Photovoltaic devices - Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics

This part of IEC 60904 describes procedures for the measurement of current-voltage
characteristics (I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices in natural or simulated sunlight. These
procedures are applicable to a single PV solar cell, a sub-assembly of PV solar cells, or a PV
module. They are applicable to single-junction mono-facial PV devices. For other device types,
reference is made to the respective documents, in particular for multi-junction devices to
IEC 60904-1-1 and for bifacial devices to IEC TS 60904-1-2. Additionally informative annexes
are provided concerning area measurement of PV devices (Annex A), PV devices with
capacitance (Annex B), measurement of dark current-voltage characteristics (dark I-V curves)
(Annex C) and effects of spatial non-uniformity of irradiance (Annex D).
NOTE The methods provided in this document can also be used as guidance for taking I-V curves of PV arrays. For
on-site measurement refer to IEC 61829.
This document is applicable to non-concentrating PV devices for use in terrestrial environments,
with reference to (usually but not exclusively) the global reference spectral irradiance AM1.5
defined in IEC 60904-3. It may also be applicable to PV devices for use under concentrated
irradiation if the application uses direct sunlight and reference is instead made to the direct
reference spectral irradiance AM1.5d in IEC 60904-3.
The purposes of this document are to lay down basic requirements for the measurement of I-V
curves of PV devices, to define procedures for different measuring techniques in use and to
show practices for minimising measurement uncertainty. It is applicable to the measurement of
I-V curves in general. I-V measurements can have various purposes, such as calibration (i.e.
traceable measurement with stated uncertainty, usually performed at standard test conditions)
of a PV device under test against a reference device, performance measurement under various
conditions (e.g. for device temperature and irradiance) such as those required by IEC 60891
(for determination of temperature coefficients or internal series resistance), by IEC 61853-1
(power rating of PV devices) or by IEC 60904-10 (for determination of output’s linear
dependence and linearity with respect to a particular test parameter). I-V measurements are
also important in industrial environments such as PV module production facilities, and for testing
in the field. Further guidance on I-V measurements in production facilities is provided in
IEC TR 60904-14.
The actual requirements (e.g. for the class of solar simulator) depend on the end-use. Other
standards referring to IEC 60904-1 can stipulate specific requirements. Where those
requirements are in conflict with this document, the specific requirements take precedence.

Photovoltaische Einrichtungen - Teil 1: Messen der photovoltaischen Strom-/Spannungskennlinien

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Partie 1: Mesure des caractéristiques courant-tension des dispositifs photovoltaïques

l’IEC 60904-1:2020 décrit les procédures pour le mesurage des caractéristiques/courant-tension (courbes I-V) des dispositifs photovoltaïques (PV) sous éclairement solaire naturel ou simulé. Ces procédures sont applicables aux cellules solaires individuelles PV, aux sous-ensembles de cellules solaires PV ou aux modules PV. Le présent document s’applique aux dispositifs PV sans concentration destinés à être utilisés dans des environnements terrestres, en référence (habituellement mais pas exclusivement) à l’éclairement énergétique spectral de référence global AM1.5 défini dans l’IEC 60904-3. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2006. Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes: - Mise à jour du domaine d’application pour inclure toutes les conditions. - Ajout d’un article "Termes et définitions". - Réorganisation du document pour éviter les doublons inutiles. - Ajout d’un article "Analyse des données". - Ajout d’annexes informatives (mesurage de la surface, dispositifs PV à capacité, courbes I-V dans l’obscurité et effet de la non-uniformité spatiale de l’éclairement énergétique).

