coiling diameter)5DemmOuter spring diameter6DimmInner spring diameter7emmClearance between the active coilsFj(F1, F2,..)NAxial static force, applied on the spring, with:FANMinimum operational forceFBNMaximum operational forceFcthNTheoretical force, corresponding to the solid length of springFcj (FC0,FC1)NDefined test loads for determination of bowing (transverse displacement)FMNForce at minimum allowable lengthFUNLower test force for determination of stiffness KS (or flexibility)8FVNUpper test force for determination of stiffness KS (or flexibility)9gm/s2Earth acceleration (gravity)10GMPaShear modulus (default value is G = 79 000 MPa)11L0mmFree length of springLj (L1, L2, ..)mmLength of the spring when subjected to an axial force Fj,LAmmLength of the spring when subjected to the axial force FALBmmLength of the spring when subjected to the axial force FBLCmmSolid length of springLMmmMinimum allowable length of springLUmmLength of the spring when subjected to an axial force FULVmmLength of the spring when subjected to an axial force FV12n-Number of active coils13nt-Total number of coils14QjNTransverse static force, applied to the spring to produce a translation of rj(transverse displacement of the two supporting surfaces)15rjmmTranslation (transverse displacement of the two supporting surfacesrEmmMaximum possible transverse displacement (to bump stops)SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)9Table 1 (continued)16Rp0,2MPaYield limit at 0,2%17RmMPaUltimate strength (tensile strength)18KsN/mmAxial stiffness191/Ksmm/NAxial flexibility20KtN/mmTransverse stiffness211/Ktmm/NTransverse flexibility22shmmAxial displacement of the spring between two axial loads Fj23a-Coefficient of clearance between active c24F cNTransverse bowing force of the spring at the defined axial force Fj25Qcd°Angle between two directions of bowing of a spring, submitted to twodifferent axial loads.26smaxMPaResidual compression stress27dmmDepth under surface3.3 Definition of the geometrical characteristicsIn the this standard the characteristics of the spring are defined with reference to its axis.The axial characteristics are defined along the Z-axis, the transverse characteristics are defined in the X-Y-plane(see Figure 1).material cross section:circulardirection of coiling:right handend-form:closed, ground(form D acording toEN ISO 2162-2:1993)type of spring:cylindrical compressionspring with constantinclination of coiling(no. 4-1 according toEN ISO 2162-1:1993)Figure 1 — Example of the presentation of a spring with its axial characteristicsSIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)104 Classification of the productHelical springs covered by this standard are divided into two categories (see Table 2). The category of the springhas to be defined in the technical specification. The classification is the responsibility of the mechanical systemdesigner.Table 2 — Classification of the springsCategory ACategory BAxial and transversal stiffness and/orbowing definedOnly axial stiffness defined5 Requirements5.1 Service conditionsThe service conditions shall be defined by the customer to enable the suspension designer and the springmanufacturer to provide an effective and safe product (service conditions, climatic conditions, environmentalconditions, etc.).5.2 Functional requirements5.2.1 GeneralThe following product requirements shall be defined by the suspension designer (see Table 3).SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)11Table 3 — Elements to be defined in the technical specification by the suspension designer(totally or in parts)Defined inTestingElements to be definedRemarks5.2.2.17.5.3Space requirements-6.2.27.5.1Outside diameter-6.2.27.5.1Inside diameter-6.2.57.2.1Minimum spring length (to bump stop)-5.2.2.27.5.2Reference length-5.2.3.17.2.2Force applied (FA and FB)-5.2.3.17.2.2Axial stiffness (and tolerance)-5.2.3.27.3Transverse stiffnessCategory5.2.3.37.4Free transverse deflection or bowingA springs5.2.3.4to be definedEnduranceonly5.3.1.1---Direction of coilingRight hand5.3.1.27.5.4Form and type of end coilsForm DEN ISO 2162-25.3.2.17.6.1Surface finish-5.3.2.27.6.1Surface defects-5.3.2.37.6.4Decarburization-5.3.2.47.6.2Prestressing of the surface-5.3.37.6.4Grain size-5.3.47.2.3Creep-5.2.2 Geometrical conditions5.2.2.1 Space requirementsThe space (interior and exterior) is the volume occupied by the spring during all working conditions of themechanical system of which the spring is part.Two types of space requirement can be defined:¾ space required by the spring as a function of the applied axial force Fj;¾ space required by the spring as a function of the transverse displacement rE of the two bases (bases to remainparallel).The space required by the spring (inside and outside) for different functioning configurations shall be considered inthe space defined in the technical specification.Any requirement or limitation concerning the working space of the spring shall be defined.SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)125.2.2.2 Reference lengthThe reference length is the length LA at load condition ”ready to run” FA (i.e. tare load), unless otherwise stated inthe technical specification. On this length a tolerance is applied to ensure a defined height of the total suspensionsystem.In default a tolerance of 1 % of the nominal value of LA is applied.5.2.3 Mechanical conditions5.2.3.1 Axial stiffnessThe axial stiffness is defined in the Z-axis¾ either by the value KS (gradient of the force-deflection line) (see Figures 2 and 3);vuuvsLLFFK--=¾ or by a force-deflection diagram (see Figure 4).NOTEIt is permitted to define the axial flexibility instead of stiffness, where flexibility is the inverse of the stiffness (1/KS).For single load case conditions (e.g. FA) the stiffness can be defined as shown in Figure 2.The definition of a stiffness value over a force range (e.g. FU to FV) (see Figure 3) shall take into account any non-linearity of the stiffness value or increase in the permitted tolerance.The definition of a force-deflection diagram with envelope-curves shall also take into account the stiffening effect bythe end coil geometry. On springs with other than constant inclination of windings a distinct increase of stiffnessmay be realised.Tolerances for the stiffness shall be defined. Unless a different tolerance is indicated in the technical specification,the static axial stiffness shall be within ± 5 %. It is known that the tolerance for the springs as defined in 3.3 isrelatively high with a small number of coils (less than 5 coils). A recognised method to determine the tolerance as afunction of the number of coils is by the formula as shown below:The requirements shall be specified. The different definitions of the axial stiffness are depicted in Figures 2 to 4.100505,0××±=nRAin %SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)13Figure 2 — Axial stiffness at force FAFigure 3 — Axial stiffness between FU and FVIn case of a stiffness defined by a force displacement curve, theenvelope-curves (tolerances) are derived from the definition (nominal)curve, for a given force, by a displacement variation equal to thechosen tolerance.In the technical specification, the envelope curves shall be definedbetween FU and FV forces, where FU < FA < FV £ FB.Figure 4 — Force-deflection diagramSIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)145.2.3.2 Transverse stiffnessThis item shall be specified only if a defined behaviour in the transverse direction is essential for the operation ofthe suspension system.The transverse stiffness is defined in the X-Y-plane by the valueKQrtjj=at the axial force Fj