Fotonapetostne naprave - 1. del: Merjenje fotonapetostnih tokovno napetostnih karakteristik

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Dec-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Dec-2020
Due Date
12-Feb-2021
Completion Date
10-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
01-januar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 60904-1:2007
Fotonapetostne naprave - 1. del: Merjenje fotonapetostnih tokovno napetostnih
karakteristik
Photovoltaic devices - Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage
characteristics
Photovoltaische Einrichtungen - Teil 1: Messen der photovoltaischen
Strom-/Spannungskennlinien

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Partie 1: Mesure des caractéristiques courant-tension des

dispositifs photovoltaïques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60904-1:2020
ICS:
27.160 Sončna energija Solar energy engineering
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60904-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2020
ICS 27.160 Supersedes EN 60904-1:2006 and all of its amendments
and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Photovoltaic devices - Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic
current-voltage characteristics
(IEC 60904-1:2020)

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Partie 1: Mesurage des Photovoltaische Einrichtungen - Teil 1: Messen der

caractéristiques courant-tension des dispositifs photovoltaischen Strom-/Spannungskennlinien

photovoltaïques (IEC 60904-1:2020)
(IEC 60904-1:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-10-30. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60904-1:2020 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
EN IEC 60904-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 82/1760/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 60904-1, prepared by IEC/TC 82 "Solar

photovoltaic energy systems" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 60904-1:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2021-07-30

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2023-10-30

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 60904-1:2006 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60904-1:2020 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60904-1-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60904-1-1
IEC 61829 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61829
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
EN IEC 60904-1:2020 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod),

the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60891 - Photovoltaic devices - Procedures for EN 60891 -
temperature and irradiance corrections to
measured I-V characteristics
IEC 60904-2 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 2: EN 60904-2 -
Requirements for photovoltaic reference
devices
IEC 60904-3 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 3: EN IEC 60904-3 -
Measurement principles for terrestrial
photovoltaic (PV) solar devices with
reference spectral irradiance data
IEC 60904-4 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 4: Reference EN IEC 60904-4 -
solar devices - Procedures for establishing
calibration traceability
IEC 60904-5 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 5: EN 60904-5 -
Determination of the equivalent cell
temperature (ECT) of photovoltaic (PV)
devices by the open-circuit voltage
method
IEC 60904-7 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 7: Computation EN IEC 60904-7 -
of the spectral mismatch correction for
measurements of photovoltaic devices
IEC 60904-9 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 9: - -
Classification of solar simulator
characteristics
IEC 60904-10 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 10: Methods of - -
linear dependence and linearity
measurements
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
EN IEC 60904-1:2020 (E)
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC/TR 60904-14 - Photovoltaic devices - Part 14: Guidelines
for production line measurements of
single-junction PV module maximum
power output and reporting at standard
test conditions
IEC 61215 series Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic - -
(PV) modules - Design qualification and
type approval
IEC/TS 61836 - Solar photovoltaic energy systems - CLC/TS 61836 -
Terms, definitions and symbols
IEC 61853-1 - Photovoltaic (PV) module performance EN 61853-1 -
testing and energy rating - Part 1:
Irradiance and temperature performance
measurements and power rating
IEC/TR 63228 - Measurement protocols for photovoltaic - -
devices based on organic, dye-sensitized
or perovskite materials
ISO 9060 - Solar energy; specification and - -
classification of instruments for measuring
hemispherical solar and direct solar
radiation
Under preparation.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
IEC 60904-1
Edition 3.0 2020-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Photovoltaic devices –
Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics
Dispositifs photovoltaïques –
Partie 1: Mesurage des caractéristiques courant-tension des dispositifs
photovoltaïques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-8814-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
– 2 – IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 General requirements ...................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Measurements ........................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Stabilisation .......................................................................................................... 10

4.4 Equivalence to steady-state performance .............................................................. 10

4.5 Reporting conditions ............................................................................................. 10

4.6 Translation from test conditions to reporting conditions ......................................... 11

5 Apparatus ...................................................................................................................... 11

6 Measurements in natural sunlight .................................................................................. 12

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 13

7 Measurement in simulated sunlight ................................................................................ 14

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 15

8 Data analysis ................................................................................................................. 16

8.1 Translation from test conditions to reporting conditions ......................................... 16

8.2 Extracting I-V curve parameters ............................................................................ 17

8.3 Evaluating measurement uncertainty..................................................................... 17

9 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Device area measurement ................................................................. 19

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

A.2 Definition of device area ....................................................................................... 19

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

A.2.2 Total area (A ) ............................................................................................... 19

A.2.3 Aperture area (A ) ....................................................................................... 19

A.2.4 Designated illumination area (A ) ................................................................ 19

A.3 Area measurement of PV devices ......................................................................... 19

Annex B (informative) Measurement of current-voltage characteristics for PV devices

with capacitance ................................................................................................................... 22

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

B.2 Definitions............................................................................................................. 22

B.3 Relative error due to capacitance .......................................................................... 22

B.4 Methodologies to suppress the measurement error ............................................... 24

B.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

B.4.2 Measurement at steady-state conditions ........................................................ 24

B.4.3 Measurement at quasi-steady-state conditions .............................................. 25

B.4.4 Common methods for characterisation of capacitive PV devices .................... 25

B.5 Report................................................................................................................... 26

B.6 Reference documents ........................................................................................... 26

Annex C (informative) Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics

without illumination (dark I-V)................................................................................................ 28

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

C.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 29

C.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 29

C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

C.3.2 Dark I-V curve measurements ........................................................................ 30

Annex D (informative) Influence of spatial non-uniformity of irradiance on I-V curve

parameters ........................................................................................................................... 31

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

D.2 Reference documents ........................................................................................... 32

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 33

Figure 1 – Schematic current-voltage characteristic (I-V curve) depicting typical I-V

curve parameters short-circuit current (I ), open-circuit voltage (V ), maximum
sc oc
power (P ), voltage at maximum power (V ) and current at maximum power
max Pmax

(I )................................................................................................................................... 8

Pmax

Figure 2 – Schematic power-voltage characteristic (P-V curve) depicting typical I-V

curve parameters open-circuit voltage (V ), maximum power (P ) and voltage at
oc max

maximum power (V ) ....................................................................................................... 9

Pmax

Figure A.1 – PV module (rectangular) ................................................................................... 20

Figure A.2 – PV module of different geometries (pentagon, trapezoid) .................................. 20

Figure A.3 – PV cell (cut corners) ......................................................................................... 21

Figure A.4 – PV cell (rounded corners, circle) ....................................................................... 21

Figure B.1 – Equivalent circuit diagram for device exhibiting a capacitance effect ................. 23

Figure B.2 – Three I-V curves (steady-state, forward sweep and reverse sweep)

showing the effect of device capacitance on the curve shape ................................................ 23

Figure B.3 – Deviation of maximum power (P ) determined from I-V curve due to
max

the effect of device capacitance with respect to steady-state result as a function of

sweep rate ............................................................................................................................ 24

Figure C.1 – I-V characteristics without illumination (dark I-V curve) ..................................... 28

Figure C.2 – I-V characteristics under illumination (I-V curve) ............................................... 29

Figure D.1 – Monte-Carlo simulation of a 60-cell PV module with high shunt cell type ......... 32

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
– 4 – IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES –
Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60904-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar

photovoltaic energy systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2006. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:
• Updated scope to include all conditions.
• Added terms and definitions.
• Reorganised document to avoid unnecessary duplication.
• Added data analysis clause.

• Added informative annexes (area measurement, PV devices with capacitance, dark I-V

curves and effect of spatial non-uniformity of irradiance).
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
82/1760/FDIS 82/1786/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of IEC 60904 series, under the general title Photovoltaic devices, can be found

on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
– 6 – IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES –
Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60904 describes procedures for the measurement of current-voltage

characteristics (I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices in natural or simulated sunlight. These

procedures are applicable to a single PV solar cell, a sub-assembly of PV solar cells, or a PV

module. They are applicable to single-junction mono-facial PV devices. For other device types,

reference is made to the respective documents, in particular for multi-junction devices to

IEC 60904-1-1 and for bifacial devices to IEC TS 60904-1-2. Additionally informative annexes

are provided concerning area measurement of PV devices (Annex A), PV devices with

capacitance (Annex B), measurement of dark current-voltage characteristics (dark I-V curves)

(Annex C) and effects of spatial non-uniformity of irradiance (Annex D).

NOTE The methods provided in this document can also be used as guidance for taking I-V curves of PV arrays. For

on-site measurement refer to IEC 61829.

This document is applicable to non-concentrating PV devices for use in terrestrial environments,

with reference to (usually but not exclusively) the global reference spectral irradiance AM1.5

defined in IEC 60904-3. It may also be applicable to PV devices for use under concentrated

irradiation if the application uses direct sunlight and reference is instead made to the direct

reference spectral irradiance AM1.5d in IEC 60904-3.