(for Qj and rj , see Table 1)This characteristic shall be measured in a plane which is parallel to the support bases (force surface) of the spring.It is defined by the relation between a force variation and the corresponding displacement variation for a givenstatic axial force Fj, applied to the spring.NOTEThe transverse stiffness is not an independent value but it is cross related to the axial stiffness and other springcharacteristics and shall be defined with this in mind.The technical specification shall define the nominal value of the transverse static stiffness Kt (with its tolerance)together with relative axial force Fj to be taken into account.In addition to that, the direction in which is defined the transverse stiffness of the spring shall be specified.Unless a different tolerance is indicated in the technical specification, the transverse static stiffness shall lie within atolerance of ± 15 % versus the specified value.It is possible to define the transverse static flexibility instead of the transverse static stiffness, whereby flexibility isthe inversion of stiffness (1/Kt ).5.2.3.3 Free transverse deflection or bowingThis item shall be specified only if a defined behaviour of the free transverse deflection is essential for the operationof the suspension system.The value and direction of free deflection depend on the axial force applied and exhibit similar scatter to thetransverse stiffness value.The direction of bowing is defined by the AB straight line (see Figure 5) which is the projection to the straight linebetween the two loading surface centres of the spring.The direction of bowing of a spring submitted to a static axial force FCO shall be marked on the spring by apermanently visible system. The FC0 value shall be defined in the technical specification. The position of markingtowards the spring centre shall indicate the direction of bowing.Any limitation of the bowing force FC, when the spring undergoes an axial Force FC0 shall be stipulated in thetechnical specification. Due to the requirements in connection with the installation of the spring on the vehicle (towhich it belongs) it can be necessary to specify the FC force figure on the spring. If the case arises, thisrequirement shall be stipulated in the technical specification under the specific marking conditions (see clause 9).The maximum permissible angle qC between bowing directions of a spring which undergoes an axial force FC0 onthe one hand, and an axial force FC1 on the other hand (see example, Figure 5) shall be defined in the technicalspecification, together with the values of FC0 and FC1.SIST EN 13298:2004

EN 13298:2003 (E)15ABis the straight line defining the bowing direction of a spring submitted to an axial force FC0.AB’is the straight line defining the bowing direction of a spring submitted to an axial to an axial forceFC1.qCis the angle between the two direction of bowing defined as above.NOTE— The FCO value is usually equal to FA (see definition in 3.2);— The FC1 value is usually equal to a static axial force Fj corresponding to a functioning mode of the

vehicle to which it belongs, (see definitions in 3.2).Figure 5 — Bowing of a spring (example)While the spring is submitted to a static axial force FC0, the value of the bowing force FC shall lie within the limitsindicated in the technical specification. Unless a different value is indicated in the technical specification, the angleqC between the bowing directions of a spring submitted to an axial force FC0 on one hand and to an axial force FC1on the other hand shall be £ 30°.5.2.3.4 EnduranceTh

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