The purposes of this document are to lay down basic requirements for the measurement of I-V

curves of PV devices, to define procedures for different measuring techniques in use and to

show practices for minimising measurement uncertainty. It is applicable to the measurement of

I-V curves in general. I-V measurements can have various purposes, such as calibration (i.e.

traceable measurement with stated uncertainty, usually performed at standard test conditions)

of a PV device under test against a reference device, performance measurement under various

conditions (e.g. for device temperature and irradiance) such as those required by IEC 60891

(for determination of temperature coefficients or internal series resistance), by IEC 61853-1

(power rating of PV devices) or by IEC 60904-10 (for determination of output’s linear

dependence and linearity with respect to a particular test parameter). I-V measurements are

also important in industrial environments such as PV module production facilities, and for testing

in the field. Further guidance on I-V measurements in production facilities is provided in

IEC TR 60904-14.

The actual requirements (e.g. for the class of solar simulator) depend on the end-use. Other

standards referring to IEC 60904-1 can stipulate specific requirements. Where those

requirements are in conflict with this document, the specific requirements take precedence.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60891, Photovoltaic devices – Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to

measured I-V characteristics
IEC 60904-2, Photovoltaic devices – Part 2: Requirements for reference devices
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –

IEC 60904-3, Photovoltaic devices – Part 3: Measurement principles for terrestrial photovoltaic

(PV) solar devices with reference spectral irradiance data

IEC 60904-4, Photovoltaic devices – Part 4: Photovoltaic reference devices – Procedures for

establishing calibration traceability

IEC 60904-5, Photovoltaic devices – Part 5: Determination of the equivalent cell temperature

(ECT) of photovoltaic (PV) devices by the open-circuit voltage method

IEC 60904-7, Photovoltaic devices – Part 7: Computation of the spectral mismatch correction

for measurements of photovoltaic devices

IEC 60904-9, Photovoltaic devices – Part 9: Solar simulator performance requirements

IEC 60904-10, Photovoltaic devices – Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement

IEC TR 60904-14, Photovoltaic devices – Part 14: Guidelines for production line measurements

of single-junction PV module maximum power output and reporting at standard test conditions

IEC 61215 (all parts), Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type

approval
IEC TS 61836, Solar photovoltaic energy systems – Terms, definitions and symbols

IEC 61853-1, Photovoltaic (PV) module performance testing and energy rating – Part 1:

Irradiance and temperature performance measurements and power rating

IEC TR 63228, Measurement protocols for photovoltaic devices based on organic, dye-

sensitized or perovskite materials

ISO 9060, Solar energy – Specification and classification of instruments for measuring

hemispherical solar and direct solar radiation
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC TS 61836 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
sweep rate
temporal rate of change of the voltage applied to the measured PV device
Note 1 to entry: The term ramp rate is also used interchangeably.
3.2
sweep direction

direction of change of applied voltage during I-V measurements; a positive sweep rate is

referred to as forward or direct sweep (I to V direction), while a negative sweep rate is

sc oc
referred to as reverse or backward sweep (V to I direction)
oc sc
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
– 8 – IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020
3.3
time delay

time interval between the change of voltage applied to PV device and the measurement of PV

device current
4 General requirements
4.1 General

For illustration purposes a schematic current-voltage characteristic (I-V curve) is shown in

Figure 1 and the corresponding power-voltage characteristic (P-V curve) in Figure 2.

Figure 1 – Schematic current-voltage characteristic (I-V curve) depicting typical I-V

curve parameters short-circuit current (I ), open-circuit voltage (V ), maximum power

sc oc
(P ), voltage at maximum power (V ) and current at maximum power (I )
max Pmax Pmax
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60904-1:2021
IEC 60904-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
Figure 2 – Schematic power-voltage characteristic (P-V curve) depicting
typical I-V curve parameters open-circuit voltage (V ), maximum power (P )
oc max
and voltage at maximum power (V
Pmax
4.2 Measurements

a) When the measurements are intended to be reported at standard test conditions (see 4.5)

the in-plane average irrad
...

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